TAK-242, a small-molecule inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 signalling, unveils similarities and differences in lipopolysaccharide- and lipid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in muscle cells.
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 and downstream pathways [MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B)] play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and saturated NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) activate TLR4, and plasma concentrations of these TLR4 ligands are elevated in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Our goals were to define the role of TLR4 on the insulin resistance caused by LPS and saturated NEFA, and to dissect the independent contribution of LPS and NEFA to the activation of TLR4-driven pathways by employing TAK-242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4. LPS caused robust activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in L6 myotubes, along with impaired insulin signalling and glucose transport. TAK-242 completely prevented the inflammatory response (MAPK and NF-?B activation) caused by LPS, and, in turn, improved LPS-induced insulin resistance. Similar to LPS, stearate strongly activated MAPKs, although stimulation of the NF-?B axis was modest. As seen with LPS, the inflammatory response caused by stearate was accompanied by impaired insulin action. TAK-242 also blunted stearate-induced inflammation; yet, the protective effect conferred by TAK-242 was partial and observed only on MAPKs. Consequently, the insulin resistance caused by stearate was only partially improved by TAK-242. In summary, TAK-242 provides complete and partial protection against LPS- and NEFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. Thus, LPS-induced insulin resistance depends entirely on TLR4, whereas NEFA works through TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms to impair insulin action.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pain resulting from local tissue injury or inflammation typically resolves with time. Frequently, however, this pain may unexpectedly persist, becoming a pathological chronic state. Increasingly, the innate and adaptive immune systems are being implicated in the initiation and maintenance of these persistent conditions. In particular, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has been shown to mediate the transition to a persistent pain state in a sex-dependent manner. In the present work, we explored this contribution using the TLR4 antagonist, TAK-242. METHODS:Male and female C57Bl/6 mice were given intravenous (IV), intrathecal (IT), or intraperitoneal (IP) TAK-242 prior to IT delivery of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and tactile reactivity was assessed at regular intervals over 72-h. Additional groups of mice were treated with IP TAK-242 prior to intraplantar formalin, and flinching was monitored for 1-h. Tactile reactivity was assessed at 7-days after formalin delivery. RESULTS:LPS evoked TNF release from male and female macrophages and RAW267.4 cells, which was blocked in a concentration dependent fashion by TAK-242. In vivo, IT LPS evoked tactile allodynia to a greater degree in male than female mice. TAK-242, given by all routes, prevented development of IT LPS-induced tactile allodynia in male animals, but did not reverse their established allodynia. TLR4 deficiency and TAK-242 treatment attenuated IT LPS-induced allodynia in male, but not female mice. In the formalin model, pre-treatment with TAK-242 did not affect Phase 1 or Phase 2 flinching, but prevented the delayed tactile allodynia in both male and unexpectedly in female mice (Phase 3). CONCLUSIONS:Together, these results suggest that TAK-242 is a TLR4 antagonist that has efficacy after systemic and intrathecal delivery and confirms the role of endogenous TLR4 signaling in triggering the development of a delayed allodynia in both male and female mice.
