A novel rabbit immunospot array assay on a chip allows for the rapid generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies with high affinity.
ABSTRACT: Antigen-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RaMoAbs) are useful due to their high specificity and high affinity, and the establishment of a comprehensive and rapid RaMoAb generation system has been highly anticipated. Here, we present a novel system using immunospot array assay on a chip (ISAAC) technology in which we detect and retrieve antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of antigen-immunized rabbits and produce antigen-specific RaMoAbs with 10(-12) M affinity within a time period of only 7 days. We have used this system to efficiently generate RaMoAbs that are specific to a phosphorylated signal-transducing molecule. Our system provides a new method for the comprehensive and rapid production of RaMoAbs, which may contribute to laboratory research and clinical applications.
Project description:IFN-? and IL-2 cytokine-profiles define three functional T-cell subsets which may correlate with pathogen load in chronic intracellular infections. We therefore investigated the feasibility of the immunospot platform to rapidly enumerate T-cell subsets by single-cell IFN-?/IL-2 cytokine-profiling and establish whether immunospot-based T-cell signatures distinguish different clinical stages of human tuberculosis infection.We used fluorophore-labelled anti-IFN-? and anti-IL-2 antibodies with digital overlay of spatially-mapped colour-filtered images to enumerate dual and single cytokine-secreting M. tuberculosis antigen-specific T-cells in tuberculosis patients and in latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We validated results against established measures of cytokine-secreting T-cells.Fluorescence-immunospot correlated closely with single-cytokine enzyme-linked-immunospot for IFN-?-secreting T-cells and IL-2-secreting T-cells and flow-cytometry-based detection of dual IFN-?/IL-2-secreting T-cells. The untreated tuberculosis signature was dominated by IFN-?-only-secreting T-cells which shifted consistently in longitudinally-followed patients during treatment to a signature dominated by dual IFN-?/IL-2-secreting T-cells in treated patients. The LTBI signature differed from active tuberculosis, with higher proportions of IL-2-only and IFN-?/IL-2-secreting T-cells and lower proportions of IFN-?-only-secreting T-cells.Fluorescence-immunospot is a quantitative, accurate measure of functional T-cell subsets; identification of cytokine-signatures of pathogen burden, distinct clinical stages of M. tuberculosis infection and long-term immune containment suggests application for treatment monitoring and vaccine evaluation.
Project description:Citrus mosaic virus (CiMV) is one of the causal viruses of citrus mosaic disease in satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu). Prompt detection of trees infected with citrus mosaic disease is important for preventing the spread of this disease. Although rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exhibit high specificity and affinity, their applicability is limited by technical difficulties associated with the hybridoma-based technology used for raising these mAbs. Here, we demonstrate a feasible CiMV detection system using a specific rabbit mAb against CiMV coat protein. A conserved peptide fragment of the small subunit of CiMV coat protein was designed and used to immunize rabbits. Antigen-specific antibody-producing cells were identified by the immunospot array assay on a chip method. After cloning of variable regions in heavy or light chain by RT-PCR from these cells, a gene set of 33 mAbs was constructed and these mAbs were produced using Expi293F cells. Screening with the AlphaScreen system revealed eight mAbs exhibiting strong interaction with the antigen peptide. From subsequent sequence analysis, they were grouped into three mAbs denoted as No. 4, 9, and 20. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the affinity of these mAbs for the antigen peptide ranged from 8.7 × 10-10 to 5.5 × 10-11 M. In addition to CiMV, mAb No. 9 and 20 could detect CiMV-related viruses in leaf extracts by ELISA. Further, mAb No. 20 showed a high sensitivity to CiMV and CiMV-related viruses, simply by dot blot analysis. The anti-CiMV rabbit mAbs obtained in this study are envisioned to be extremely useful for practical applications of CiMV detection, such as in a virus detection kit.
