ATAD5 regulates the lifespan of DNA replication factories by modulating PCNA level on the chromatin.
ABSTRACT: Temporal and spatial regulation of the replication factory is important for efficient DNA replication. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that ATAD5 regulates the lifespan of replication factories. Reduced expression of ATAD5 extended the lifespan of replication factories by retaining proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and other replisome proteins on the chromatin during and even after DNA synthesis. This led to an increase of inactive replication factories with an accumulation of replisome proteins. Consequently, the overall replication rate was decreased, which resulted in the delay of S-phase progression. Prevalent detection of PCNA foci in G2 phase cells after ATAD5 depletion suggests that defects in the disassembly of replication factories persist after S phase is complete. ATAD5-mediated regulation of the replication factory and PCNA required an intact ATAD5 ATPase domain. Taken together, our data imply that ATAD5 regulates the cycle of DNA replication factories, probably through its PCNA-unloading activity.
Project description:Maintaining stability of replication forks is important for genomic integrity. However, it is not clear how replisome proteins contribute to fork stability under replication stress. Here, we report that ATAD5, a PCNA unloader, plays multiple functions at stalled forks including promoting its restart. ATAD5 depletion increases genomic instability upon hydroxyurea treatment in cultured cells and mice. ATAD5 recruits RAD51 to stalled forks in an ATR kinase-dependent manner by hydroxyurea-enhanced protein-protein interactions and timely removes PCNA from stalled forks for RAD51 recruitment. Consistent with the role of RAD51 in fork regression, ATAD5 depletion inhibits slowdown of fork progression and native 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine signal induced by hydroxyurea. Single-molecule FRET showed that PCNA itself acts as a mechanical barrier to fork regression. Consequently, DNA breaks required for fork restart are reduced by ATAD5 depletion. Collectively, our results suggest an important role of ATAD5 in maintaining genome integrity during replication stress.
Project description:Replication factor C (RFC), a heteropentamer of RFC1-5, loads PCNA onto DNA during replication and repair. Once DNA synthesis has ceased, PCNA must be unloaded. Recent findings assign the uloader role primarily to an RFC-like (RLC) complex, in which the largest RFC subunit, RFC1, has been replaced with ATAD5 (ELG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). ATAD5-RLC appears to be indispensable, given that Atad5 knock-out leads to embryonic lethality. In order to learn how the retention of PCNA on DNA might interfere with normal DNA metabolism, we studied the response of ATAD5-depleted cells to several genotoxic agents. We show that ATAD5 deficiency leads to hypersensitivity to methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), camptothecin (CPT) and mitomycin C (MMC), agents that hinder the progression of replication forks. We further show that ATAD5-depleted cells are sensitive to poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and that the processing of spontaneous oxidative DNA damage contributes towards this sensitivity. We posit that PCNA molecules trapped on DNA interfere with the correct metabolism of arrested replication forks, phenotype reminiscent of defective homologous recombination (HR). As Atad5 heterozygous mice are cancer-prone and as ATAD5 mutations have been identified in breast and endometrial cancers, our finding may open a path towards the therapy of these tumours.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>DNA replication in human cells is performed in discrete sub-nuclear locations known as replication foci or factories. These factories form in the nucleus during S phase and are sites of DNA synthesis and high local concentrations of enzymes required for chromatin replication. Why these structures are required, and how they are organised internally has yet to be identified. It has been difficult to analyse the structure of these factories as they are small in size and thus below the resolution limit of the standard confocal microscope. We have used stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, which improves on the resolving power of the confocal microscope, to probe the structure of these factories at sub-diffraction limit resolution.<h4>Results</h4>Using immunofluorescent imaging of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and RPA (replication protein A) we show that factories are smaller in size (approximately 150 nm diameter), and greater in number (up to 1400 in an early S- phase nucleus), than is determined by confocal imaging. The replication inhibitor hydroxyurea caused an approximately 40% reduction in number and a 30% increase in diameter of replication factories, changes that were not clearly identified by standard confocal imaging.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These measurements for replication factory size now approach the dimensions suggested by electron microscopy. This agreement between these two methods, that use very different sample preparation and imaging conditions, suggests that we have arrived at a true measurement for the size of these structures. The number of individual factories present in a single nucleus that we measure using this system is greater than has been previously reported. This analysis therefore suggests that each replication factory contains fewer active replication forks than previously envisaged.
Project description:R-loops are formed when replicative forks collide with the transcriptional machinery and can cause genomic instability. However, it is unclear how R-loops are regulated at transcription-replication conflicts (TRC) sites and how replisome proteins are regulated to prevent R-loop formation or mediate R-loop tolerance. Here, we report that ATAD5, a PCNA unloader, plays dual functions to reduce R-loops both under normal and replication stress conditions. ATAD5 interacts with RNA helicases such as DDX1, DDX5, DDX21 and DHX9 and increases the abundance of these helicases at replication forks to facilitate R-loop resolution. Depletion of ATAD5 or RNA helicases consistently increases R-loops during the S phase and reduces the replication rate, both of which are enhanced by replication stress. In addition to R-loop resolution, ATAD5 prevents the generation of new R-loops behind the replication forks by unloading PCNA which, otherwise, accumulates and persists on DNA, causing a collision with the transcription machinery. Depletion of ATAD5 reduces transcription rates due to PCNA accumulation. Consistent with the role of ATAD5 and RNA helicases in maintaining genomic integrity by regulating R-loops, the corresponding genes were mutated or downregulated in several human tumors.
