Rab9 and retromer regulate retrograde trafficking of luminal protein required for epithelial tube length control.
ABSTRACT: Apical extracellular matrix filling the lumen controls the morphology and geometry of epithelial tubes during development, yet the regulation of luminal protein composition and its role in tube morphogenesis are not well understood. Here we show that an endosomal-retrieval machinery consisting of Rab9, retromer and actin nucleator WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homolog) regulates selective recycling of the luminal protein Serpentine in the Drosophila trachea. Secreted Serpentine is endocytosed and sorted into the late endosome. Vps35, WASH and actin filaments differentially localize at the Rab9-enriched subdomains of the endosomal membrane, where Serpentine containing vesicles bud off. In Rab9, Vps35 and WASH mutants, Serpentine was secreted normally into the tracheal lumen, but the luminal quantities were depleted at later stages, resulting in excessively elongated tubes. In contrast, secretion of many luminal proteins was unaffected, suggesting that retrograde trafficking of a specific class of luminal proteins is a pivotal rate-limiting mechanism for continuous tube length regulation.
Project description:The apical extracellular matrix plays a central role in epithelial tube morphogenesis. In the Drosophila tracheal system, Serpentine (Serp), a secreted chitin deacetylase expressed by the tracheal cells plays a key role in regulating tube length. Here, we show that the fly fat body, which is functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver, also contributes to tracheal morphogenesis. Serp was expressed by the fat body, and the secreted Serp was taken up by the tracheal cells and translocated to the lumen to functionally support normal tracheal development. This process was defective in rab9 and shrub/vps32 mutants and in wild-type embryos treated with a secretory pathway inhibitor, leading to an abundant accumulation of Serp in the fat body. We demonstrated that fat body-derived Serp reached the tracheal lumen after establishment of epithelial barrier function and was retained in the lumen in a chitin synthase-dependent manner. Our results thus reveal that the fat body, a mesodermal organ, actively contributes to tracheal development.
Project description:Endosomal protein sorting controls the localization of many physiologically important proteins and is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases. VPS35 is a component of the retromer complex, which mediates endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins such as the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Furthermore, retromer is also required for the endosomal recruitment of the actin nucleation promoting WASH complex. The VPS35 D620N mutation causes a rare form of autosomal-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that this mutant associates poorly with the WASH complex and impairs WASH recruitment to endosomes. Autophagy is impaired in cells expressing PD-mutant VPS35 or lacking WASH. The autophagy defects can be explained, at least in part, by abnormal trafficking of the autophagy protein ATG9A. Thus, the PD-causing D620N mutation in VPS35 restricts WASH complex recruitment to endosomes, and reveals a novel role for the WASH complex in autophagosome formation.
Project description:Filamentous actin (F-actin) networks facilitate key processes like cell shape control, division, polarization and motility. The dynamic coordination of F-actin networks and its impact on cellular activities are poorly understood. We report an antagonistic relationship between endosomal F-actin assembly and cortical actin bundle integrity during Drosophila airway maturation. Double mutants lacking receptor tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) Ptp10D and Ptp4E, clear luminal proteins and disassemble apical actin bundles prematurely. These defects are counterbalanced by reduction of endosomal trafficking and by mutations affecting the tyrosine kinase Btk29A, and the actin nucleation factor WASH. Btk29A forms protein complexes with Ptp10D and WASH, and Btk29A phosphorylates WASH. This phosphorylation activates endosomal WASH function in flies and mice. In contrast, a phospho-mimetic WASH variant induces endosomal actin accumulation, premature luminal endocytosis and cortical F-actin disassembly. We conclude that PTPs and Btk29A regulate WASH activity to balance the endosomal and cortical F-actin networks during epithelial tube maturation.
Project description:The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin-TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail.
Project description:Retromer is a vital element of the endosomal protein sorting machinery and comprises two subcomplexes that operate together to sort membrane proteins (cargo) and tubulate membranes. Tubules are formed by a dimer of sorting nexins, a key component of which is SNX1. Cargo selection is mediated by the VPS35-VPS29-VPS26 trimer, which additionally recruits the WASH complex through VPS35 binding to the WASH complex subunit FAM21. Loss of function of the WASH complex leads to dysregulation of endosome tubulation, although it is unclear how this occurs. Here, we show that FAM21 also binds to the SNX1-interacting DNAJ protein RME-8. Loss of RME-8 causes altered kinetics of SNX1 membrane association and a pronounced increase in highly branched endosomal tubules. Building on previous observations from other laboratories, we show that these tubules contain membrane proteins that are dependent upon WASH complex activity for their localization to the plasma membrane. Therefore, we propose that the interaction between RME-8 and the WASH complex provides a means to coordinate the activity of the WASH complex with the membrane-tubulating function of the sorting nexins at sites where retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting occurs.
Project description:An important step in epithelial organ development is size maturation of the organ lumen to attain correct dimensions. Here we show that the regulated expression of Tenectin (Tnc) is critical to shape the Drosophila melanogaster hindgut tube. Tnc is a secreted protein that fills the embryonic hindgut lumen during tube diameter expansion. Inside the lumen, Tnc contributes to detectable O-Glycans and forms a dense striated matrix. Loss of tnc causes a narrow hindgut tube, while Tnc over-expression drives tube dilation in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular analyses show that luminal accumulation of Tnc causes an increase in inner and outer tube diameter, and cell flattening within the tube wall, similar to the effects of a hydrostatic pressure in other systems. When Tnc expression is induced only in cells at one side of the tube wall, Tnc fills the lumen and equally affects all cells at the lumen perimeter, arguing that Tnc acts non-cell-autonomously. Moreover, when Tnc expression is directed to a segment of a tube, its luminal accumulation is restricted to this segment and affects the surrounding cells to promote a corresponding local diameter expansion. These findings suggest that deposition of Tnc into the lumen might contribute to expansion of the lumen volume, and thereby to stretching of the tube wall. Consistent with such an idea, ectopic expression of Tnc in different developing epithelial tubes is sufficient to cause dilation, while epidermal Tnc expression has no effect on morphology. Together, the results show that epithelial tube diameter can be modelled by regulating the levels and pattern of expression of a single luminal glycoprotein.
