Phenolics and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves depend on cultivar and harvest month in Southern China.
ABSTRACT: To elucidate the effects of cultivar and harvest month on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves, four major phenolics, including chlorogenic acid (ChA), benzoic acid (BeA), rutin (Rut) and astragalin (Ast), were quantified using an HPLC-UV method. Leaves from six mulberry cultivars, collected from April to October, were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HSA) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SSA) assays. The results showed that the total values of the four phenolic compounds ranged from 2.3 dry weight (DW) to 4.2 mg/g DW, with ChA being the major compound. The mean total phenol (TP) content of the six cultivars ranged from 30.4 equivalents (GAE) mg/g DW to 44.7 GAE mg/g DW. Mulberry leaves harvested in May had the highest TP content. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves harvested from April to October differed noticeably. In general, Kq 10 and May were considered to be a better cultivar and harvest month concerning phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively.
Project description:The current study investigates the phytochemical composition of coffee plant organs and their corresponding antioxidant capacities compared to green and roasted coffee beans. HPLC analysis indicated that the investigated compounds were present in all organs except mangiferin, which was absent in roots, stems and seeds, and caffeine, which was absent in stems and roots. Total phytochemicals were highest in the green beans (GB) at 9.70 mg g-1 dry weight (DW), while roasting caused a 66% decline in the roasted beans (RB). This decline resulted more from 5-CQA and sucrose decomposition by 68% and 97%, respectively, while caffeine and trigonelline were not significantly thermally affected. Roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) by 20.8% which was associated with an increase of 68.8%, 47.5% and 13.4% in the antioxidant capacity (TEAC) determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), 2,2-azino bis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical (ABTS) and Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. Amongst the leaves, the youngest (L1) contained the highest content at 8.23 mg g-1 DW, which gradually reduced with leaf age to 5.57 mg g-1 DW in the oldest (L6). Leaves also contained the highest TPC (over 60 mg g-1 GAE) and exhibited high TEAC, the latter being highest in L1 at 328.0, 345.7 and 1097.4, and least in L6 at 304.6, 294.5 and 755.1 µmol Trolox g-1 sample for the respective assays. Phytochemical accumulation, TPC and TEAC were least in woody stem (WS) at 1.42 mg g-1 DW; 8.7 mg g-1 GAE; 21.9, 24.9 and 110.0 µmol Trolox g-1 sample; while herbaceous stem (HS) contained up to 4.37 mg g-1 DW; 27.8 mg g-1 GAE; 110.9, 124.8 and 469.7 µmol Trolox g-1 sample, respectively. Roots contained up to 1.85 mg g-1 DW, 15.8 mg-1 GAE and TEAC of 36.8, 41.5 and 156.7 µmol Trolox g-1 sample. Amongst the organs, therefore, coffee leaves possessed higher values than roasted beans on the basis of phytochemicals, TPC and TEAC. Leaves also contain carotenoids and chlorophylls pigments with potent health benefits. With appropriate processing methods, a beverage prepared from leaves (coffee leaf tea) could be a rich source of phytochemicals and antioxidants with therapeutic and pharmacological values for human health.
Project description:Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is one of the most promising alternatives to produce natural rubber. As the guayule leaves represent a waste byproduct in the rubber extraction process, their exploitation might contribute to the valorization of the whole plant biomass. The specific aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant capacity and the content of phenolic compounds in leaves and twigs of different guayule lines cultivated in a Mediterranean environment. The antioxidant capacity and the contents of phenolic were affected significantly by guayule accession and harvest time. Overall means in twigs represented about 60% of the corresponding leaf values for antioxidant capacity as DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and not tannic phenolic and about 55% as ABTS (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt), total phenolic, tannic phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Five individual phenolic compounds were identified in methanolic extracts of leaves. Neochlorogenic acid (62.5-174.8 mg g-1 DW) and chlorogenic acid (28.6-41.1 mg g-1 DW) were the most abundant phenolic acids. In addition to the compounds quantified in leaves, cynarin was identified only in twigs and for the first time in guayule biomass. Our results indicate that guayule leaves and twigs represent a rich source of antioxidants for potential applications in fodder, nutraceutical and pharmacological sectors.
