Asthma beliefs are associated with medication adherence in older asthmatics.
ABSTRACT: Empirical research and health policies on asthma have focused on children and young adults, even though asthma morbidity and mortality are higher among older asthmatics.To explore the relationship of asthma-related beliefs and self-reported controller medication adherence in older asthmatics.An observational study of asthma beliefs and self-management among older adults.Asthmatics ages ? 60 years (N?=?324, mean age 67.4 ± 6.8, 28 % white, 32 % black, 30 % Hispanic) were recruited from primary care practices in New York City and Chicago.Self-reported controller medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Based on the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation, patients were asked if they believe they only have asthma with symptoms, their physician can cure their asthma, and if their asthma will persist. Beliefs on the benefit, necessity and concerns of treatment use were also assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of beliefs with self-reported medication adherence.The majority (57.0 %) of patients reported poor adherence. Poor self-reported adherence was more common among those with erroneous beliefs about asthma illness and treatments, including the "no symptoms, no asthma" belief (58.7 % vs. 31.7 %, respectively, p?
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Medication adherence is critical in chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and could be affected by patients' treatment-related beliefs. The objective of this study was to determine beliefs about systemic medications in patients with IMIDs and to explore the association of those beliefs and other factors with adherence. METHODS:This was a multi-country, cross-sectional, self-administered survey study. Included were adults diagnosed with one of six IMIDs receiving conventional systemic medications and/or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Patients' necessity beliefs/concerns towards and adherence to treatments were assessed by the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Correlation of patients' beliefs about treatment and other factors with adherence were evaluated by multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS:Among studied patients (N = 7197), 32.0% received TNFi monotherapy, 27.7% received TNFi-conventional combination therapy, and 40.3% received conventional medications. Across IMIDs, high adherence to systemic treatment was more prevalent in TNFi groups (61.3-80.7%) versus corresponding conventional treatment groups (28.4-64.7%). In at least four IMIDs, greater perception of the illness continuing forever (P < 0.001), of the treatment helping (P < 0.001), and more concerns about the illness (P < 0.01), but not clinical parameters, were associated with higher treatment necessity beliefs. Higher treatment necessity beliefs, older age, Caucasian race, and TNFi therapy were associated with high medication adherence in at least four IMIDs. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment necessity beliefs were higher than concerns about current medication in patients with IMID. Illness perceptions had a greater impact on treatment necessity beliefs than clinical parameters. Older age, greater treatment necessity beliefs, and TNFi therapy were associated with high self-reported medication adherence in at least four IMIDs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ACTRN12612000977875. FUNDING:AbbVie.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate levels of self-reported adherence to biologic treatment and establish the contribution of demographic, physical and psychological factors to biologic medication adherence in an RA cohort.<h4>Methods</h4>Adalimumab-treated patients were recruited through the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA between May 2007 and April 2009. Demographic and baseline psychological measures including illness and medication beliefs were collected. Disease activity (28-item DAS), physical function (HAQ) and quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) were also measured at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence was assessed at each follow-up using the patient self-completed Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR). Multilevel mixed effects modelling analysis was performed to investigate predictors of adherence.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 329 Adalimumab-treated patients included, low adherence (CQR score <65) was reported in 23%, with 41% reporting low adherence at at least one time point. After controlling for age and disease duration, factors independently predictive of increased adherence were increased belief in medication necessity, with baseline effect diminishing over time [? coefficient 1.68 (s.e. 0.19), P = 0.0001], lower medication concerns [0.50 (0.15), P = 0.001], with this effect remaining throughout follow-up, increased professional or family member support [0.81 (0.32), P = 0.01], strong views of illness being chronic [0.32 (0.14), P = 0.025] and increased treatment control [0.41 (0.19), P = 0.032].<h4>Conclusion</h4>Wider recognition of the importance of psychological factors, particularly medication beliefs, in driving medication adherence could have substantial clinical and health economic benefits in RA. The psychological factors we have identified are putative targets for strategies to improve adherence in RA.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Disadvantaged older adults may benefit from social support in adhering to their medications, but the multidimensional nature of social relationships makes it difficult to identify the most relevant domain. We examined associations of structural and functional support with medication adherence among a cohort of older adults with asthma.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional analysis of the Asthma Beliefs and Literacy in the Elderly cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Outpatient clinics in New York, New York, and Chicago, Illinois, USA.<h4>Participants</h4>English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults (?60 years) with asthma.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>Medication adherence was measured using dose counts from inhaler and self-report.<h4>Results</h4>Among 383 participants, the mean age was 67 years, 38% identified as Hispanic, 33% identified as black, 52% reported monthly incomes ?US$1350 and 64% demonstrated poor adherence to their asthma controller medication. Structural and functional support were weakly correlated (r=-0.15, p=0.005). In adjusted analyses, structural support was not associated with medication adherence. Participants who received infrequent functional support in managing their medications had lower odds of poor adherence according to dose counts (OR 0.51, 95%?CI 0.26 to 0.98), but not when assessed via self-report (OR 0.81, 95%?CI 0.44 to 1.48).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The receipt of frequent functional support in managing medications was associated with poor adherence to asthma controller medications. Further research is needed to better understand the manner and context which functional support operates in relation to medication adherence among older adults.
