The Interactions between L-tyrosine based nanoparticles decorated with folic acid and cervical cancer cells under physiological flow.
ABSTRACT: Many anticancer drugs have been established clinically, but their efficacy can be compromised by nonspecific toxicity and an inability to reach the desired cancerous intracellular spaces. In order to address these issues, researchers have explored the use of folic acid as a targeted moiety to increase specificity of chemotherapeutic drugs. To expand upon such research, we have conjugated folic acid to functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) and subsequently decorated the surface of l-tyrosine polyphosphate (LTP) nanoparticles. These nanoparticles possess the appropriate size (100-500 nm) for internalization as shown by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Under simulated physiological flow, LTP nanoparticles decorated with folic acid (targeted nanoparticles) show a 10-fold greater attachment to HeLa, a cervical cancer cell line, compared to control nanoparticles and to human dermal fibroblasts. The attachment of these targeted nanoparticles progresses at a linear rate, and the strength of this nanoparticle attachment is shown to withstand shear stresses of 3.0 dyn/cm(2). These interactions of the targeted nanoparticles to HeLa are likely a result of a receptor-ligand binding, as a competition study with free folic acid inhibits the nanoparticle attachment. Finally, the targeted nanoparticles encapsulated with a silver based drug show increased efficacy in comparison to nondecorated (plain) nanoparticles and drug alone against HeLa cells. Thus, targeted nanoparticles are a promising delivery platform for developing anticancer therapies that overexpress the folate receptors (FRs).
Project description:The low therapeutic index of conventional chemotherapy and poor prognosis of patients diagnosed with metastatic cancers are prompting clinicians to adopt newer strategies to simultaneously detect cancer lesions at an early stage and to precisely deliver anticancer drugs to tumor sites. In this study, we employed a novel strategy to engineer a polyvalent theranostic nanocarrier consisting of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core (SPIONs) decorated with folic acid-polyamidoamine dendrimers surface (FA-PAMAM). In addition, a highly potent hydrophobic anticancer agent 3,4-difluorobenzylidene-curcumin (CDF) was coloaded in the FA-PAMAM dendrimer to increase its solubility and assess its therapeutic potentials. The resulting targeted nanoparticles (SPIONs@FA-PAMAM-CDF) exhibited high MR contrast. When tested on folate receptor overexpressing ovarian (SKOV3) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells, the CDF loaded targeted nanoformulations showed higher accumulation with a better anticancer activity as compared to the nontargeted counterparts, possibly due to multivalent folate receptor binding interaction with cells overexpressing the target. The results were corroborated by observation of a larger population of cells undergoing apoptosis due to upregulation of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensis homologue (PTEN), caspase 3, and inhibition of NF-?B in groups treated with the targeted formulations, which further confirmed the ability of the multivalent theranostic nanoparticles for simultaneous imaging and therapy of cancers.
Project description:While the therapeutic potential for current long-acting (LA) antiretroviral therapy (ART) is undeniable, ligand-decorated nanoformulated LA-ART could optimize drug delivery to viral reservoirs. The development of decorated ART hinges, however, on formulation processes and manufacture efficiencies. To this end, we compared manufacture and purification techniques for ligand-decorated antiretroviral drug nanocrystals.Ligand-decorated nanoparticle manufacturing was tested using folic acid (FA) nanoformulated cabotegravir.Direct manufacturing of FA-cabotegravir resulted in stable particles with high drug loading and monocyte-macrophage targeting. A one step 'direct' scheme proved superior over differential centrifugation or tangential flow filtration facilitating particle stability and preparation simplicity and efficiency.Direct manufacturing of FA nanoparticles provides a path toward large-scale clinical grade manufacturing of cell-targeted LA-ART.