Project description:Rattan tea is a medicinal plant that has been used for many years for the treatment of inflammation, fatty liver, tumor, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.A green and novel approach based on surfactant-mediated, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (SM-UAE) was developed for the extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan tea. A nonionic surfactant Tween-80 was selected as extraction solvent. The antioxidant activity was measured by total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing/antioxidant capacity (FRAC) assay.Optimization of extraction parameters including concentration of solvent, ultrasonic time, and temperature were investigated by response surface methodology. The antioxidant activity was measured by TPC and FRAC assay.The optimal extraction conditions were determined as 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.8 min. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 360.4 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight material (GAE/g DW) was recorded. Moreover, 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54.5°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.4 min were determined for the highest FRAC value of 478.2 μmol of Fe2+/g of weight material (μmol Fe2+/g DW). Compared with other methods, the TPC and FRAC values of 313.5 mg GAE/g DW and 389.6 μmol Fe2+/g DW were obtained by heat reflux extraction using ethanol as solvent, respectively, and 343.2 mg GAE/g DW and 450.1 μmol Fe2+/g DW were obtained by UAE using ethanol as solvent, respectively.The application of SM-UAE markedly decreased extraction time or extraction cost and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the other methods.Surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan TeaResponse surface methodology used to optimize parameters and study combined effectsOptimized surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction process enhances the antioxidant phenolics extraction in less time. Abbreviations used: SM-UAE: Surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction; TPC: total phenolic content; FRAC: Ferric reducing antioxidant capacity; RSM: Response surface methodology; BBD: Box-Behnken design.
Project description:We investigated the effects of different drying methods (room temperature drying, heat pump drying, freeze drying, microwave vacuum drying [MVD], and combined microwave power vacuum drying) on the active ingredients of green coffee beans. We specifically focused on eleven phenolic acids, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO), and enzyme activity, and the bio-accessibility in vitro and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. MVD-treated beans had the lowest PPO activity and the highest contents of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (1.39 g/100 g DW), 3-feruloylquinic acid (0.25 g/100 g DW), 4-feruloylquinic acid (0.25 g/100 g DW), 5-feruloylquinic acid (1.52 g/100 g DW), and TPC (5.98 g GAE/100 g DW), and the highest antioxidant activity. MVD was the least time-consuming (0.63 hr/kg) and energy-consuming (1.88 kwh/kg) method. Moreover, the strongest inhibition of LPO and ?-glucosidase was observed in MVD-treated beans. Thus, MVD is suggested to be the most suitable drying technique for the preservation of phenolic compounds and bioactivities of green coffee beans.
Project description:Hawthorn belongs to the Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae family and is an important medicinal plant. Due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity hawthorn has recently become quite a popular herbal medicine in phytotherapy and food applications. In this study, physicochemical characterization (color parameters, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, soluble carbohydrate, total carotenoid, total phenols, and flavonoid contents), antioxidant activity (by ferric-reducing antioxidant power, FRAP assay), and quantification of some individual phenolic compounds of fruits of 15 samples of different hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) collected from different regions of Iran were investigated. According to findings, the total phenols, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were in the range of 21.19-69.12 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (dw), 2.44-6.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QUE)/g dw and 0.32-1.84 mmol Fe++/g dw, respectively. Hyperoside (0.87-2.94 mg/g dw), chlorogenic acid (0.06-1.16 mg/g dw), and isoquercetin (0.24-1.59 mg/g dw) were found to be the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts of hawthorn fruits. The considerable variations in the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of hawthorn species were demonstrated by our results. Hence, the evaluation of hawthorn genetic resources could supply precious data for screening genotypes with high bioactive contents for producing natural antioxidants and other phytochemical compounds valuable for food and pharma industries.
Project description:The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of teas prepared from twenty-four commercially available berries and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. in relation to their phenolic profile, as reflected by the most representative phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic and syringic acids); flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and rutin); and total phenolic (TPC), phenolic acid (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents. The infusions prepared from elderflowers contained more abundant phenolic compounds than the elderberry infusions. The TPC of these infusions ranged from 19.81 to 23.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of sample (GAE/g DW) for elderberries and from 15.23 to 35.57 mg GAE/g DW for elderflowers, whereas the TFC ranged from 2.60 to 4.49 mg of rutin equivalents/g dry weight of sample (RUTE/g DW) in elderberry infusions and from 5.27 to 13.19 mg RUTE/g DW in elderflower infusions. Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, quercetin (2.07-9.48 mg/g DW) and myricetin (1.17-9.62 mg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the teas prepared from berries and flowers, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of elder infusions assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that the teas prepared from flowers had higher mean DPPH and FRAP activities than the teas prepared from berries. Therefore, elder beverages could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants that contribute to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Project description:Melaleuca bracteata is a yellow-leaved tree belonging to the Melaleuca genus. Species from this genus are known to be good sources of natural antioxidants, for example, the "tea tree oil" derived from M. alternifolia is used in food processing to extend the shelf life of products. In order to determine whether M. bracteata contains novel natural antioxidants, the components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were extracted and the antioxidant activities of the extracts evaluated. Single-factor experiments, central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ferric reducing power (FRP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) scavenging capacity were used as the evaluation indices of antioxidant activity. The results showed that the main components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts are methyl eugenol (86.86%) and trans-cinnamic acid methyl ester (6.41%). The single-factor experiments revealed that the ethanol concentration is the key factor determining the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity. RSM results indicated that the optimal condition of all four evaluation indices was achieved by extracting for 3.65 days at 53.26°C in 34.81% ethanol. Under these conditions, the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity reached values of 88.6 ± 1.3 mg GAE/g DW, 19.4 ± 0.2 mg RE/g DW, 2.37 ± 0.01 mM Fe2+/g DW and 86.0 ± 0.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of the positive control, methyl eugenol (FRP 0.97 ± 0.02 mM, DPPH·scavenging capacity 58.6 ± 0.7%) at comparable concentrations. Therefore, the extracts of M. bracteata leaves have higher antioxidant activity, which did not only attributed to the methyl eugenol. Further research could lead to the development of a potent new natural antioxidant.