Project description:People with asthma who do not adhere to their maintenance medication may experience poorer asthma control and need more healthcare support than those who adhere. People (N?=?1010) aged 18-55 years with self-reported asthma, taking one or more asthma maintenance medication(s), from five European countries, participated in a survey using validated scales (Medication Adherence Report Scale [MARS], Asthma Control Test™ [ACT], Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire [BMQ] and the Asthma Treatment Intrusiveness Questionnaire [ATIQ]). We performed a post hoc evaluation of adherence to maintenance medication, asthma control, beliefs about medication, preferences for once-daily vs. twice-daily asthma maintenance medication and treatment intrusiveness, using structural equation modelling to investigate the relationships between these factors. Most participants reported potential problems with asthma control (ACT?<?19: 76.8% [n?=?776]), low adherence (median MARS?=?3.40) and preferred once-daily medication (73.5% [n?=?742/1010]). Non-adherence was associated with worse asthma control (r?=?0.262 [P?<?0.001]) and a expressed preference for once-daily medication over a "twice daily medication that works slightly better" (test statistic [T]?=?2.970 [P?=?0.003]). Participants reporting non-adherence/preferring once-daily medication had negative beliefs about their treatment (BMQ necessity-concerns differential: r?=?0.437 [P?<?0.001]/T?=?6.886 [P?<?0.001]) and found medication intrusive (ATIQ: r?=?-0.422 [P?<?0.001]/T?=?2.689[P?=?0.007]). Structural equation modelling showed complex relationships between variables, including: (1) high concerns about treatment associated with increased perceived treatment intrusiveness and reduced adherence, which influenced asthma control; (2) high concerns about treatment and healthcare seeking behaviour, which were predictive of preferring twice-daily asthma medication. Concerns about medication and perceived treatment intrusiveness were predictive of poor adherence, and were associated with preference for once-daily asthma medication. Confirm the utility of the PAPA model and NCF in explaining nonadherence linked to poor asthma control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Poor adherence to medication is one of the limitations in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, thereby increasing the risk of premature death, hospital admissions, and related costs. There is a need for simple and easy-to-implement interventions that are based on patients' perspectives, beliefs, and perceptions of their illness and medication. OBJECTIVE:The objective is to test the effectivity of this intervention to improve medication adherence in patients with established cardiovascular disease, that is, in secondary prevention. METHODS:In this study the effect of a personalized visualization of cardiovascular risk levels through a website aiming at supporting self management in combination with a group consultation and communication intervention by a nurse on adherence to treatment in 600 patients with manifest cardiovascular diseases will be assessed. The health belief model was chosen as main theoretical model for the intervention. RESULTS:Primary outcome is adherence to treatment calculated by refill data. Secondary outcomes include the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire and the Modified Morisky Scale. Patients are followed for one year. Results are expected by 2015. CONCLUSIONS:This study assesses adherence to treatment in a high-risk cardiovascular population by applying an intervention that addresses patients' capacity and practical barriers as well as patients' beliefs and perceptions of their illness and medication. CLINICALTRIAL:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01449695; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01449695 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6kCzkIKH3).
Project description:Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD.We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen's d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs.We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (p<0.001), not be married (p = 0.006), and to have lower income (p<0.001) or education (p<0.001). In unadjusted analyses, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.42), and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.17). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.94). In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37) though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.04).In this cohort of urban individuals with COPD, low health literacy was prevalent, and associated with illness beliefs that predict decreased adherence. Our results suggest that targeted strategies to address low health literacy and related illness and medications beliefs might improve COPD medication adherence and other self-management behaviors.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To cluster the adherence behaviours of patients with type 2 diabetes based on their beliefs in medicines and illness perceptions and examine the psychosocial, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patient clusters.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional study.<h4>Setting</h4>A face-to-face survey was administered to patients at two family medicine clinics in the Midwest, USA.<h4>Participants</h4>One hundred and seventy-four ?20-year-old, English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed at least one oral diabetes medicine daily were recruited using convenience sampling.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Beliefs in medicines and illness perceptions were assessed using the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, respectively. Self-reported medication adherence was assessed using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Psychosocial correlates of adherence, health literacy and self-efficacy were measured using the Newest Vital Sign and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use, respectively. Two-step cluster analysis was used to classify patients.<h4>Results</h4>Participants' mean age was 58.74 (SD=12.84). The majority were women (57.5%). Four clusters were formed (non-adherent clusters: ambivalent and sceptical; adherent clusters: indifferent and accepting). The ambivalent cluster (n=30, 17.2%) included low-adherent patients with high necessity beliefs, high concern beliefs and high illness perceptions. The sceptical cluster (n=53, 30.5%) included low adherent patients with low necessity beliefs but high concern beliefs and high illness perceptions. Both the accepting (n=40, 23.0%) and indifferent (n=51, 29.3%) clusters were composed of patients with high adherence. Significant differences between the ambivalent, sceptical, accepting and indifferent adherent clusters were based on self-efficacy, illness perception domains (treatment control and coherence) and haemoglobin A1c (p<0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with diabetes in specific non-adherent and adherent clusters still have distinct beliefs as well as psychosocial characteristics that may help providers target tailored medication adherence interventions.