Project description:A ligand decorated, synthetic polypeptide block copolymer platform with environment-responsive capabilities was designed. We evaluated the potential of this system to function as a polymersome for targeted-delivery of a systemic chemotherapy to tumors. Our system employed click chemistry to provide a pH-responsive polypeptide block that drives nanoparticle assembly, and a ligand (folic acid) conjugated PEG block that targets folate-receptor over-expressing cancer cells. These nanocarriers were found to encapsulate a high loading of conventional chemotherapeutics (e.g. doxorubicin at physiological pH) and release the active therapeutic at lysosomal pH upon cellular uptake. The presence of folic acid on the nanoparticle surface facilitated their active accumulation in folate-receptor-overexpressing cancer cells (KB), compared to untargeted carriers. Folate-targeted nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed enhanced tumor accumulation in folate-receptor positive KB xenografts, resulting in the suppression of tumor growth in an in vivo hind flank xenograft mouse model.
Project description:Targeted drug delivery has long been extensively researched since drug delivery and release at the diseased site with minimum dosage realizes the effective therapy without adverse side effects. In this work, to achieve enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carriers for efficient chemo-therapy, we have designed targeted multifunctional anticancer drug carrier hydrogels. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel core containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were prepared using precipitation polymerization, and further polymerized with amine-functionalized copolymer shell to facilitate the conjugation of targeting ligand. Then, folic acid, specific targeting ligand for cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), was conjugated on the hydrogel surface, yielding the ligand conjugated hybrid hydrogels. We revealed that enhanced intracellular uptake by HeLa cells in vitro was enabled by both magnetic attraction and receptor-mediated endocytosis, which were contributed by MNP and folic acid, respectively. Furthermore, site-specific uptake of the developed carrier was confirmed by incubating with several other cell lines. Based on synergistically enhanced intracellular uptake, efficient cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of HeLa cells incubated with anticancer drug loaded hybrid hydrogels were successfully achieved. The developed dual-targeted hybrid hydrogels are expected to provide a platform for the next generation intelligent drug delivery systems.
Project description:Paclitaxel (Taxol(®)) is an important anticancer drug in clinical use for treatment of a variety of cancers. Because of its low solubility, it is formulated in high concentration in Cremophor EL(®) which induces hypersensitivity reactions. In this study, targeted delivery of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles was prepared by a desolvation procedure, crosslinked on the wall material of bovine serum albumin, and subsequently decorated by folic acid. The characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as amount of folate conjugation, surface morphology, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading efficiency, and release kinetics were investigated in vitro. The targeting effect was investigated in vitro by cancer cell uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nanoparticles. The spherical nanoparticles obtained were negatively charged with a zeta potential of about -30 mV, and characterized around 210 nm with a narrow size distribution. Drug entrapment efficiency and drug loading efficiency were approximately 95.3% and 27.2%, respectively. The amount of folate conjugation was 9.22 ?g/mg of bovine serum albumin. The folate-decorated nanoparticles targeted a human prostate cancer cell line effectively.
Project description:Active targeting of folic acid and passive targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to bring about co-delivery of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents were the focus of this work. Co-precipitation in alkaline environment was employed for synthesizing Fe3O4 nanoparticles and stabilized by oleic acid. Aqueous dispersibility of oleic acid coated nanoparticles was brought about by folic acid modified Pluronic F127 and Pluronic F127 mixture. Folic acid is used as a targeting agent which was joined to Pluronic F127 via diethylene glycol bis(3-aminopropyl) ether spacer. The nanocomposite was used to delivery hydrophobic anticancer drugs, paclitaxel, and curcumin. Successful modification at each step was confirmed by FTIR and NMR. Quantitative analysis of attached folic acid indicated a total of 84.34% amount of conjugation. Nanoparticles characterization revealed the hydrodynamic size of and nanocomposite to be 94.2 nm nanometres. Furthermore, transmission electron micrograph reveals the size of the nanoparticle to be 12.5 nm hence also shows the superparamagnetic activity. Drug encapsulation efficiency of 34.7% and 59.5% was noted for paclitaxel and curcumin, respectively. Cytotoxic property of drug-loaded nanocomposites was increased in case of folic acid functionalized nanoparticles and further increased in the presence of an external magnetic field. Cellular uptake increased in the folic acid conjugated sample. Further many folds in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Project description:Au nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted a great interest as a platform for constructing various composite core/shell nanoparticles for theranostics applications. However, the development of robust methods for coating AuNRs with a biocompatible shell of high loading capacity and with functional groups still remains challenging. Here, we coated AuNRs with a polydopamine (PDA) shell and functionalized AuNR-PDA particles with folic acid and rhodamine 123 (R123) to fabricate AuNR-PDA-R123-folate nanocomposites. To the best of our knowledge, such AuNR-PDA-based composites combining fluorescent imaging and plasmonic phothothermal abilities have not been reported previously. The multifunctional nanoparticles were stable in cell buffer, nontoxic and suitable for targeted fluorescent imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer cells. We demonstrate the enhanced accumulation of folate-functionalized nanoparticles in folate-positive HeLa cells in contrast to the folate-negative HEK 293 cells using fluorescent microscopy. The replacement of folic acid with polyethylene glycol (PEG) leads to a decrease in nanoparticle uptake by both folate-positive and folate-negative cells. We performed NIR light-mediated targeted phototherapy using AuNR-PDA-R123-folate and obtained a remarkable cancer cell killing efficiency in vitro in comparison with only weak-efficient nontargeted PEGylated nanoparticles. Our work illustrates that AuNR-PDA could be a promising nanoplatform for multifunctional tumor theranostics in the future.
