Evaluation of a direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method without RNA extraction for the detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.
ABSTRACT: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide and has been associated with neurological complications which resulted in fatalities during recent outbreak in Asia pacific region. A direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (direct RT-LAMP) assay using heat-treated samples without RNA extraction was developed and evaluated for the detection of EV71 subgenotype C4 in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the direct RT-LAMP assay were examined. The detection limit of the direct RT-LAMP assays was 1.6 of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) per reaction and no cross-reaction was observed with control viruses including Cosackievirus A (CVA) viruses (CVA2,4,5,7,9,10,14,16, and 24), Coxsackievirus B (CVB) viruses (CVB1,2,3,4, and 5) or ECHO viruses (ECHO3,6,11, and 19). The direct RT-LAMP assay was evaluated and compared to both RT-LAMP and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in detecting EV71 infection with 145 nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The clinical performance demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of direct RT-LAMP was reported to be 90.3% and 100% respectively, compared to RT-LAMP, and 86.83% and 100% respectively, compared to qRT-PCR. These data demonstrated that the direct RT-LAMP assay can potentially be developed for the point of care screening of EV71 infection in China.
Project description:Due to the highly contagious and spreads quickly of respiratory infectious diseases (ADR), the availability of rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic methods is essential for disease control. Here, we develop an approach based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of influenza A virus (Flu A), Flu A subtypes H1N1and H3N2, influenza B virus (Flu B), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subtypes A and B, human adenovirus (HAdV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) subtypes 1 and 3, and human rhinovirus (HRV) simultaneously. We designed primers specific to detect respiratory viruses above, optimized the RT-LAMP assay and evaluated it for its sensitivity and specificity of detection using real-time monitoring based on SYBR Green I. We also evaluated the result of our RT-LAMP assay on 638 nasopharyngeal swab specimens with the commercial RT-PCR by Cohen's Kappa. The inconsistent results were verified by Sanger sequencing furtherly. The developed RT-LAMP assay displayed a detection limit of 1 × 10<sup>2</sup> copies/ml RNA close to that of RT-PCR; no cross-reactivity was observed in the 10 kinds of viruses studied. The results obtained with 638 clinical samples indicate that the developed method has high specificity (0.988-1) and sensitivity (0.863-1) for viruses studied, and the Kappa value of all viruses was more than 0.85 revealed an excellent agreement between the two methods. We developed an RT-LAMP-based method and optimized for the detection of common respiratory viruses. It may be a powerful tool for rapid and reliable clinical diagnosis of ADR in primary hospitals.
Project description:This paper reports on the development of a one-step, real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene for the rapid molecular-based detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. The detection limit of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus HA-specific RT-LAMP assay was same as that of the currently used real-time reverse transcription-PCR method. The assay detected the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus HA gene in 136 RNA samples extracted from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from Japanese and Vietnamese patients. No cross-reactive amplification with the RNA of other seasonal influenza viruses was observed, and the detection of specific viral genome targets in clinical specimens was achieved in less than 40 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus HA-specific RT-LAMP assay obtained in this study were 97.8% and 100%, respectively. Use of the (H1N1) 2009 virus HA-specific RT-LAMP assay will enable the faster and easier diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, especially in resource-limited situations in developing countries.