Project description:Medication adherence is an important determinant of disease outcomes, yet medication use on average tends to be low among patients with chronic conditions, including asthma. Although several predictors of non-adherence have been assessed, more research is needed on patients' beliefs about God and how these relate to medication use.To examine the relationship between perceptions about "God's" role in health and other locus of control factors with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence among asthma patients.Participants were from a clinical trial to improve ICS adherence and were 5-56 years old, had a diagnosis of asthma, and were receiving ICS medication. Baseline adherence was estimated from electronic prescription and pharmacy fill records. Patients were considered to be adherent if ICS use was ?80% of prescribed. A baseline survey with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale was used to assess five sources (God, doctors, other people, chance, and internal).Medication adherence was low (36%). Patients' who had a stronger belief that God determined asthma control were less likely to be adherent (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.96). This relationship was stronger among African American (OR 0.68, 95% CI0.47-0.99) compared to white patients (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.04), and among adults (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.96) compared to children (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.58-1.22).Patients' belief in God's control of health appears to be a factor in asthma controller use, and therefore should be considered in physician-patient discussions concerning course of treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00459368.
Project description:Purpose Non-adherence to clinical prescriptions is widely recognized as the most common cause of uncontrolled hypertension, contributing to develop acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, patients’ unintentional non-adherence is related to psychosocial factors as beliefs about medications, perceived physician’s communication effectiveness and medication-specific social support. The aim of this study was to observe the impact of these factors on self-efficacy in relation to pharmacological and non-pharmacological self-reported adherence among older chronic patients with hypertension. Patients and Methods This research had a cross-sectional, observational and multicentre study design. Italian inpatients under rehabilitation, and Polish inpatients/outpatients were recruited. Following a cognitive screening, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained. Data on clinical and behavioral adherence (i.e., pharmacological adherence, adherence to refill medicines, intentional non-adherence) and psychosocial factors related to treatment adherence (i.e., beliefs about medicines, physician’s communication skills, medication-specific social support, psychological antecedents and self-efficacy) were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results A total of 458 patients were recruited. Fischer’s LSD post hoc test revealed significant differences between Italian and Polish samples in all measures (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed low self-reported intentional non-adherence (? = ?.02, p=0.031), high self-reported adherence to refill medications (?=?.05, p=0.017), high levels of perceived physician’s communication effectiveness (?=0.11, p<0.001), positive beliefs about medications (?=0.13, p<0.001), and high perceived medication-specific social support (?=0.05, p<0.001) to predict significantly high patients’ self-efficacy in relation to pharmacological and non-pharmacological self-reported adherence. Conclusion The observed psychosocial and behavioral factors revealed to positively impact on self-efficacy in relation to treatment adherence among older chronic patients dealing with hypertension. In a prevention framework, future studies and clinical practice may consider these factors in order to improve assessment and intervention on adherence in this population.
Project description:Introduction: Non-adherence to medication is a complex health care problem. In spite of substantial efforts, up till now little progress has been made to effectively tackle the problem with adherence-enhancing interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a patient-tailored, pharmacist-led and theory-driven intervention program aimed to enhance self-reported adherence to antihypertensive medication. Materials and Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial in 20 community pharmacies with nine months follow-up was conducted. Patients (45-75 years) using antihypertensive medication and considered non-adherent based on both pharmacy dispensing data and a self-report questionnaire were eligible to participate. The intervention program consisted of two consultations with the pharmacist to identify participants' barriers to adhere to medication and to counsel participants in overcoming these barriers. The primary outcome was self-reported medication adherence. Secondary outcomes were beliefs about medicines, illness perceptions, quality of life and blood pressure. Mixed-model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses were used to assess overall effects of the intervention program and effects per time point. Results: 170 patients were included. No significant differences between intervention and control groups were found in self-reported adherence, quality of life, illness perceptions, beliefs about medicines (concern scale), and blood pressure. After nine months, intervention participants had significantly stronger beliefs about the necessity of using their medicines as compared to control participants (mean difference 1.25 [95% CI: 0.27 to 2.24], p = 0.012). Discussion: We do not recommend to implement the intervention program in the current form for this study population. Future studies should focus on how to select eligible patient groups with appropriate measures in order to effectively target adherence-enhancing interventions. Trial Register: NTR5017 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5017.