Project description:Treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD) is hampered by incomplete understanding of pathways linking hemolysis to vaso-occlusion. We investigated these pathways in transgenic sickle mice. Infusion of hemoglobin or heme triggered vaso-occlusion in sickle, but not normal, mice. Methemoglobin, but not heme-stabilized cyanomethemoglobin, induced vaso-occlusion, indicating heme liberation is necessary. In corroboration, hemoglobin-induced vaso-occlusion was blocked by the methemoglobin reducing agent methylene blue, haptoglobin, or the heme-binding protein hemopexin. Untreated HbSS mice, but not HbAA mice, exhibited ?10% vaso-occlusion in steady state that was inhibited by haptoglobin or hemopexin infusion. Antibody blockade of adhesion molecules P-selectin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, platelet endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule 1, ?4?1, or ?V?3 integrin prevented vaso-occlusion. Heme rapidly (5 minutes) mobilized Weibel-Palade body (WPB) P-selectin and VWF onto EC and vessel wall surfaces and activated EC nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B). This was mediated by TLR4 as TAK-242 blocked WPB degranulation, NF-?B activation, vaso-occlusion, leukocyte rolling/adhesion, and heme lethality. TLR4(-/-) mice transplanted with TLR4(+/+) sickle bone marrow exhibited no heme-induced vaso-occlusion. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated ECs and triggered vaso-occlusion that was inhibited by TAK-242, linking hemolysis- and infection-induced vaso-occlusive crises to TLR4 signaling. Heme and LPS failed to activate VWF and NF-?B in TLR4(-/-) ECs. Anti-LPS immunoglobulin G blocked LPS-induced, but not heme-induced, vaso-occlusion, illustrating LPS-independent TLR4 signaling by heme. Inhibition of protein kinase C, NADPH oxidase, or antioxidant treatment blocked heme-mediated stasis, WPB degranulation, and oxidant production. We conclude that intravascular hemolysis in SCD releases heme that activates endothelial TLR4 signaling leading to WPB degranulation, NF-?B activation, and vaso-occlusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inflammatory reaction in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a crucial role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been shown that microglia could be activated through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Therefore, we hypothesize that TLR4 is involved in the microglial activation and BSCB disruption after I/R. RESULTS: To verify our hypothesis, we analyzed the behavioral data, changes of BSCB permeability, as well as expressions of microglial marker Iba-1 and TLR4 in spinal cord I/R model induced by 14 min aortic occlusion. Double immunostaining reveals that after I/R, Iba-1 immunoreactivity increased gradually 12 h after reperfusion and maintained at a such level throughout 36 h. Such increasing pattern of Iba-1 expression is consistent with the increases in Evan's Blue (EB) extravasation, spinal water content and mechanical allodynia demonstrated by lowed withdrawal threshold to Von Frey filaments. Moreover, double immunostaining suggested that TLR4 was highly expressed in microglia. Intrathecal infusion of minocycline and TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) treatment attenuated I/R-induced allodynia and BSCB leakage. In contrast, LPS induced TLR4 expression aggregated above-mentioned injuries. Furthermore, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activity has a similar profile as TLR4 activity. It is consisted with the results of NF-?B mRNA and protein expression changes and activation of downstream cytokine, IL-1?. Expectedly, intrathecal infusion of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-?B inhibitor, showed similar protective effects as minocycline and TAK-242. In addition, our data show that TLR4 closely involved in I/R-induced inflammatory damage induced neuronal apoptosis. Significantly, neutralizing TLR4 function largely reduced neuronal apoptosis determined by NeuN immunoreactivity in ventral gray matter and increased percentage of double-label cells with cleaved caspase3, whereas LPS reversed these effects. Similarly, inhibitions of microglia and NF-?B with minocycline or PDTC treatment accordingly perform the same protective effects on I/R injury. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that compromised BSCB caused by I/R injury lead to spinal microglial activation and TLR4, its membrane-bound receptor, up-regulation, which then initiate neuro-inflammation and neuro-apoptosis via NF-?B/ IL-1? pathway. To inhibit the positive feedback loop of TLR4-microglia-NF-?B/ IL-1? pathway by minocycline, TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, NF-?B inhibitor) may provide new targets for treating I/R injury in clinic.
Project description:The lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid chlojaponilactone B (1), isolated from Chloranthus japonicus, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to further explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of 1. RNA-seq analyses revealed the significant changes in the expression levels of genes related to multiple inflammatory pathways upon treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages with 1. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to confirm the modulations in the expression of essential molecules related to inflammatory responses. Compound 1 inhibited toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) activation upon LPS stimulation, influencing the expression of NF-?B and pro-inflammatory mediators. Molecular docking studies showed that 1 bound to TLR4 in a manner similar to that of TAK-242, a TLR4 inhibitor. Moreover, our results showed that 1 suppressed inflammatory responses by inhibiting TLR4 and subsequently decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, downregulating the NF-?B, thus reducing the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines iNOS, NO, COX-2, IL-6 and TNF-?; these effects were similar to those of TAK-242. We proposed that 1 should be considered as a potential anti-inflammatory compound in future research.