Project description:To avoid the side effects caused by nonspecific targeting, premature release, weak selectivity, and poor therapeutic efficacy of current nanoparticle-based systems used for drug delivery, we fabricated natural material-decorated nanoparticles as a multifunctional, membrane-controlled targeted drug delivery system. The nanocomposite material coated with a membrane was biocompatible and integrated both specific tumor targeting and responsiveness to stimulation, which improved transmission efficacy and controlled drug release. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which are known for their biocompatibility and high drug-loading capacity, were selected as a model drug container and carrier. The membrane was established by the polyelectrolyte composite method from chitosan (CS) which was sensitive to the acidic tumor microenvironment, folic acid-modified CS which recognizes the folate receptor expressed on the tumor cell surface, and a CD44 receptor-targeted polysaccharide hyaluronic acid. We characterized the structure of the nanocomposite as well as the drug release behavior under the control of the pH-sensitive membrane switch and evaluated the antitumor efficacy of the system in vitro. Our results provide a basis for the design and fabrication of novel membrane-controlled nanoparticles with improved tumor-targeting therapy.
Project description:In photodynamic therapy (PDT), photosensitizers and light are used to cause photochemically induced cell death. The selectivity and the effectiveness of the phototoxicity in cancer can be increased by a specific uptake of the photosensitizer into tumor cells. A promising target for this goal is the folic acid receptor α (FRα), which is overexpressed on the surface of many tumor cells and mediates an endocytotic uptake. Here, we describe a polysaccharide-based nanoparticle system suitable for targeted uptake and its photochemical and photobiological characterization. The photosensitizer 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphyrine (TPP) was encapsulated in spermine- and acetal-modified dextran (SpAcDex) nanoparticles and conjugated with folic acid (FA) on the surface [SpAcDex(TPP)-FA]. The particles are successfully taken up by human HeLa-KB cells, and a light-induced cytotoxicity is observable. An excess of free folate as the competitor for the FRα-mediated uptake inhibits the phototoxicity. In conclusion, folate-modified SpAcDex particles are a promising drug delivery system for a tumor cell targeted photodynamic therapy.
Project description:The use of cisplatin(IV) prodrugs for the delivery of cisplatin have gained significant attention, because of their low toxicity and reactivity. Recent studies have shown that targeted cisplatin(IV)-prodrug nanoparticle-based delivery systems can improve the internalization of the cisplatin(IV) prodrug. We hypothesized that folic acid-conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing cisplatin(IV) prodrug could target cancer cells that overexpress the folate receptor and deliver the active cisplatin drug upon intracellular reduction. To prove this hypothesis, internalization and localization studies in HeLa cancer cells were performed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The ability of MSNs to escape from the endolysosomal compartments, the formation of DNA adducts, and the cytotoxic effects of the MSNs were also evaluated. Our results confirmed that this MSN-based delivery platform was capable of delivering cisplatin into the cytosol of HeLa cells, inducing DNA adducts and subsequent cell death.