Project description:Rapid detection of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is important in the early phase of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel reverse transcription-isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (RT-IMSA) assay for the rapid detection of EV71 and CVA16 by use of reverse transcriptase, together with a strand displacement DNA polymerase. Real-time RT-IMSA assays using a turbidimeter and visual RT-IMSA assays to detect EV71 and CVA16 were established and completed in 1 h, and the reported corresponding real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays targeting the same regions of the VP1 gene were adopted as parallel tests. Through testing VP1 RNAs transcribed in vitro, the real-time RT-IMSA assays exhibited better linearity of quantification, with R(2) values of 0.952 (for EV71) and 0.967 (for CVA16), than the real-time RT-LAMP assays, which had R(2) values of 0.803 (for EV71) and 0.904 (for CVA16). Additionally, the detection limits of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (approximately 937 for EV71 and 67 for CVA16 copies/reaction) were higher than those of real-time RT-LAMP assays (approximately 3,266 for EV71 and 430 for CVA16 copies/reaction), and similar results were observed in the visual RT-IMSA assays. The new approaches also possess high specificities for the corresponding targets, with no cross-reactivity observed. In clinical assessment, compared to commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) kits, the diagnostic sensitivities of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (96.4% for EV71 and 94.6% for CVA16) were higher than those of the real-time RT-LAMP assays (91.1% for EV71 and 90.8% for CVA16). The visual RT-IMSA assays also exhibited the same results. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel RT-IMSA assay is superior to the RT-LAMP assay in terms of detection limit and has the potential to rapidly detect EV71 and CVA16 viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) is very common in China. It is difficult to distinguish between EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infections in clinical HFMD patients. Routine laboratory diagnosis of EV71 infection is time-consuming and requires expensive instruments. In this study, we have developed a one-step, single tube, reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of EV71. METHODS: Six primers that can recognize 6 distinct regions on the VP2 gene of EV71 were designed for RT-LAMP assay. The amplification was completed by incubating all reagents in a single tube with reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase under the isothermal condition (60°C) for 60 min, and could be evaluated by using GoldView staining under a handheld ultraviolet torch lamp or electrophoresis analysis. RESULTS: A total of 123 specimens collected from suspicious patients with HFMD were simultaneously detected by RT-LAMP and PCR fluorescence probing assay. The RT-LAMP amplified products containing EV71 were digested by HinfI and TaqI restriction endonucleases; in contrast, non-specific products with CVA16, coxsackievirus A4 and coxsackievirus B3 could not be detected in RT-LAMP assay. Meanwhile, RT-LAMP assay could amplify EV71 virus with a detection limit of 1 PFU/ml within 60 min. Compared with PCR fluorescence probing assay, RT-LAMP assay exhibited 98.4% identity during the detection of EV71 viral RNA without the missing of positive samples. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that RT-LAMP is a rapid, sensitive, specific and accurate method for the detection of EV71 in clinical specimens. Therefore, this developed method has potential application for rapid and comprehensive surveillance for EV71 infection, especially in developing country.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 testing is crucial to controlling the spread of this virus, yet shortages of nucleic acid extraction supplies and other key reagents have hindered the response to COVID-19 in the US. Several groups have described loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for SARS-CoV-2, including testing directly from nasopharyngeal swabs and eliminating the need for reagents in short supply. Frequent surveillance of individuals attending work or school is currently unavailable to most people but will likely be necessary to reduce the ~50% of transmission that occurs when individuals are nonsymptomatic. Here we describe a fluorescence-based RT-LAMP test using direct nasopharyngeal swab samples and show consistent detection in clinically confirmed primary samples with a limit of detection (LOD) of ~625 copies/?l, approximately 100-fold lower sensitivity than qRT-PCR. While less sensitive than extraction-based molecular methods, RT-LAMP without RNA extraction is fast and inexpensive. Here we also demonstrate that adding a lysis buffer directly into the RT-LAMP reaction improves the sensitivity of some samples by approximately 10-fold. Furthermore, purified RNA in this assay achieves a similar LOD to qRT-PCR. These results indicate that high-throughput RT-LAMP testing could augment qRT-PCR in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance programs, especially while the availability of qRT-PCR testing and RNA extraction reagents is constrained.