Project description:Background:It is widely accepted that inflammation may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with vascular dementia (VD). Our prior clinical researches have reported that acupuncture can alleviate cognitive function in VD, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The purpose of this research was to explore whether acupuncture alleviates cognitive impairment by suppressing the microRNA-93- (miR-93-) mediated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, which triggers inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Methods:VD was established by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in male Wistar rats. Three days after operation, the rats began daily treatment with acupuncture for two weeks. The levels of miR-93, Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4), intracellular signaling molecules (myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)), and inflammatory cytokines were subsequently detected. TLR4 colocalized with neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the hippocampus was evaluated. Neuroinflammation and cognitive function were determined after intracerebroventricular injection of TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 or agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without acupuncture. Results:We found that acupuncture notably repressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus and plasma of VD rats. The expression of TLR4, but not TLR2, was markedly downregulated by acupuncture, accompanied by a decrease in miR-93 and MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway activation. The overexpression of TLR4 in microglia, but not in astrocytes and neurons, was reversed by acupuncture. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of TAK-242 had similar effects to acupuncture on inflammation and cognitive function, while LPS injection abolished the beneficial effects of acupuncture. Conclusions:Taken together, these findings provide evidence that acupuncture attenuates cognitive impairment associated with inflammation through inhibition of the miR-93-mediated TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway in experimental VD. Acupuncture serves as a promising alternative therapy and may be an underlying TLR4 inhibitor for the treatment of VD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or with various endogenous diseases that are associated with metabolic endotoxemia. Involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, is commonly observed in these conditions, suggesting that circulating LPS might play an essential role in its development. Although impairment of muscle regeneration is an important determinant of skeletal muscle wasting, it is unclear whether LPS affects this process and, if so, by what mechanism. Here, we used the C2C12 myoblast cell line to investigate the effects of LPS on myogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>C2C12 myoblasts were grown to 80% confluence and induced to differentiate in the absence or presence of LPS (0.1 or 1 ?g/mL); TAK-242 (1 ?M), a specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling; and a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? neutralizing antibody (5 ?g/mL). Expression of a skeletal muscle differentiation marker (myosin heavy chain II), two essential myogenic regulatory factors (myogenin and MyoD), and a muscle negative regulatory factor (myostatin) was analyzed by western blotting. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA-binding activity was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.<h4>Results</h4>LPS dose-dependently and significantly decreased the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the expression of myosin heavy chain II, myogenin, and MyoD, and increased NF-?B DNA-binding activity and myostatin expression. The inhibitory effect of LPS on myogenic differentiation was reversible, suggesting that it was not caused by nonspecific toxicity. Both TAK-242 and anti-TNF-? reduced the LPS-induced increase in NF-?B DNA-binding activity, downregulation of myogenic regulatory factors, and upregulation of myostatin, thereby partially rescuing the impairment of myogenesis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that LPS inhibits myogenic differentiation via a TLR4-NF-?B-dependent pathway and an autocrine/paracrine TNF-?-induced pathway. These pathways may be involved in the development of muscle wasting caused by sepsis or metabolic endotoxemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) is one of the major pathogenic factors of chronic periodontitis (CP). Few reports on the correlation between P. gingivalis-LPS and cognitive function exist. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of P. gingivalis-LPS on cognitive function and the associated underlying mechanism in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS:The C57BL/6 mice were injected with P. gingivalis-LPS (5 mg kg-1) either with or without Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor (TAK-242, 5 mg kg-1). After 7 days, behavioral alterations were assessed with the open field test (OFT), Morris water maze (MWM) test, and passive avoidance test (PAT). The activation of astrocytes and microglia in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8), TLRs (TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4), and CD14 and the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway (IRAK1, p65, and p-p65) in the cerebral cortex of the mice were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot. RESULTS:The OFT showed that P. gingivalis-LPS did not affect the initiative and activity of mice. Administration of P. gingivalis-LPS significantly impaired spatial learning and memory during the MWM test and attenuated the ability of passive avoidance learning during the PAT. Both astrocytes and microglia were activated in the cortex and hippocampus. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) was upregulated by P. gingivalis-LPS in the cortex. In addition, the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated (TLR4, CD14, IRAK1, and p-p65). These effects were effectively alleviated by TAK-242. CONCLUSIONS:Administration of P. gingivalis-LPS can lead to learning and memory impairment in C57BL/6 mice. This impairment is mediated by activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our study suggests that P. gingivalis-LPS-induced neuroinflammation plays an important role in cognitive impairment. It also reveals that endotoxins of periodontal pathogens could represent a risk factor for cognitive disorders.