Project description:The interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-? ELISpot) assay has been developed and used as an end-point assay in clinical trials for infectious diseases and cancer to detect the magnitude of antigen-specific immune responses. The ability to compare data generated by different laboratories across organizations is pivotal to understand the relative potency of different therapeutic and vaccine strategies. We developed an external proficiency program for the IFN-? ELISpot assay that evaluates laboratory performance based on five parameters: timeliness for data reporting; ability to handle cellular samples; detection of background (non-specific) responses; accuracy to consensus of the results; and precision of the measurements. Points are awarded for each criterion, and the sum of the points is used to determine a numeric and adjectival performance rating. Importantly, the evaluation of the accuracy to the consensus mean for the detection of antigen-specific responses using laboratory-specific procedures informs each laboratory and its sponsor on the degree of concordance of its results with those obtained by other laboratories. This study will ultimately provide the scientific community with information on how to organize and implement an external proficiency program to evaluate longitudinally the performance of the participating laboratories and, therefore, fulfill the requirements of the GCLP guidelines for laboratories performing end-point IFN-? ELISpot assay for clinical trials.
Project description:We have developed a robust platform to generate and functionally characterize rabbit-derived antibodies using B cells from peripheral blood. The rapid high throughput procedure generates a diverse set of antibodies, yet requires only few animals to be immunized without the need to sacrifice them. The workflow includes (i) the identification and isolation of single B cells from rabbit blood expressing IgG antibodies, (ii) an elaborate short term B-cell cultivation to produce sufficient monoclonal antigen specific IgG for comprehensive phenotype screens, (iii) the isolation of VH and VL coding regions via PCR from B-cell clones producing antigen specific and functional antibodies followed by the sequence determination, and (iv) the recombinant expression and purification of IgG antibodies. The fully integrated and to a large degree automated platform (demonstrated in this paper using IL1RL1 immunized rabbits) yielded clonal and very diverse IL1RL1-specific and functional IL1RL1-inhibiting rabbit antibodies. These functional IgGs from individual animals were obtained at a short time range after immunization and could be identified already during primary screening, thus substantially lowering the workload for the subsequent B-cell PCR workflow. Early availability of sequence information permits one to select early-on function- and sequence-diverse antibodies for further characterization. In summary, this powerful technology platform has proven to be an efficient and robust method for the rapid generation of antigen specific and functional monoclonal rabbit antibodies without sacrificing the immunized animal.
Project description:Measurements of serum-neutralizing antibody and anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) are the current standard for assessing immune responses following rotavirus vaccination. However, there is ongoing debate as to whether antibody titers correlate with protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis. Children recovering from rotavirus gastroenteritis have increased gamma interferon release from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), suggesting that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) may play a role in viral clearance and protection from subsequent gastroenteritis. We have developed a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for evaluation of CMI responses to rotavirus using frozen PBMCs obtained from healthy adults. Responses to three different rotavirus antigen types were analyzed-a peptide pool based on the human VP6 sequence; reassortant human:bovine vaccine strains; and cell culture-adapted (CCA) human G1, G2, G3, G4, and bovine (WC3) G6 strains. The reassortant strains consist of a bovine WC3 genome background expressing the human rotavirus surface proteins VP7 (G1, G2, G3, or G4) or VP4 (P1). Responses to titrations of the peptide pool as well as CCA and reassortant strains were assessed. Gamma interferon ELISPOT responses were similar for CCA and reassortant strains, whether live or UV inactivated, and when tested either individually or pooled. For most subjects, responses to the VP6 peptide pool positively correlated with responses to CCA and reassortant strains. Cell depletion studies indicate the memory responses detected with these frozen adult PBMCs were primarily due to the CD4+ T-cell population. This gamma interferon ELISPOT assay provides a new tool to apply in clinical studies for the characterization of natural or vaccine-induced CMI to rotavirus.
Project description:In vitro immunization can to used to produce monoclonal antibodies(mAbs), but this technology is limited by poor reproducibility and the requirement of pre-immunized lymphocytes. To improve this approach, we recently developed a method for rapid generation of antigen-specific B cells. Here, we report the application of this system to the production of human IgGs against tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We expressed mutant proteins with site-specific incorporated p-nitrophenylalanine (pNO2Phe), which stimulated an in vitro immune response in human immune cells. After constructing an antigen-specific antibody library from in vitro immunized B cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we demonstrated that many point mutation events of the variable region occurred in our step-by-step co-cultivation system for affinity maturation in vitro. To mimic the class switching, we panned for high-affinity antigen-binding fragments by the phage display method, assembled them and identified hTNF-neutralizing human IgGs. This approach may provide a general method for raising high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against self-proteins. Furthermore, it supports mechanistic understanding in breaking human self-tolerance with pNO2Phe.