Project description:Dual-labeled PNA probe used RT-LAMP molecular rapid assay targeting SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab and N genes was developed, and the analytical, clinical performances for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA extracted from clinical nasopharyngeal swab specimens were evaluated in this study. Data showed that this assay is highly specific for SARS-CoV-2, and the absolute detection limit is 1 genomic copy per microliter of viral RNA which can be considered to be comparable to gold-standard molecular diagnostic method real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Both clinical sensitivity and specificity against a commercial real-time RT-PCR assay were determined as identical. In conclusion, the PNA RT-LAMP assay showed high analytical and clinical accuracy which are identical to real-time RT-PCR which has been routinely used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:The availability of simple SARS-CoV-2 detection methods is crucial to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined whether a commercial LAMP assay can reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 genomes directly in respiratory samples without having to extract nucleic acids (NA) beforehand. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS, <i>n</i> = 220) were tested by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and with the LAMP assay. For RT-PCR, NA were investigated. For LAMP, NA from 26 NPS in viral transport medium (VTM) were tested. The other 194 NPS were analyzed directly without prior NA extraction (140 samples in VTM; 54 dry swab samples stirred in phosphate buffered saline). Ten NPS were tested directly by LAMP using a sous-vide cooking unit. The isothermal assay demonstrated excellent specificity (100%) but moderate sensitivity (68.8%), with a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.65 for direct testing of NPS in VTM. The use of dry swabs, even without NA extraction, improved the analytical sensitivity; up to 6% of samples showed signs of inhibition. LAMP could be performed successfully with a sous-vide cooking unit. This technique is very fast, requires little laboratory resources, and can replace rapid antigen tests or verify reactive rapid tests on-site.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have always remain a serious concern for the global economy and public health. A rapid, specific and sensitive detection method is always needed to control the influenza in its early stages by timely intervention of therapy and early clinical management. OBJECTIVES:To develop RT-LAMP assays for detection of influenza A viruses, their further subtyping into seasonal (H1N1, H3N2) and novel pandemic H1N1 viruses and to evaluate clinical applicability of optimized RT-LAMP assays on patients' samples. STUDY DESIGN:In this study, we optimized RT-LAMP assay to detect IAVs by using primers against matrix gene and subtyping of IAVs was done by using primers against hemagglutinin gene. Optimized RT-LAMP assays were applied on clinical samples from patients having influenza like illness and results were compared with conventional one-step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS:RT-LAMP assays successfully detected and differentiated IAVs into H1N1, H3N2 and pdm09/H1N1 subtypes. One hundred and sixty seven clinical swab samples from influenza suspected patients were taken and tested with RT-LAMP assay, detecting 30 (17.9%) samples positive for Influenza A virus. Out of 30 samples, 21, 7 and 2 were found positive for pdm09/H1N1, H3N2 and seasonal H1 respectively. Conventional one-step RT-PCR detected a total of 27 (16.2%) samples for influenza A and further subtyping showed 20 and 7 samples positive for pdm09/H1N1 and H3N2 virus respectively whereas none was found positive for seasonal H1N1. RT-LAMP assay demonstrated higher sensitivity (93.8%) than conventional RT-PCR (84.4%) for influenza A viruses detection in clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS:RT-LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive, specific and cost effective method for detection of influenza A viruses than conventional one-step RT-PCR and it can serve as a good alternate for diagnosis and surveillance studies during influenza outbreaks in resource-limited setups of developing countries.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 is a serious health threat causing worldwide morbidity and mortality. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Although various nucleic acid-based assays have been developed to aid the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patient samples, the objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic test that can be completed in 30 minutes without having to isolate RNA from the samples. Here, we present an RNA amplification detection method performed using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) reactions to achieve specific, rapid (30 min), and sensitive (<100 copies) fluorescent detection in real-time of SARS-CoV-2 directly from patient nasopharyngeal swab (NP) samples. When compared to RT-qPCR, positive NP swab samples assayed by fluorescent RT-LAMP had 98% (n = 41/42) concordance and negative NP swab samples assayed by fluorescent RT-LAMP had 87% (n = 59/68) concordance for the same samples. Importantly, the fluorescent RT-LAMP results were obtained without purification of RNA from the NP swab samples in contrast to RT-qPCR. We also show that the fluorescent RT-LAMP assay can specifically detect live virus directly from cultures of both SARS-CoV-2 wild type (WA1/2020), and a SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (alpha) variant strain with equal sensitivity to RT-qPCR. RT-LAMP has several advantages over RT-qPCR including isothermal amplification, speed (<30 min), reduced costs, and similar sensitivity and specificity.
Project description:Effective containment of the COVID-19 pandemic requires rapid and accurate detection of the pathogen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard for COVID-19 confirmation. In this article, we report the performance of a cost-effective modular microfluidic reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and RT-loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) platform, Epidax®, for the point-of-care testing and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. This platform is versatile and can be reconfigured either for screening using endpoint RT-PCR or RT-LAMP tests or for confirmatory tests using real-time RT-PCR. Epidax® is highly sensitive and detects as little as 1 RNA copy per µL for real-time and endpoint RT-PCR, while using only half of the reagents. We achieved comparable results with those of a commercial platform when detecting SARS-CoV-2 viruses from 81 clinical RNA extracts. Epidax® can also detect SARS-CoV-2 from 44 nasopharyngeal samples without RNA extraction by using a direct RT-PCR assay, which shortens the sample-to-answer time to an hour with minimal user steps. Furthermore, we validated the technology using an RT-LAMP assay on 54 clinical RNA extracts. Overall, our platform provides a sensitive, cost-effective, and accurate diagnostic solution for low-resource settings.