Project description:Secondary brain damage caused by hyperactivation of autophagy and inflammatory responses in neurons plays an important role in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Although previous studies have implicated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) in the neuroinflammatory response elicited by brain injury, the role and mechanisms of the TLR4-mediated autophagy signaling pathway in neonatal HIBD are still unclear. We hypothesized that this pathway can regulate brain damage by modulating neuron autophagy and neuroinflammation in neonatal rats with HIBD. Hence, we established a neonatal HIBD rat model using the Rice-Vannucci method, and injected 0.75, 1.5, or 3 mg/kg of the TLR4 inhibitor resatorvid (TAK-242) 30 minutes after hypoxic ischemia. Our results indicate that administering TAK-242 to neonatal rats after HIBD could significantly reduce the infarct volume and the extent of cerebral edema, alleviate neuronal damage and neurobehavioral impairment, and decrease the expression levels of TLR4, phospho-NF-?B p65, Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein l light chain 3, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-1? in the hippocampus. Thus, TAK-242 appears to exert a neuroprotective effect after HIBD by inhibiting activation of autophagy and the release of inflammatory cytokines via inhibition of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. This study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, China (approval No. 20180114-15) on January 14, 2018.
Project description:This study was designed to investigate the apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and explore the possible mechanisms. We evaluated whether ox-LDL-induced apoptosis depended in part on the activation of toll-like receptor-4(TLR4)/Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Cells were cultivated with and without ox-LDL. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were conducted to assess protein or mRNA expressions. Resatorvid (TAK-242), an exogenous synthetic antagonist for TLR4, was used to inhibit TLR4 signal transduction. Dose- and time-dependent apoptotic index of cardiomyocytes occurred after ox-LDL treatment. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with ox-LDL (50 μg/mL) for 24 hours increased TLR4 and NF-κB expressions significantly. Decrease of Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, activation of caspase-3 and 9 were also detected. Ox-LDL-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, TLR4 and NF-κB expressions were attenuated by pretreatment with TAK-242. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the apoptosis induced by ox-LDL in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes at least in part by modulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Project description:Loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the biliary epithelium reduces bile flow and alkalinization in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Liver damage is believed to result from ductal cholestasis, but only 30% of patients with CF develop liver defects, indicating that another factor is involved. We studied the effects of CFTR deficiency on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated responses of the biliary epithelium to endotoxins.Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to induce colitis in C57BL/6J-Cftrtm1Unc (Cftr-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. Ductular reaction and portal inflammation were quantified by keratin-19 and CD45 immunolabeling. Cholangiocytes isolated from wild-type and Cftr-KO mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); cytokine secretion was quantified. Activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), phosphorylation of TLR4, and activity of Src were determined. HEK-293 that expressed the secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter and human TLR4 were transfected with CFTR complementary DNAs.DSS-induced colitis caused biliary damage and portal inflammation only in Cftr-KO mice. Biliary damage and inflammation were not attenuated by restoring biliary secretion with 24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid but were significantly reduced by oral neomycin and polymyxin B, indicating a pathogenetic role of gut-derived bacterial products. Cftr-KO cholangiocytes incubated with LPS secreted significantly higher levels of cytokines regulated by TLR4 and NF-?B. LPS-mediated activation of NF-?B was blocked by the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242. TLR4 phosphorylation by Src was significantly increased in Cftr-KO cholangiocytes. Expression of wild-type CFTR in the HEK293 cells stimulated with LPS reduced activation of NF-?B.CFTR deficiency alters the innate immunity of the biliary epithelium and reduces its tolerance to endotoxin, resulting in an Src-dependent inflammatory response mediated by TLR4 and NF-?B. These findings might be used to develop therapies for CF-associated cholangiopathy.