Dietary resistant starch dose-dependently reduces adiposity in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant male rats.
ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Animal studies show that diets containing resistant starch (RS) at levels not achievable in the human diet result in lower body weight and/or adiposity in rodents. We aimed to determine whether RS dose-dependently reduces adiposity in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) were fed a moderate-fat, high-energy diet for 4 wk. Rats that gained the most weight (40%) were classified as obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were the 40% that gained the least weight. OP and OR rats were randomly allocated to one of six groups (n=8 for each phenotype). One group was killed for baseline measurements, the other five groups were allocated to AIN-93 based diets that contained 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% RS (as high amylose maize starch) for 4 wk. These diets were matched for total carbohydrate content. At 0, 4 and 7 wk from the start of the study insulin sensitivity was calculated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adiposity was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At 8 wk, rats were euthanized and fat pad weights, intestinal digesta short chain fatty acid (SCFA) pools and plasma gut hormone levels were determined. RESULTS: Obesity prone rats gained less weight with 4, 12 and 16% RS compared to 0% RS, but the effect in OR animals was significant only at 16% RS. Irrespective of phenotype, diets containing ?8% RS reduced adiposity compared to 0% RS. Energy intake decreased by 9.8 kJ/d for every 4% increase in RS. All diets containing RS increased total SCFA pools in the caecum and lowered plasma GIP concentrations compared to the 0% RS, whereas plasma GLP-1 and PYY were increased when the diet contained at least 8% RS. Insulin sensitivity was not affected by RS. CONCLUSION: RS in amounts that could be potentially consumed by humans were effective in reducing adiposity and weight gain in OP and OR rats, due in part to a reduction in energy intake, and changes in gut hormones and large bowel carbohydrate fermentation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS:After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS). Energy intake, body weight, fermentation variables, and microbiota composition were determined. RESULTS:In OP rats, RS elicited robust fermentation (increased cecal contents, short-chain fatty acids, and serum glucagon-like peptide 1). Total bacteria, species of the Bacteroidales family S24-7, and the archaean Methanobrevibacter smithii increased. The robust fermentation did not elicit higher weight or fat accretion when compared with that of control rats fed the same isocaloric diets (HF-LF?±?RS). In OR rats, body weight and fat accretion were also not different between HF-LF?±?RS diets, but RS elicited minimal changes in fermentation and microbiota composition. CONCLUSIONS:Robust fermentation did not contribute to greater weight. Fermentation levels and changes in microbiota composition in response to dietary RS differed by obesity phenotype.
Project description:Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60?g/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity.
Project description:Obesity is associated with increased consumption and preference for dietary fat. Experimental models of fat-induced obesity use either lard or vegetable shortening. Yet, there are no direct comparisons of these commonly used fat sources, or the influence of their fatty acid composition, on the development of diet-induced obesity.To compare the effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets, which differ in their fatty acid composition, on weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in rats.Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 14 weeks high-fat diets containing either (1) high vegetable fat (HVF, 60?kcal% from vegetable shortening) or (2) high lard fat (HLF, 60?kcal% from lard). Rats fed normal-fat (NF, 16?kcal% from vegetable shortening) diet served as control. Body weight, food intake, adipose tissue mass, serum 25[OH]D3, glucose, insulin and fatty acid composition of diets were measured.Rats fed either of the two high-fat diets had higher energy intake, weight gain and fat accretion than rats fed normal-fat diet. However, rats fed the HLF diet consumed more calories and gained more weight and body fat with greater increases of 32% in total (158.5±8.2 vs 120.2±6.6?g, P<0.05), 30% in visceral (104.4±5.2 vs 80.3±4.2?g, P<0.05) and 36% in subcutaneous fat mass (54.1±3.6 vs 39.9±3.1?g, P<0.05), compared with rats fed the HVF diet. Higher visceral adiposity was positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.376, P<0.05) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=0.391, P<0.05).We conclude that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets. These results further point to the importance of standardizing fatty acid composition and type of fat used in determining outcomes of consuming high-fat diets.
Project description:Consumption of diets high in fat and calories leads to hyperphagia and obesity, which is associated with chronic "low-grade" systemic inflammation. Ingestion of a high-fat diet alters the gut microbiota, pointing to a possible role in the development of obesity. The present study used Sprague-Dawley rats that, when fed a high-fat diet, exhibit either an obesity-prone (DIO-P) or obesity-resistant (DIO-R) phenotype, to determine whether changes in gut epithelial function and microbiota are diet or obese associated. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily in rats maintained on either low- or high-fat diets. After 8 or 12 wk, tissue was removed to determine adiposity and gut epithelial function and to analyze the gut microbiota using PCR. DIO-P but not DIO-R rats exhibit an increase in toll-like receptor (TLR4) activation associated with ileal inflammation and a decrease in intestinal alkaline phosphatase, a luminal enzyme that detoxifies lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Intestinal permeability and plasma LPS were increased together with phosphorylation of myosin light chain and localization of occludin in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Measurement of bacterial 16S rRNA showed a decrease in total bacterial density and an increase in the relative proportion of Bacteroidales and Clostridiales orders in high-fat-fed rats regardless of phenotype; an increase in Enterobacteriales was seen in the microbiota of DIO-P rats only. Consumption of a high-fat diet induces changes in the gut microbiota, but it is the development of inflammation that is associated with the appearance of hyperphagia and an obese phenotype.
