DHTKD1 mutations cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria.
ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in metabolite profiles are valuable indicators of underlying pathologic conditions at the molecular level. However, their interpretation relies on detailed knowledge of the pathways, enzymes, and genes involved. Identification and characterization of their physiological function are therefore crucial for our understanding of human disease: they can provide guidance for therapeutic intervention and help us to identify suitable biomarkers for monitoring associated disorders. We studied two individuals with 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria, a metabolic condition that is still unresolved at the molecular level. This disorder has been associated with varying neurological symptoms. Exome sequencing of a single affected individual revealed compound heterozygosity for an initiating methionine mutation (c.1A>G) and a missense mutation (c.2185G>A [p.Gly729Arg]) in DHTKD1. This gene codes for dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing protein 1, which is part of a 2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex-like protein. Sequence analysis of a second individual identified the same missense mutation together with a nonsense mutation (c.1228C>T [p.Arg410(?)]) in DHTKD1. Increased levels of 2-oxoadipate in individual-derived fibroblasts normalized upon lentiviral expression of the wild-type DHTKD1 mRNA. Moreover, investigation of L-lysine metabolism showed an accumulation of deuterium-labeled 2-oxoadipate only in noncomplemented cells, demonstrating that DHTKD1 codes for the enzyme mediating the last unresolved step in the L-lysine-degradation pathway. All together, our results establish mutations in DHTKD1 as a cause of human 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria via impaired turnover of decarboxylation 2-oxoadipate to glutaryl-CoA.
Project description:DHTKD1, a part of 2-ketoadipic acid dehydrogenase complex, is involved in lysine and tryptophan catabolism. Mutations in DHTKD1 block the metabolic pathway and cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria (AMOXAD), an autosomal recessive inborn metabolic disorder. In addition, a nonsense mutation in DHTKD1 that we identified previously causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2Q, one of the most common inherited neurological disorders affecting the peripheral nerves in the musculature. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism underlying CMT2Q remains elusive. Here, we show that Dhtkd1-/- mice mimic the major aspects of CMT2 phenotypes, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy in the distal parts of limbs with motor and sensory dysfunctions, which are accompanied with decreased nerve conduction velocity. Moreover, DHTKD1 deficiency causes severe metabolic abnormalities and dramatically increased levels of 2-ketoadipic acid (2-KAA) and 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) in urine. Further studies revealed that both 2-KAA and 2-AAA could stimulate insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Subsequently, elevated insulin regulates myelin protein zero (Mpz) transcription in Schwann cells via upregulating the expression of early growth response 2 (Egr2), leading to myelin structure damage and axonal degeneration. Finally, 2-AAA-fed mice do reproduce phenotypes similar to CMT2Q phenotypes. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that loss of DHTKD1 causes CMT2Q-like phenotypes through dysregulation of Mpz mRNA and protein zero (P0) which are closely associated with elevated DHTKD1 substrate and insulin levels. These findings further indicate an important role of metabolic disorders in addition to mitochondrial insufficiency in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies.
Project description:DHTKD1 is a lesser-studied E1 enzyme among the family of 2-oxoacid de-hydrogenases. In complex with E2 (di-hydro-lipo-amide succinyltransferase, DLST) and E3 (dihydrolipo-amide de-hydrogenase, DLD) components, DHTKD1 is involved in lysine and tryptophan catabolism by catalysing the oxidative de-carboxyl-ation of 2-oxoadipate (2OA) in mitochondria. Here, the 1.9?Å resolution crystal structure of human DHTKD1 is solved in complex with the thi-amine diphosphate co-factor. The structure reveals how the DHTKD1 active site is modelled upon the well characterized homologue 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) de-hydrogenase but engineered specifically to accommodate its preference for the longer substrate of 2OA over 2OG. A 4.7?Å resolution reconstruction of the human DLST catalytic core is also generated by single-particle electron microscopy, revealing a 24-mer cubic scaffold for assembling DHTKD1 and DLD protomers into a megacomplex. It is further demonstrated that missense DHTKD1 variants causing the inborn error of 2-amino-adipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria impact on the complex formation, either directly by disrupting the interaction with DLST, or indirectly through destabilizing the DHTKD1 protein. This study provides the starting framework for developing DHTKD1 modulators to probe the intricate mitochondrial energy metabolism.
