Growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) regulates cell-fate decision of a bipotential granulocytic-monocytic precursor defined by expression of Gfi1 and CD48.
ABSTRACT: The transcriptional repressor Gfi1 regulates the expression of genes important for survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Gfi1 deficient mice are severely neutropenic and accumulate ill-defined CD11b(+)GR1(int) myeloid cells. Here we show that Gfi1 expression levels determine mono- or granulocytic lineage choice in precursor cells. In addition, we identify CD48 as a cell surface marker which enables a better definition of monocytes and granulocytes in mouse bone marrow. Using the CD48/Gr1/Gfi1 marker combination we can show that the CD11b(+)GR1(int) cells accumulating in Gfi1 deficient mice are monocytes and not granulocyte precursors. Expression of CD48, Gr1 and Gfi1 define different bone marrow subpopulations that are either committed to the granulocytic lineage, or bipotential precursors of granulocytes or monocytes. Finally, a comparison of genes differentially expressed between murine Gfi1 high granulocytic precursors and mature granulocytes with gene expression changes from human myeloblasts versus neutrophils show a strong resemblance of human and mouse differentiation pathways. This underlines the value of the markers CD48 and Gfi1 identified here to study human and murine granulo-monocytic differentiation.
Project description:Using bone marrow cells of GFP:Gfi1 knock in mice, we separated Gfi1-high and Gfi1-low expressing cells in the classical CD11b+, GR1-low monocytic cell fraction. We sorted CD11b+, GR1-low GFP:Gfi1-high and low cells as well as CD11b+, GR1-high granulocytes and CD11b-high, GR1-intermediate cells from Gfi1-knock-out mice for further analysis. We used Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays (GPL8321) The study should determine how Gfi1 regulates the cell fate of monocytes/granulocytes in mice
Project description:Extracellular adenosine and purine nucleotides are elevated in many pathological situations associated with the expansion of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Therefore, we tested whether adenosinergic pathways play a role in MDSC expansion and functions. We found that A(2B) adenosine receptors on hematopoietic cells play an important role in accumulation of intratumoral CD11b(+)Gr1(high) cells in a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma model in vivo and demonstrated that these receptors promote preferential expansion of the granulocytic CD11b(+)Gr1(high) subset of MDSCs in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis of MDSCs generated from mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells revealed that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) subset had the highest levels of CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) expression (?mean fluorescence intensity [MFI] of 118.5 ± 16.8), followed by CD11b(+)Gr-1(int) (?MFI of 57.9 ± 6.8) and CD11b(+)Gr-1(-/low) (?MFI of 12.4 ± 1.0) subsets. Even lower levels of CD73 expression were found on Lewis lung carcinoma tumor cells (?MFI of 3.2 ± 0.2). The high levels of CD73 expression in granulocytic CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) cells correlated with high levels of ecto-5'-nucleotidase enzymatic activity. We further demonstrated that the ability of granulocytic MDSCs to suppress CD3/CD28-induced T cell proliferation was significantly facilitated in the presence of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase substrate 5'-AMP. We propose that generation of adenosine by CD73 expressed at high levels on granulocytic MDSCs may promote their expansion and facilitate their immunosuppressive activity.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of cells that expands dramatically in many disease states and can suppress T-cell responses. MDSCs mainly include monocytic and granulocytic subpopulations that can be distinguished in mice by the expression of Ly6G and Ly6C cell surface markers. This identification system has been validated in experimental tumor models, but not in models of inflammation-associated conditions such as sepsis. We challenged growth factor independent 1 transcription repressor green fluorescent protein (Gfi1:GFP) knock-in reporter mice with cecal ligation and puncture surgery and found that CD11b+Ly6GlowLy6Chigh MDSCs in this sepsis model comprised both monocytic and granulocytic MDSCs. The evidence that conventional Ly6G/Ly6C marker analysis may not be suited to study of inflammation-induced MDSCs led to the development of a novel strategy of distinguishing granulocytic MDSCs from monocytic MDSCs in septic mice by expression of CD48. Application of this novel model should help achieve a more accurate understanding of the inflammation-induced MDSC activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neonate immune cell functions lack full protection against pathogens. This could be either defect or protective mechanism against overshooting proinflammatory immune responses. We here analysed the function of classical, pro- and anti-inflammatory monocytes and granulocytes from neonates in comparison with adults to investigate if suppressed functions of subpopulations are causative for the unique neonatal immune status. Therefore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and surface activation markers were quantified in subpopulations. METHODS:In a prospective, longitudinal study granulocyte and monocyte subpopulations were analysed in healthy term infants (>?37?week; n =?13) in comparison with healthy young adults (n =?11). Percentage (%) of cells expressing surface marker (HLA-DR, CD11b, CD62L, CD32, Toll-Like-Receptor-2) and expression per cell, determined by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), were measured by flow cytometry. ROS production was induced by fMLP, PMA and E. coli in term neonates (>?37?week; n =?13). RESULTS:Classical granulocytes were down- and proinflammatory granulocytes upregulated in neonates compared with adults. Percentage of TLR-2 expressing granulocytes was increased in neonates. Granulocytic ROS production depended on stimulation. The percentage of anti-inflammatory monocytes was increased, while classical monocytes were reduced in neonates. HLA-DR (%, MFI) showed reduction for all monocyte subpopulations, while CD32, CD11b, CD62L and TLR-2 were differently regulated in comparison with adults. CONCLUSIONS:Differentially regulated granulocyte and monocyte subpopulations indicate a unique state of neonatal immunity to fight infections and prevent dysregulation. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of reduced granulocytic ROS formation and reduced monocytic HLA-DR in active disease.