Project description:Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean countries especially in Morocco. Pomegranate peel and seed contain considerable amounts of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to phytochemically characterize the pomegranate peels and seeds obtained from three Moroccan provinces, using UHPLC-DAD. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and metal chelating of pomegranate peel were also evaluated. The results showed that pomegranate peel possesses the highest phenolic (TPC: 224.39?mg GAE/g dw) and flavonoid (TFC: 62.64?mg rutin/g dw) contents. Punicalagin-? and punicalagin-?, are the abundant compounds found in peel: 216.36 ± 9.94?mg/g, 154.94 ± 5.21?mg/g, respectively. Pomegranate peels showed significantly (p < 0.05) high antioxidant activity 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) EC50: 42.71 ± 0.04??g/mL, 2.2?-Azino-bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS) EC50: 62.15 ± 0.01??g/mL), and chelating activity (FRAP 1.85 ± 0.00?mg ascorbic acid equivalents/100?g, Fe2+: 2.52 ± 0.01??mol EDTA equivalents/g dw) compared to seeds. A positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic was found. According to achieved results, high antioxidant capacity of pomegranate extracts, especially peel, shed light to further use as natural food preservatives. Pomegranate peel could be used for the fortification of food with fiber by introducing it in dietary, as well as in health applications due to its higher antioxidant capacity.
Project description:In recent years, there has been an ever growing interest in finding new natural sources of food antioxidants. As a main fruit crop, olive is also valued due to its phenolic-containing leaves. Mathematically based optimization methods are used as powerful tools to extract different antioxidant compounds. The present study is aimed to provide an efficient extraction method for total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant ability (DPPH scavenging assay and FRAP). The effects of ultrasonic temperature (35-65 °C), ultrasonic time (5-15 min), and ethanol to water ratio (Et: W) (25-75%) were evaluated. Second-order polynomial models were used through a rotatable Box-Behnken design (BBD) consisting of 15 experimental runs with three replicates at the center point. Interactional effects of the studied factors were significant in most cases for all responses. The highest extraction efficiency was found to be fifty-one percent of ethanol (65 °C, 15 min) to water ratio. Under optimal conditions, values for TPC, TFC, DPPHsc and FRAP assay were 183.4 (mg GAE. g-1 DW), 696.77 (mg Quercetin. g-1 DW), 78.98 (DPPHsc %) and 1942 µmol Fe+2/g DW, respectively. R2 values (R2 > 0.92) showed that RSM models could efficiently predict the yield of all responses. In the LC-ESI-MS-DAD profiling of the optimized extract, 27 compounds were identified with oleuropein as the main compound. In the present study, olive leaf is introduced as a promising source of natural antioxidant and can be used in food industries following further studies.
Project description:Ocimum basilicum (basil) leaves are rich in polyphenols, conferring them a high antioxidant activity. The application of UV-B can be used to maintain the post-harvest nutraceutical quality of basil leaves. We aimed to investigate the effects of pre-harvest UV-B application on polyphenolic and pigment contents, antioxidant capacity, and the visual quality of basil stored leaves. We also evaluated the applicability of the non-invasive Dualex® for monitoring the accumulation of leaf epidermal phenolics (Flav Index). After exposing plants to white light (control) and to supplemental UV-B radiation for 4 d, the leaves were harvested and stored for 7d (TS7). The UV-B leaves showed both a higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than the controls at TS7. In addition, the correlations between the Flav Index and phenolic content demonstrated that Dualex® can reliably assess the content of epidermal phenolics, thus confirming its promising utilization as a non-destructive method for monitoring the phytochemical quality of O. basilicum leaves. In conclusion, a pre-harvesting UV-B application may be a tool for enhancing the content of polyphenols and the antioxidant potential of basil stored leaves without detrimental effects on their visual quality. These results are important considering the nutraceutical value of this plant and its wide commercial distribution.