Project description:2-Ketoadipic aciduria (OMIM 204750), a defect in the catabolic pathway of tryptophan, lysine, and hydroxylysine, is characterized by elevations in 2-ketoadipic, 2-aminoadipic, and 2-hydroxyadipic acids. Patients with the aforementioned biochemical profile have been described with a wide range of clinical presentations, from early-onset developmental delay, epilepsy, ataxia, and microcephaly to completely normal. This broad range of phenotypes has led some to question whether 2-ketoadipic aciduria represents a true disease state or if the biochemical abnormalities found in these patients merely reflect an ascertainment bias. We present four additional individuals from two families, with 2-ketoadipic aciduria with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in DHTKD1, three of which remain asymptomatic.
Project description:Inbred mouse strains are a cornerstone of translational research but paradoxically many strains carry mild inborn errors of metabolism. For example, ?-aminoadipic acidemia and branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency are known in C57BL/6J mice. Using RNA sequencing, we now reveal the causal variants in Dhtkd1 and Bckdhb, and the molecular mechanism underlying these metabolic defects. C57BL/6J mice have decreased Dhtkd1 mRNA expression due to a solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) in intron 4 of Dhtkd1. This LTR harbors an alternate splice donor site leading to a partial splicing defect and as a consequence decreased total and functional Dhtkd1 mRNA, decreased DHTKD1 protein and ?-aminoadipic acidemia. Similarly, C57BL/6J mice have decreased Bckdhb mRNA expression due to an LTR retrotransposon in intron 1 of Bckdhb. This transposable element encodes an alternative exon 1 causing aberrant splicing, decreased total and functional Bckdhb mRNA and decreased BCKDHB protein. Using a targeted metabolomics screen, we also reveal elevated plasma C5-carnitine in 129 substrains. This biochemical phenotype resembles isovaleric acidemia and is caused by an exonic splice mutation in Ivd leading to partial skipping of exon 10 and IVD protein deficiency. In summary, this study identifies three causal variants underlying mild inborn errors of metabolism in commonly used inbred mouse strains.
Project description:Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease represents a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies. Here, we report a five-generation family of eight affected individuals with CMT disease type 2, CMT2. Genome-wide linkage analysis showed that the disease phenotype is closely linked to chromosomal region 10p13-14, which spans 5.41 Mb between D10S585 and D10S1477. DNA-sequencing analysis revealed a nonsense mutation, c.1455T>G (p.Tyr485(?)), in exon 8 of dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing 1 (DHTKD1) in all eight affected individuals, but not in other unaffected individuals in this family or in 250 unrelated normal persons. DHTKD1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood of affected persons were observed to be half of those in unaffected individuals. In vitro studies have shown that, compared to wild-type mRNA and DHTKD1, mutant mRNA and truncated DHTKD1 are significantly decreased by rapid mRNA decay in transfected cells. Inhibition of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay by UPF1 silencing effectively rescued the decreased levels of mutant mRNA and protein. More importantly, DHTKD1 silencing was found to lead to impaired energy production, evidenced by decreased ATP, total NAD(+) and NADH, and NADH levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the heterozygous nonsense mutation in DHTKD1 is one of CMT2-causative genetic alterations, implicating an important role for DHTKD1 in mitochondrial energy production and neurological development.
Project description:The biological significance of the DHTKD1-encoded 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (OADH) remains obscure due to its catalytic redundancy with the ubiquitous OGDH-encoded 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). In this work, metabolic contributions of OADH and OGDH are discriminated by exposure of cells/tissues with different DHTKD1 expression to the synthesized phosphonate analogues of homologous 2-oxodicarboxylates. The saccharopine pathway intermediates and phosphorylated sugars are abundant when cellular expressions of DHTKD1 and OGDH are comparable, while nicotinate and non-phosphorylated sugars are when DHTKD1 expression is order(s) of magnitude lower than that of OGDH. Using succinyl, glutaryl and adipoyl phosphonates on the enzyme preparations from tissues with varied DHTKD1 expression reveals the contributions of OADH and OGDH to oxidation of 2-oxoadipate and 2-oxoglutarate in vitro. In the phosphonates-treated cells with the high and low DHTKD1 expression, adipate or glutarate, correspondingly, are the most affected metabolites. The marker of fatty acid ?-oxidation, adipate, is mostly decreased by the shorter, OGDH-preferring, phosphonate, in agreement with the known OGDH dependence of ?-oxidation. The longest, OADH-preferring, phosphonate mostly affects the glutarate level. Coupled decreases in sugars and nicotinate upon the OADH inhibition link the perturbation in glucose homeostasis, known in OADH mutants, to the nicotinate-dependent NAD metabolism.