Project description:ATAD5, the human ortholog of yeast Elg1, plays a role in PCNA deubiquitination. Since PCNA modification is important to regulate DNA damage bypass, ATAD5 may be important for suppression of genomic instability in mammals in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we generated heterozygous (Atad5(+/m)) mice that were haploinsuffficient for Atad5. Atad5(+/m) mice displayed high levels of genomic instability in vivo, and Atad5(+/m) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited molecular defects in PCNA deubiquitination in response to DNA damage, as well as DNA damage hypersensitivity and high levels of genomic instability, apoptosis, and aneuploidy. Importantly, 90% of haploinsufficient Atad5(+/m) mice developed tumors, including sarcomas, carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas, between 11 and 20 months of age. High levels of genomic alterations were evident in tumors that arose in the Atad5(+/m) mice. Consistent with a role for Atad5 in suppressing tumorigenesis, we also identified somatic mutations of ATAD5 in 4.6% of sporadic human endometrial tumors, including two nonsense mutations that resulted in loss of proper ATAD5 function. Taken together, our findings indicate that loss-of-function mutations in mammalian Atad5 are sufficient to cause genomic instability and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Inside the nucleus, DNA replication is organized at discrete sites called replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. Replication factories play important roles in coordinating replication and in responding to replication stress. However, it remains unknown how replicons are organized for processing at each replication factory. Here we address this question using budding yeast. We analyze how individual replicons dynamically organized a replication factory using live-cell imaging and investigate how replication factories were structured using super-resolution microscopy. Surprisingly, we show that the grouping of replicons within factories is highly variable from cell to cell. Once associated, however, replicons stay together relatively stably to maintain replication factories. We derive a coherent genome-wide mathematical model showing how neighboring replicons became associated stochastically to form replication factories, which was validated by independent microscopy-based analyses. This study not only reveals the fundamental principles promoting replication factory organization in budding yeast, but also provides insight into general mechanisms by which chromosomes organize sub-nuclear structures.
Project description:Replication-Factor-C (RFC) and RFC-like complexes (RLCs) mediate chromatin engagement of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). It remains controversial how RFC and RLCs cooperate to regulate PCNA loading and unloading. Here, we show the distinct PCNA loading or unloading activity of each clamp loader. ATAD5-RLC possesses the potent PCNA unloading activity. ATPase motif and collar domain of ATAD5 are crucial for the unloading activity. DNA structures did not affect PCNA unloading activity of ATAD5-RLC. ATAD5-RLC could unload ubiquitinated PCNA. Through single molecule measurements, we reveal that ATAD5-RLC unloaded PCNA through one intermediate state before ATP hydrolysis. RFC loaded PCNA through two intermediate states on DNA, separated by ATP hydrolysis. Replication proteins such as Fen1 could inhibit the PCNA unloading activity of Elg1-RLC, a yeast homolog of ATAD5-RLC in vitro. Our findings provide molecular insights into how PCNA is released from chromatin to finalize DNA replication/repair.
Project description:Poxviruses replicate in cytoplasmic structures called factories and each factory begins as a single infecting particle. Sixty-years ago Cairns predicted that this might have effects on vaccinia virus (VACV) recombination because the factories would have to collide and mix their contents to permit recombination. We've since shown that factories collide irregularly and that even then the viroplasm mixes poorly. We've also observed that while intragenic recombination occurs frequently early in infection, intergenic recombination is less efficient and happens late in infection. Something inhibits factory fusion and viroplasm mixing but what is unclear. To study this, we've used optical and electron microscopy to track factory movement in co-infected cells and correlate these observations with virus development and recombinant formation. While the technical complexity of the experiments limited the number of cells that are amenable to extensive statistical analysis, these studies do show that intergenic recombination coincides with virion assembly and when VACV replication has declined to ?10% of earlier levels. Along the boundaries between colliding factories, one sees ER membrane remnants and other cell constituents like mitochondria. These collisions don't always cause factory fusion, but when factories do fuse, they still entrain cell constituents like mitochondria and ER-wrapped microtubules. However, these materials wouldn't seem to pose much of a further barrier to DNA mixing and so it's likely that the viroplasm also presents an omnipresent impediment to DNA mixing. Late packaging reactions might help to disrupt the viroplasm, but packaging would sequester the DNA just as the replication and recombination machinery goes into decline and further reduce recombinant yields. Many factors thus appear to conspire to limit recombination between co-infecting poxviruses.
Project description:In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.
Project description:Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that include the causal agent of human smallpox and vaccinia virus. Poxviruses replicate in cytoplasmic foci known as DNA factories. Here we show that a virus-encoded transcription factor, viral mRNA, cellular RNA-binding protein heterodimer G3BP/Caprin-1 (p137), translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G, and ribosomal proteins are concentrated in the same subdomains of cytoplasmic DNA factories. Furthermore, a cell coinfected with two recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing a virus core protein fused to cyan or yellow fluorescent protein displayed separate cyan and yellow factories, indicating that each factory formed from a single genome and was the site of transcription and translation as well as DNA replication. Hijacking of the host translation apparatus within the factory likely enhances the efficiency of virus replication and contributes to the suppression of host protein synthesis, thereby facilitating poxvirus subjugation of the cell.