Project description:Although high measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage has been successful in dramatically reducing mumps disease in the United States, mumps (re)infections occasionally occur in individuals who have been either previously vaccinated or naturally infected. Standard diagnostics that detect virus or virus-specific antibody are dependable for confirming primary mumps infection in immunologically naïve persons, but these methods perform inconsistently for individuals with prior immune exposure. We hypothesized that detection of activated mumps-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay could be used as a more reliable diagnostic. To test this, a time course of virus-specific ASC responses was measured by ELISPOT assay following MMR vaccination of 16 previously vaccinated or naturally exposed adult volunteers. Mumps-specific ASCs were detectable in 68% of these individuals at some point during the first 3 weeks following revaccination. In addition, mumps-specific ASCs were detected in 7/7 previously vaccinated individuals who recently had been infected as part of a confirmed mumps outbreak. These data suggest that ELISPOT detection of mumps-specific ASCs has the potential for use as an alternative method of diagnosis when suspect cases cannot be confirmed by detection of IgM or virus. In addition, it was determined that mumps-specific memory B cells are detected at a much lower frequency than measles- or rubella-specific cells, suggesting that mumps infection may not generate robust B-cell memory.
Project description:It is essential to identify donors who have not been infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in order to avoid transmission of HCMV to recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants. In the present study, we tested the reliability of seronegativity as an indicator for the lack of HCMV exposure in healthy human blood donors. Eighty-two HCMV seronegative individuals were identified, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in ImmunoSpot® assays for the presence of HCMV-specific T- and B-memory lymphocytes. Eighty-two percent (67 of 82) of these HCMV seronegative individuals featured at least one memory cell that was lineage specific for HCMV, with the majority of these subjects possessing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as B cells, providing three independent lines of evidence for having developed immunity to HCMV. Only 15 of these 82 donors (18%) showed neither T- nor B-cell memory to HCMV, consistent with immunological naïveté to the virus. The data suggest that measurements of serum antibodies frequently fail to reveal HCMV exposure in humans, which may be better identified by direct detection of HCMV-specific memory lymphocytes.
Project description:Specific, high affinity protein-protein interactions lie at the heart of many essential biological processes, including the recognition of an apparently limitless range of foreign proteins by natural antibodies, which has been exploited to develop therapeutic antibodies. To mediate biological processes, high affinity protein complexes need to form on appropriate, relatively rapid timescales, which presents a challenge for the productive engagement of complexes with large and complex contact surfaces (?600-1800 ?(2)). We have obtained comprehensive backbone NMR assignments for two distinct, high affinity antibody fragments (single chain variable and antigen-binding (Fab) fragments), which recognize the structurally diverse cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?, ?-sheet) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, ?-helical). NMR studies have revealed that the hearts of the antigen binding sites in both free anti-IL-1? Fab and anti-IL-6 single chain variable exist in multiple conformations, which interconvert on a timescale comparable with the rates of antibody-antigen complex formation. In addition, we have identified a conserved antigen binding-induced change in the orientation of the two variable domains. The observed conformational heterogeneity and slow dynamics at protein antigen binding sites appears to be a conserved feature of many high affinity protein-protein interfaces structurally characterized by NMR, suggesting an essential role in protein complex formation. We propose that this behavior may reflect a soft capture, protein-protein docking mechanism, facilitating formation of high affinity protein complexes on a timescale consistent with biological processes.
Project description:Objectives:Our group developed the use of the Candida skin test reagent as an adjuvant of cell-mediated immunity in designing a human papillomavirus therapeutic vaccine. Here, this technology is being applied for designing a prostate cancer immunotherapy. Methods:Peptides based on the prostate-specific antigen amino acid sequences were selected, synthesized, and evaluated in terms of their (1) solubility, (2) maturation effects on Langerhans cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, and (3) recognition by peripheral immune cells from prostate cancer patients using interferon-? enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results:The peptides were soluble in 10?mM succinate at pH of 5 with 5% glycine, and they demonstrated no maturation effects on Langerhans cells from healthy donors. On the other hand, peripheral immune cells from 4 of 10 prostate cancer patients examined had positive responses in enzyme-linked immunospot assay to one or more prostate-specific antigen peptides. Conclusion:In summary, a design and a formulation of a novel prostate cancer immunotherapy are described. The immunogenicity of prostate-specific antigen peptides in some prostate cancer patients supports further development of this immunotherapy.