Project description:High dietary calcium (Ca) is reported to have anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. Evidence for these properties of dietary Ca in animal models of polygenic obesity have been confounded by the inclusion of dairy food components in experimental diets; thus, effect of Ca per se could not be deciphered. Furthermore, potential anti-inflammatory actions of Ca in vivo could not be dissociated from reduced adiposity.We characterized adiposity along with metabolic and inflammatory phenotypes in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed 1 of 3 high fat diets (45% energy) for 12 wk: control (n = 29), high-Ca (n = 30), or high-Ca + nonfat dry milk (NFDM) (n = 30).Mice fed high-Ca + NFDM had reduced body weight and adiposity compared to high-Ca mice (P < 0.001). Surprisingly, the high-Ca mice had increased adiposity compared to lower-Ca controls (P < 0.001). Hyperphagia and increased feed efficiency contributed to obesity development in high-Ca mice, in contrast to NFDM mice that displayed significantly reduced weight gain despite higher energy intake compared to controls (P < 0.001). mRNA markers of macrophages (e.g., CD68, CD11d) strongly correlated with body weight in all diet treatment groups, and most treatment differences in WAT inflammatory factor mRNA abundances were lost when controlling for body weight gain as a covariate.The results indicate that high dietary Ca is not sufficient to dampen obesity-related phenotypes in DIO mice, and in fact exacerbates weight gain and hyperphagia. The data further suggest that putative anti-obesity properties of dairy emanate from food components beyond Ca.
Project description:The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.
Project description:As raw sorghum is not able to influence considerable colonic fermentation despite its higher resistant starch (RS) content, our study aimed to investigate the effects of frozen autoclaved sorghum on colonic fermentation. Fischer 344 rats were fed frozen cooked refined (S-Rf) and whole (S-Wh) sorghum diets and were compared against ?-corn starch (CON) and high amylose starch (HAS) fed rats for zoometric parameters, cecal biochemical and microbiological parameters. Sorghum fed rats exhibited significantly lower feed intake and visceral adipose tissue mass compared to CON. Bacterial alpha diversity was significantly higher in the sorghum fed rats compared to HAS and the two sorghum fed groups clustered together, separately from HAS and CON in the beta diversity plot. Serum non-High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol in S-Rf group were significantly lower compared to CON, while total fecal bile excretion was also significantly higher in the two sorghum fed groups. Lower visceral adiposity was correlated with lower feed intake, RS content ingested and cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents. Thus, higher RS inflow to the colon via frozen autoclaved sorghum might have influenced colonic fermentation of RS and the resultant SCFA might have influenced lower adiposity as manifested by the lower body weight gain.
Project description:Amylin enhances arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMN) hypothalamic nuclei leptin signaling and synergistically reduces food intake and body weight in selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Since DIO (125)I-amylin dorsomedial nucleus-dorsomedial VMN binding was reduced, we postulated that this contributed to DIO ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) leptin resistance, and that impairing VMH (ARC + VMN) calcitonin receptor (CTR)-mediated signaling by injecting adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing a short hairpin portion of the CTR mRNA would predispose diet-resistant (DR) rats to obesity on high-fat (45%) diet (HFD). Depleting VMH CTR by 80-90% in 4-wk-old male DR rats reduced their ARC and VMN (125)I-labeled leptin binding by 57 and 51%, respectively, and VMN leptin-induced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-positive neurons by 59% vs. AAV control rats. After 6 wk on chow, VMH CTR-depleted DR rats ate and gained the equivalent amount of food and weight but had 18% heavier fat pads (relative to carcass weight), 144% higher leptin levels, and were insulin resistant compared with control AAV DR rats. After 6 wk more on HFD, VMH CTR-depleted DR rats ate the same amount but gained 28% more weight, had 60% more carcass fat, 254% higher leptin levels, and 132% higher insulin areas under the curve during an oral glucose tolerance test than control DR rats. Therefore, impairing endogenous VMH CTR-mediated signaling reduced leptin signaling and caused DR rats to become more obese and insulin resistant, both on chow and HFD. These results suggest that endogenous VMH amylin signaling is required for full leptin signaling and protection from HFD-induced obesity.
Project description:Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and ?-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance.
Project description:Background: Post-menopausal obesity is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Consumption of diets high in fat is known to be highly correlated with obesity. In this, we sought to evaluate the interaction(s) between high fat diet, weight gain and mammary carcinogenesis using an obese-resistant and obese-prone rat model with direct correlates to human disease. Methods: Female obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) weanling rats were placed on either a low fat (10% kcal) or a high fat (39% kcal) n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) safflower diet for 30 days. At post natal day (PND) 50, global gene expression profiling was performed on microdissected mammary epithlelium from one cohort of rats and another cohort of rats were given a single oral gavage of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA at 14 mg/kg) or vehicle. Rats were then maintained on the diets and body weights, food consumption and development of mammary lesions were monitored weekly. Results: The DMBA-treated OR rats on the 39% safflower diet had significantly greater incidence of ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) lesions and significantly greater DCIS multiplicity than DMBA-treated OR rats on the 10% safflower diet. These differences were not seen in the OP strain. Gene expression analysis of mammary ductal epithelium from OR rats on the high fat diet showed significant upregulation of proliferation-related genes compared to those consuming the low fat safflower diet. Again, these differences were not seen in the OP strain. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that consumption of high fat safflower diet enhances mammary carcinogenesis in an OR rat strain through increased proliferation of mammary epithelium at the time of exposure, but not in the OP rat strain. Thus, the diet-induced increase in sensitivity was strain-specific and independent of weight gain or obesity level. Overall design: Female obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) weanling rats were placed on either a low fat (10% kcal) or a high fat (39% kcal) n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) safflower diet for 30 days. At post natal day (PND) 50, global gene expression profiling was performed on microdissected mammary epithlelium from one cohort of rats and another cohort of rats were given a single oral gavage of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA at 14 mg/kg) or vehicle. Rats were then maintained on the diets and body weights, food consumption and development of mammary lesions were monitored weekly.