Metabolic profiling of the impact of oligofructose-enriched inulin in Crohn's disease patients: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Although intestinal dysbiosis is well established in Crohn's disease (CD), little is known about the microbial metabolic activity of CD patients. In this study, we compared the metabolite patterns of the CD patients with profiles from healthy controls (HCs) and correlated them to disease activity and bacterial composition. In addition, the influence of the prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (OF-IN) on the CD metabolites profile was evaluated.Sixty-seven inactive and moderately active CD patients were included in a double-blinded randomized placebo controlled trial (RCT). Patients consumed either 10?g OF-IN or 10?g placebo twice per day for 4 weeks. They collected a fecal sample before the start of the study (baseline) and after the treatment period. In addition, fecal samples were obtained from 40 HCs. The metabolite profile was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The number of fecal metabolites was significantly higher in HCs than in CD patients (P<0.001). Forty compounds differed between CD patients and HCs. When correlating the metabolite levels to disease activity, significantly lower levels of butyrate, pentanoate, hexanoate, heptanoate, and p-cresol were found in active patients as compared with HCs. In the RCT, no significant changes in the metabolite pattern were found in patients randomized to placebo. In patients receiving OF-IN (per protocol; n=21), the relative levels of acetaldehyde (P=0.0008) and butyrate (P=0.0011) were significantly increased as compared with baseline.We identified medium chain fatty acids and p-cresol as differentiating metabolites toward CD disease status and as compared with HCs. In addition, OF-IN intake primarily increased the carbohydrate fermentation metabolites butyrate and acetaldehyde.
Project description:Dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota of persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been described, but there are still varied reports on changes in the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus organisms in patients with IBD. The aim of this investigation was to compare the compositions of mucosa-associated and fecal bacteria in patients with IBD and in healthy controls (HCs). Fecal and biopsy samples from 21 HCs, 21 and 15 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and 34 and 29 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, respectively, were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial numbers were transformed into relative percentages for statistical analysis. The proportions of bacteria were uniformly distributed along the colon regardless of the disease state. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in the biopsy specimens of active UC patients compared to those in the HCs (4.6% versus 2.1%, P = 0.001), and the proportion of Bifidobacterium was significantly higher in the biopsy specimens than in the fecal samples in active CD patients (2.7% versus 2.0%, P = 0.012). The Lactobacillus group was significantly increased in the biopsy specimens of active CD patients compared to those in the HCs (3.4% versus 2.3%, P = 0.036). Compared to the HCs, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was sharply decreased in both the fecal and biopsy specimens of the active CD patients (0.3% versus 14.0%, P < 0.0001 for fecal samples; 0.8% versus 11.4%, P < 0.0001 for biopsy specimens) and the active UC patients (4.3% versus 14.0%, P = 0.001 for fecal samples; 2.8% versus 11.4%, P < 0.0001 for biopsy specimens). In conclusion, Bifidobacterium and the Lactobacillus group were increased in active IBD patients and should be used more cautiously as probiotics during the active phase of IBD. Butyrate-producing bacteria might be important to gut homeostasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent studies indicate that gut microbiota disorders potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which can be partly reflected by fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generated from gut microbiota. Previous studies on SCFA alterations in patients with IBS have yielded conflicting results. No prior systematic review has been conducted on the alterations in fecal SCFAs in IBS patients. AIMS:We performed a meta-analysis to explore and clarify alterations in fecal SCFAs in IBS patients. METHODS:Case-control studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and self-controlled studies were identified through electronic database searches. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in fecal SCFA levels between different groups was calculated. RESULTS:The proportion of fecal propionate in patients with IBS was significantly higher than in healthy controls (HCs) (SMD = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.76). A subgroup analysis showed that the concentration of fecal propionate (SMD = -0.91, 95% CI = -1.41, -0.41) and butyrate (SMD = -0.53, 95% CI = -1.01, -0.04) in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C) was significantly lower than that in HCs, and the concentration of fecal butyrate in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) was higher than that in HCs (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.67). Finally, we found that restricted diets correlated with fecal butyrate reduction in IBS (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.51, -0.01). CONCLUSIONS:In terms of fecal SCFAs, there were differences between patients with IBS and HCs. In IBS-C patients, propionate and butyrate were reduced, whereas butyrate was increased in IBS-D