Project description:The zinc finger protein growth factor independent-1 (Gfi1) is a transcriptional repressor that is critically required for normal granulocytic differentiation. GFI1 loss-of-function mutations are found in some patients with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). The SCN-associated GFI1-mutant proteins act as dominant negatives to block granulopoiesis through selective deregulation of a subset of GFI1 target genes. Here we show that Gfi1 is a master regulator of microRNAs, and that deregulated expression of these microRNAs recapitulates a Gfi1 loss-of-function block to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated granulopoiesis. Specifically, bone marrow cells from a GFI1-mutant SCN patient and Gfi1(-/-) mice display deregulated expression of miR-21 and miR-196B expression. Flow cytometric analysis and colony assays reveal that the overexpression or depletion of either miR induces changes in myeloid development. However, coexpression of miR-21 and miR-196b (as seen in Gfi1(-/-) mice and a GFI1N382S SCN patient) completely blocks G-CSF-induced granulopoiesis. Thus, our results not only identify microRNAs whose regulation is required during myelopoiesis, but also provide an example of synergy in microRNA biologic activity and illustrate potential mechanisms underlying SCN disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Tumor inflammation, the recruitment of myeloid lineage cells into the tumor microenvironment, promotes angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis. CD11b+Gr1lo monocytic lineage cells and CD11b+Gr1hi granulocytic lineage cells are recruited from the circulation by tumor-derived chemoattractants, which stimulate PI3-kinase ? (PI3K?)-mediated integrin ?4 activation and extravasation. We show here that PI3K? activates PLC?, leading to RasGrp/CalDAG-GEF-I&II mediated, Rap1a-dependent activation of integrin ?4?1, extravasation of monocytes and granulocytes, and inflammation-associated tumor progression. Genetic depletion of PLC?, CalDAG-GEFI or II, Rap1a, or the Rap1 effector RIAM was sufficient to prevent integrin ?4 activation by chemoattractants or activated PI3K? (p110?CAAX), while activated Rap (RapV12) promoted constitutive integrin activation and cell adhesion that could only be blocked by inhibition of RIAM or integrin ?4?1. Similar to blockade of PI3K? or integrin ?4?1, blockade of Rap1a suppressed both the recruitment of monocytes and granulocytes to tumors and tumor progression. These results demonstrate critical roles for a PI3K?-Rap1a-dependent pathway in integrin activation during tumor inflammation and suggest novel avenues for cancer therapy.
Project description:Recent reports have shown the involvement of tumor burden as well as GM-CSF in supporting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). However, it is not known what progenitor cells may differentiate into MDSC in the presence of GM-CSF, and whether FVBN202 transgenic mouse model of spontaneous breast carcinoma may exhibit distinct subset distribution of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. In addition, it is not known why CD11b+Gr1+ cells derived from tumor-free and tumor-bearing animals exhibit different functions. In this study, we determined that GM-CSF was one of the tumor-derived soluble factors that induced differentiation of CD11b-Gr1- progenitor cells from within monocytic/granulocytic bone marrow cells into CD11b+Gr1+ cells. We also showed that CD11b+Gr1+ cells in FVBN202 mice consisted of CD11b+Ly6G-Ly6C+ suppressive and CD11b+Ly6G+Ly6C+ non-suppressive subsets. Previously reported variations between tumor-free and tumor-bearing animals in the function of their CD11b+Gr1+ cells were found to be due to the variations in the proportion of these two subsets. Therefore, increasing ratios of CD11b+Gr1+ cells derived from tumor-free animals revealed their suppressive activity on T cells, in vitro. Importantly, GM-CSF supported the generation of CD11b+Ly6G-Ly6C+ suppressor subsets that inhibited proliferation as well as anti-tumor function of neu-specific T cells. These findings suggest revisiting the use of GM-CSF for the expansion of dendritic cells, ex vivo, for cell-based immunotherapy or as an adjuvant for vaccines for patients with cancer in whom MDSC play a major role in the suppression of anti-tumor immune responses.