Project description:Mutations in a number of genes cause familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), including mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) and parkin genes. In this study, we identify a novel functional interaction between parkin and VPS35. We demonstrate that parkin interacts with and robustly ubiquitinates VPS35 in human neural cells. Familial parkin mutations are impaired in their ability to ubiquitinate VPS35. Parkin mediates the attachment of an atypical poly-ubiquitin chain to VPS35 with three lysine residues identified within the C-terminal region of VPS35 that are covalently modified by ubiquitin. Notably, parkin-mediated VPS35 ubiquitination does not promote the proteasomal degradation of VPS35. Furthermore, parkin does not influence the steady-state levels or turnover of VPS35 in neural cells and VPS35 levels are normal in the brains of parkin knockout mice. These data suggest that ubiquitination of VPS35 by parkin may instead serve a non-degradative cellular function potentially by regulating retromer-dependent sorting. Accordingly, we find that components of the retromer-associated WASH complex are markedly decreased in the brain of parkin knockout mice, suggesting that parkin may modulate WASH complex-dependent retromer sorting. Parkin gene silencing in primary cortical neurons selectively disrupts the vesicular sorting of the autophagy receptor ATG9A, a WASH-dependent retromer cargo. Parkin is not required for dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by the expression of PD-linked D620N VPS35 in mice, consistent with VPS35 being located downstream of parkin function. Our data reveal a novel functional interaction of parkin with VPS35 that may be important for retromer-mediated endosomal sorting and PD.
Project description:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASPs) control actin dynamics in cellular processes, including cell motility, receptor-mediated endocytosis, bacterial invasion, and vesicular trafficking. We demonstrated that WASH, a recently identified WASP family protein, colocalizes on endosomal subdomains with the cargo-selective complex (CSC) of the retromer, where it regulates retrograde sorting from endosomes in an actin-dependent manner. However, the mechanism of WASH recruitment to these retromer-enriched endosomal subdomains is unclear. Here we show that a component of the WASH regulatory complex (SHRC), FAM21, which contains 21 copies of a novel L-F-[D/E](3-10)-L-F motif, directly interacts with the retromer CSC protein VPS35. Endosomal localization of FAM21 is VPS35 dependent and relies on multivalency of FAM21 repeat elements. Using a combination of pull-down assays and isothermal calorimetry, we demonstrate that individual repeats can bind CSC, and binding affinity varies among different FAM21 repeats. A high-affinity repeat can be converted into a low-affinity one by mutation of a hydrophobic residue within the motif. These in vitro data mirror the localization of FAM21 to retromer-coated vesicles in cells. We propose that multivalency enables FAM21 to sense the density of retromer on membranes, allowing coordination of SHRC recruitment, and consequent actin polymerization, with retromer sorting domain organization/maturation.
Project description:Unicellular tubes or capillaries composed of individual cells with a hollow lumen perform important physiological functions including fluid or gas transport and exchange. These tubes are thought to build intracellular lumina by polarized trafficking of apical membrane components, but the molecular signals that promote luminal growth and luminal connectivity between cells are poorly understood. Here we show that the lipocalin LPR-1 is required for luminal connectivity between two unicellular tubes in the Caenorhabditis elegans excretory (renal) system, the excretory duct cell and pore cell. Lipocalins are a large family of secreted proteins that transport lipophilic cargos and participate in intercellular signaling. lpr-1 is required at a time of rapid luminal growth, it is expressed by the duct, pore and surrounding cells, and it can function cell non-autonomously. These results reveal a novel signaling mechanism that controls unicellular tube formation, and provide a genetic model system for dissecting lipocalin signaling pathways.
Project description:Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the importance of actin in CCV fusion. Filamentous actin patches formed around the CCV membrane that were preferred sites of vesicular fusion. Accordingly, the mediators of endolysosomal fusion Rab7, VAMP7, and syntaxin 8 were concentrated in CCV actin patches. Generation of actin patches required C. burnetii type 4B secretion and host retromer function. Patches decorated with VPS29 and VPS35, components of the retromer, FAM21 and WASH, members of the WASH complex that engage the retromer, and Arp3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that generates branched actin filaments. Depletion by siRNA of VPS35 or VPS29 reduced CCV actin patches and caused Rab7 to uniformly distribute in the CCV membrane. C. burnetii grew normally in VPS35 or VPS29 depleted cells, as well as WASH-knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, where CCVs are devoid of actin patches. Endosome recycling to the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and cationic-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR), respectively, was normal in infected cells. However, siRNA knockdown of retromer resulted in aberrant trafficking of GLUT1, but not CI-M6PR, suggesting canonical retrograde trafficking is unaffected by retromer disruption. Treatment with the specific Arp2/3 inhibitor CK-666 strongly inhibited CCV formation, an effect associated with altered endosomal trafficking of transferrin receptor. Collectively, our results show that CCV actin patches generated by retromer, WASH, and Arp2/3 are dispensable for CCV biogenesis and stability. However, Arp2/3-mediated production of actin filaments required for cargo transport within the endosomal system is required for CCV generation. These findings delineate which of the many actin related events that shape the endosomal compartment are important for CCV formation.