patients in comparison to HCs. Propionate and butyrate could be used as biomarkers for IBS diagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Butyrate has shown anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties, providing symptomatic relief when orally supplemented in patients suffering from various colonic diseases. We investigated the effect of a colonic-delivery formulation of butyrate on the fecal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). METHODS:In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study, 49 IBD patients (n = 19 Crohn's disease, CD and n = 30 ulcerative colitis, UC) were randomized to oral administration of microencapsulated-sodium-butyrate (BLM) or placebo for 2 months, in addition to conventional therapy. Eighteen healthy volunteers (HVs) were recruited to provide a healthy microbiota model of the local people. Fecal microbiota from stool samples was assessed by 16S sequencing. Clinical disease activity and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated before and after treatment. KEY RESULTS:At baseline, HVs showed a different microbiota composition compared with IBD patients. Sodium-butyrate altered the gut microbiota of IBD patients by increasing bacteria able to produce SCFA in UC patients (Lachnospiraceae spp.) and the butyrogenic colonic bacteria in CD patients (Butyricicoccus). In UC patients, QoL was positively affected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES:Sodium-butyrate supplementation increases the growth of bacteria able to produce SCFA with potentially anti-inflammatory action. The clinical impact of this finding requires further investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Adverse physiology and antibiotic exposure devastate the intestinal microbiome in critical illness. Time and cost implications limit the immediate clinical potential of microbial sequencing to identify or treat intestinal dysbiosis. Here, we examined whether metabolic profiling is a feasible method of monitoring intestinal dysbiosis in critically ill children. DESIGN:Prospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING:Three U.K.-based PICUs. PATIENTS:Mechanically ventilated critically ill (n = 60) and age-matched healthy children (n = 55). INTERVENTIONS:Collection of urine and fecal samples in children admitted to the PICU. A single fecal and urine sample was collected in healthy controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or urine and fecal samples. This was integrated with analysis of fecal bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA profiles and clinical disease severity indicators. We observed separation of global urinary and fecal metabolic profiles in critically ill compared with healthy children. Urinary excretion of mammalian-microbial co-metabolites hippurate, 4-cresol sulphate, and formate were reduced in critical illness compared with healthy children. Reduced fecal excretion of short-chain fatty acids (including butyrate, propionate, and acetate) were observed in the patient cohort, demonstrating that these metabolites also distinguished between critical illness and health. Dysregulation of intestinal bile metabolism was evidenced by increased primary and reduced secondary fecal bile acid excretion. Fecal butyrate correlated with days free of intensive care at 30 days (r = 0.38; p = 0.03), while urinary formate correlated inversely with vasopressor requirement (r = -0.2; p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Disruption to the functional activity of the intestinal microbiome may result in worsening organ failure in the critically ill child. Profiling of bacterial metabolites in fecal and urine samples may support identification and treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in critical illness.
Project description:Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP), 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP) and low protein (LP) diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.
Project description:Alterations in brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here, we apply a systems biology approach, leveraging neuroimaging and fecal metabolite data, to characterize BGM interactions that are driving IBS pathophysiology. Fecal samples and resting state fMRI images were obtained from 138 female subjects (99 IBS, 39 healthy controls (HCs)). Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was conducted to explore group differences, and partial correlation analysis explored significantly changed metabolites and neuroimaging data. All correlational tests were performed controlling for age, body mass index, and diet; results are reported after FDR correction, with q?<?0.05 as significant. Compared to HCs, IBS showed increased connectivity of the putamen with regions of the default mode and somatosensory networks. Metabolite pathways involved in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism differentiated the two groups. Only a subset of metabolites, primarily amino acids, were associated with IBS-specific brain changes, including tryptophan, glutamate, and histidine. Histidine was the only metabolite positively associated with both IBS-specific alterations in brain connectivity. Our findings suggest a role for several amino acid metabolites in modulating brain function in IBS. These metabolites may alter brain connectivity directly, by crossing the blood-brain-barrier, or indirectly through peripheral mechanisms. This is the first study to integrate both neuroimaging and fecal metabolite data supporting the BGM model of IBS, building the foundation for future mechanistic studies on the influence of gut microbial metabolites on brain function in IBS.