Project description:In humans, environmental exposure to a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects from allergic asthma, the immunological underpinnings of which are not well understood. In mice, exposure to a high LPS dose blunted house dust mite-induced airway eosinophilia and T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine production. Although adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced allergic airway inflammation in control mice, they were unable to do so in LPS-exposed mice. LPS promoted the development of a CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+) lung-resident cell resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent manner that suppressed lung dendritic cell (DC)-mediated reactivation of primed Th2 cells. LPS effects switched from suppressive to stimulatory in MyD88(-/-) mice. Suppression of Th2 effector function was reversed by anti-interleukin-10 (IL-10) or inhibition of arginase 1. Lineage(neg) bone marrow progenitor cells could be induced by LPS to develop into CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+)cells both in vivo and in vitro that when adoptively transferred suppressed allergen-induced airway inflammation in recipient mice. These data suggest that CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+) cells contribute to the protective effects of LPS in allergic asthma by tempering Th2 effector function in the tissue.
Project description:Renal infiltration with mononuclear cells is associated with poor prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. A renal macrophage/dendritic cell signature is associated with the onset of nephritis in NZB/W mice, and immune-modulating therapies can reverse this signature and the associated renal damage despite ongoing immune complex deposition. In nephritic NZB/W mice, renal F4/80(hi)/CD11c(int) macrophages are located throughout the interstitium, whereas F4/80(lo)/CD11c(hi) dendritic cells accumulate in perivascular lymphoid aggregates. We show here that F4/80(hi)/CD11c(int) renal macrophages have a Gr1(lo)/Ly6C(lo)/VLA4(lo)/MHCII(hi)/CD43(lo)/CD62L(lo) phenotype different from that described for inflammatory macrophages. At nephritis onset, F4/80(hi)/CD11c(int) cells upregulate cell surface CD11b, acquire cathepsin and matrix metalloproteinase activity, and accumulate large numbers of autophagocytic vacuoles; these changes reverse after the induction of remission. Latex bead labeling of peripheral blood Gr1(lo) monocytes indicates that these are the source of F4/80(hi)/CD11c(int) macrophages. CD11c(hi)/MHCII(lo) dendritic cells are found in the kidneys only after proteinuria onset, turnover rapidly, and disappear rapidly after remission induction. Gene expression profiling of the F4/80(hi)/CD11c(int) population displays increased expression of proinflammatory, regulatory, and tissue repair/degradation-associated genes at nephritis onset that reverses with remission induction. Our findings suggest that mononuclear phagocytes with an aberrant activation profile contribute to tissue damage in lupus nephritis by mediating both local inflammation and excessive tissue remodeling.
Project description:Gfi1 supports neutrophil development at the expense of monopoiesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. We recently showed that the G-CSFR Y729F mutant, in which tyrosine 729 was mutated to phenylalanine, promoted monocyte rather than neutrophil development in myeloid precursors, which was associated with prolonged activation of Erk1/2 and enhanced activation of c-Fos and Egr-1. We show here that Gfi1 inhibited the expression of c-Fos, Egr-1 and Egr-2, and rescued neutrophil development in cells expressing G-CSFR Y729F. Gfi1 directly bound to and repressed c-Fos and Egr-1, as has been shown for Egr-2, all of which are the immediate early genes (IEGs) of the Erk1/2 pathway. Interestingly, G-CSF- and M-CSF-stimulated activation of Erk1/2 was augmented in lineage-negative (Lin-) bone marrow (BM) cells from Gfi1-/- mice. Suppression of Erk1/2 signaling resulted in diminished expression of c-Fos, Egr-1 and Egr-2, and partially rescued the neutrophil development of Gfi1-/- BM cells, which are intrinsically defective for neutrophil development. Together, our data indicate that Gfi1 inhibits the expression of c-Fos, Egr-1 and Egr-2 through direct transcriptional repression and indirect inhibition of Erk1/2 signaling, and that Gfi1-mediated downregulation of c-Fos, Egr-1 and Egr-2 may contribute to the role of Gfi1 in granulopoiesis.