Project description:Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of inherited neurological disorders of the peripheral nervous system. CMT is subdivided into two main types: a demyelinating form, known as CMT1, and an axonal form, known as CMT2. Nearly 30 genes have been identified as a cause of CMT2. One of these is the 'dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain containing 1' (DHTKD1) gene. We previously demonstrated that a nonsense mutation [c.1455?T?>?G (p.Y485*)] in exon 8 of DHTKD1 is one of the disease-causing mutations in CMT2Q (MIM 615025). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human disease-causing mutations in the Dhtkd1 gene cause CMT2Q phenotypes in a mouse model in order to investigate the physiological function and pathogenic mechanisms associated with mutations in the Dhtkd1 gene in vivo. Therefore, we generated a knock-in mouse model with the Dhtkd1Y486* point mutation. We observed that the Dhtkd1 expression level in sciatic nerve of knock-in mice was significantly lower than in wild-type mice. Moreover, a histopathological phenotype was observed, reminiscent of a peripheral neuropathy, including reduced large axon diameter and abnormal myelination in peripheral nerves. The knock-in mice also displayed clear sensory defects, while no abnormalities in the motor performance were observed. In addition, accumulation of mitochondria and an elevated energy metabolic state was observed in the knock-in mice. Taken together, our study indicates that the Dhtkd1Y486* knock-in mice partially recapitulate the clinical phenotypes of CMT2Q patients and we hypothesize that there might be a compensatory effect from the elevated metabolic state in the knock-in mice that enables them to maintain their normal locomotor function.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory esophageal disorder with a complex underlying genetic etiology often associated with other comorbidities. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 63 patients with EoE and 60 unaffected family members and family-based trio analysis, we sought to uncover rare coding variants. WES analysis identified 5 rare, damaging variants in dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing 1 (DHTKD1). Rare variant burden analysis revealed an overabundance of putative, potentially damaging DHTKD1 mutations in EoE (P = 0.01). Interestingly, we also identified 7 variants in the DHTKD1 homolog oxoglutarate dehydrogenase-like (OGDHL). Using shRNA-transduced esophageal epithelial cells and/or patient fibroblasts, we further showed that disruption of normal DHTKD1 or OGDHL expression blunts mitochondrial function. Finally, we demonstrated that the loss of DHTKD1 expression increased ROS production and induced the expression of viperin, a gene previously shown to be involved in production of Th2 cytokines in T cells. Viperin had increased expression in esophageal biopsies of EoE patients compared with control individuals and was upregulated by IL-13 in esophageal epithelial cells. These data identify a series of rare genetic variants implicating DHTKD1 and OGDHL in the genetic etiology of EoE and underscore a potential pathogenic role for mitochondrial dysfunction in EoE.
Project description:d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a neurometabolic disorder with both a mild and a severe phenotype and with unknown etiology. Recently, a novel enzyme, d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, which converts d-2-hydroxyglutarate into 2-ketoglutarate, and its gene were identified. In the genes of two unrelated patients affected with d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, we identified disease-causing mutations. One patient was homozygous for a missense mutation (c.1331T-->C; p.Val444Ala). The other patient was compound heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.440T-->G; p.Ile147Ser) and a splice-site mutation (IVS1-23A-->G) that resulted in a null allele. Overexpression studies in HEK-293 cells of proteins containing the missense mutations showed a marked reduction of d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase activity, proving that mutations in the d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene cause d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare organic aciduria neurometabolic disease that is inherited as an autosomal recessive mode and have a variety of symptoms, such as psychomotor developmental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral symptoms as well as increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) in the plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. The causative gene of L-2-HGA is L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH), which consists of 10 exons. CASE PRESENTATION:We presented a rare patient primary diagnosis of L-2-HGA based on the clinical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results. Mutational analysis of the L2HGDH gene was performed on the L-2-HGA patient and his parents, which revealed two novel mutations in exon 3: a homozygous missense mutation (c.407 A > G, p.K136R) in both the maternal and paternal allele, and a heterozygous frameshift mutation [c.407 A > G, c.408 del G], (p.K136SfsX3) in the paternal allele. The mutation site p.K136R of the protein was located in the pocket of the FAD/NAD(P)-binding domain and predicted to be pathogenic. CONCLUSION:We predicted the homozygous missense mutation (c.407 A > G, p.K136R) was considered as the pathogenic mutation of the patient. The study highlights the power of pedigree analysis in order to interpret novel mutations.