Project description:Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. This is still an area of active research given that the role of gut microbiota on the primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unclear. In this study, fecal samples of 30 untreated adult primary ITP patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were used to investigate the gut microbial community and metabolite profiles. Our results show that fecal bacteria such as Blautia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus are enriched, whereas bacteria such as Bacteroides are depleted in ITP patients. Notably, fecal metabolites such as fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids are enriched and strongly correlate with discrepant gut microbiota. Furthermore, combinations of Weissella and Streptococcus anginosus, or Cer (t18:0/16:0), Cer (d18:1/17:0), and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid could provide good diagnostic markers for ITP. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between platelet count and altered gut microbiota such as S. anginosus and gut metabolites such as Cer (t18:0/16:0) in ITP. In conclusion, dysbiosis of both gut microbiota and metabolome develops in ITP patients compared to HCs. Several ITP-altered gut bacteria and metabolites can be diagnostic biomarkers for ITP, and are highly correlated with platelet count, suggesting that they may also play a role in ITP pathogenesis.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has strengthened a link between dysbiotic gut microbiota and autism. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a promising therapy to repair dysbiotic gut microbiota. We previously performed intensive FMT called microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and observed a substantial improvement of gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. We also reported modulation of the gut microbiome toward a healthy one. In this study, we report comprehensive metabolite profiles from plasma and fecal samples of the children who participated in the MTT trial. With 619 plasma metabolites detected, we found that the autism group had distinctive metabolic profiles at baseline. Eight metabolites (nicotinamide riboside, IMP, iminodiacetate, methylsuccinate, galactonate, valylglycine, sarcosine, and leucylglycine) were significantly lower in the ASD group at baseline, while caprylate and heptanoate were significantly higher in the ASD group. MTT drove global shifts in plasma profiles across various metabolic features, including nicotinate/nicotinamide and purine metabolism. In contrast, for 669 fecal metabolites detected, when correcting for multiple hypotheses, no metabolite was significantly different at baseline. Although not statistically significant, p-cresol sulfate was relatively higher in the ASD group at baseline, and after MTT, the levels decreased and were similar to levels in typically developing (TD) controls. p-Cresol sulfate levels were inversely correlated with Desulfovibrio, suggesting a potential role of Desulfovibrio on p-cresol sulfate modulation. Further studies of metabolites in a larger ASD cohort, before and after MTT, are warranted, as well as clinical trials of other therapies to address the metabolic changes which MTT was not able to correct.IMPORTANCE Despite the prevalence of autism and its extensive impact on our society, no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is available for this complex neurobiological disorder. Based on mounting evidences that support a link between autism and the gut microbiome, we previously performed a pioneering open-label clinical trial using intensive fecal microbiota transplant. The therapy significantly improved gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. Comprehensive metabolomic measurements in this study showed that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had different levels of many plasma metabolites at baseline compared to those in typically developing children. Microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) had a systemic effect, resulting in substantial changes in plasma metabolites, driving a number of metabolites to be more similar to those from typically developing children. Our results provide evidence that changes in metabolites are one mechanism of the gut-brain connection mediated by the gut microbiota and offer plausible clinical evidence for a promising autism treatment and biomarkers.
Project description:Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe and a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Disruption of the commensal microbiota, such as through treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, is a critical precursor for colonisation by C. difficile and subsequent disease. Furthermore, failure of the gut microbiota to recover colonisation resistance can result in recurrence of infection. An unusual characteristic of C. difficile among gut bacteria is its ability to produce the bacteriostatic compound para-cresol (p-cresol) through fermentation of tyrosine. Here, we demonstrate that the ability of C. difficile to produce p-cresol in vitro provides a competitive advantage over gut bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Metabolic profiling of competitive co-cultures revealed that acetate, alanine, butyrate, isobutyrate, p-cresol and p-hydroxyphenylacetate were the main metabolites responsible for differentiating the parent strain C. difficile (630?erm) from a defined mutant deficient in p-cresol production. Moreover, we show that the p-cresol mutant displays a fitness defect in a mouse relapse model of C. difficile infection (CDI). Analysis of the microbiome from this mouse model of CDI demonstrates that colonisation by the p-cresol mutant results in a distinctly altered intestinal microbiota, and metabolic profile, with a greater representation of Gammaproteobacteria, including the Pseudomonales and Enterobacteriales. We demonstrate that Gammaproteobacteria are susceptible to exogenous p-cresol in vitro and that there is a clear divide between bacterial Phyla and their susceptibility to p-cresol. In general, Gram-negative species were relatively sensitive to p-cresol, whereas Gram-positive species were more tolerant. This study demonstrates that production of p-cresol by C. difficile has an effect on the viability of intestinal bacteria as well as the major metabolites produced in vitro. These observations are upheld in a mouse model of CDI, in which p-cresol production affects the biodiversity of gut microbiota and faecal metabolite profiles, suggesting that p-cresol production contributes to C. difficile survival and pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) alteration have been reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the results are conflicting. Our study aims to explore the alteration of SCFAs in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and their potential role in the occurrence and development of IBS. METHODS:We recruited patients with IBS-D defined by Rome IV criteria and age-and-gender matched healthy controls (HCs). A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in feces and serum. RESULTS:Compared with HCs, the levels of the serum propionate (2.957?±?0.157 vs 2.843?±?0.098?mmol/L, P?=?0.012) and butyrate (2.798?±?0.126 vs 2.697?±?0.077?mmol/L, P?=?0.012) were significantly higher in IBS-D group. No significant differences were found among two groups with regard to the concentration of fecal acetate (4.953?±?1.065 vs 4.774?±?1.465?mg/g, P?=?0.679), propionate (6.342?±?1.005 vs 6.282?±?1.077?mg/g, P?=?0.868) and butyrate (2.984?±?0.512 vs 3.071?±?0.447?mg/g, P?=?0.607). CONCLUSIONS:Metabolites of gut microbiota, the propionic and butyric acid, are increased in patients with IBS-D in serum but not in feces. It suggests that propionic and butyric acid might be associated with the occurrence and development of IBS.