DNA-fragments are transcytosed across CaCo-2 cells by adsorptive endocytosis and vesicular mediated transport.
ABSTRACT: Dietary DNA is degraded into shorter DNA-fragments and single nucleosides in the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary DNA is mainly taken up as single nucleosides and bases, but even dietary DNA-fragments of up to a few hundred bp are able to cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood stream. The molecular mechanisms behind transport of DNA-fragments across the intestine and the effects of this transport on the organism are currently unknown. Here we investigate the transport of DNA-fragments across the intestinal barrier, focusing on transport mechanisms and rates. The human intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 was used as a model. As DNA material a PCR-fragment of 633 bp was used and quantitative real time PCR was used as detection method. DNA-fragments were found to be transported across polarized CaCo-2 cells in the apical to basolateral direction (AB). After 90 min the difference in directionality AB vs. BA was >10(3) fold. Even undegraded DNA-fragments of 633 bp could be detected in the basolateral receiver compartment at this time point. Transport of DNA-fragments was sensitive to low temperature and inhibition of endosomal acidification. DNA-transport across CaCo-2 cells was not competed out with oligodeoxynucleotides, fucoidan, heparin, heparan sulphate and dextrane sulphate, while linearized plasmid DNA, on the other hand, reduced transcytosis of DNA-fragments by a factor of approximately 2. Our findings therefore suggest that vesicular transport is mediating transcytosis of dietary DNA-fragments across intestinal cells and that DNA binding proteins are involved in this process. If we extrapolate our findings to in vivo conditions it could be hypothesized that this transport mechanism has a function in the immune system.
Project description:To ensure that antitumor drugs can be effectively transported across intestinal barrier and then quickly released in tumor cells, mixed polymeric micelles (Mix-PMs) were designed and fabricated by combining poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-vitamin E succinate (PEOz-VES) with TPGS1000 for enhancing intestinal absorption of paclitaxel. PEOz-VES exhibited an extremely low critical micelle concentration and negligible cytotoxicity. The Mix-PMs were characterized to have about 20?nm in diameter, uniform spherical morphology, high drug-loading content and sustained drug release profile with a retained pH-sensitivity. The results of the transport through Caco-2 cell monolayers and intestinal absorption revealed that Mix-PMs displayed higher transcellular transport efficiency compared with PEOz-VES micelles and Taxol®. The possible mechanism of transcellular transport for Mix-PMs was elucidated to be mainly through clathrin- and caveolae/lipid rafts-mediated transcytosis. Confocal laser scanning micrographs revealed that late endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were all involved in intracellular trafficking of Mix-PMs. The proteins involved in transcytosis of Mix-PMs and finally excreted were unraveled for the first time by the analysis of proteins in the basolateral media according to the proteomics method. Consequently, the fabricated mixed polymeric micelles may have great potential in enhancing intestinal absorption and accelerating drug release in tumor cells.
Project description:Dietary proteins are mostly absorbed as di- and tripeptides by the intestinal proton-dependent transporter PepT1. We have examined the effects of leptin on PepT1 function in rat jejunum and in monolayers of the human enterocyte-like 2 cell Caco-2. Leptin is produced by the stomach and secreted in the gut lumen. We show here that PepT1 and leptin receptors are expressed in Caco-2 and rat intestinal mucosal cells. Apical (but not basolateral) leptin increased Caco-2 cell transport of cephalexin (CFX) and glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), an effect that was associated with increased Gly-Sar uptake, increased membrane PepT1 protein, decreased intracellular PepT1 content, and no change in PepT1 mRNA levels. The maximal velocity (Vmax) for Gly-Sar transport was significantly increased by leptin, whereas the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) did not change. Furthermore, leptin-stimulated Gly-Sar transport was completely suppressed by colchicine, which disrupts cellular translocation of proteins to plasma membranes. Intrajejunal leptin also induced a rapid twofold increase in plasma CFX after jejunal perfusion with CFX in the rat, indicating enhanced intestinal absorption of CFX. These data revealed an unexpected action of gastric leptin in controlling ingestion of dietary proteins.
Project description:For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-? (PoIFN-?), the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-? in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC)-PoIFN-? were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-? in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-? by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-?. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-?. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-?, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-? transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-? across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-? transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.
Project description:The lipocalin 2//NGAL/24p3 receptor (NGAL-R/24p3-R) is expressed in rodent distal nephron where it mediates protein endocytosis. The mechanisms of apical endocytosis and transcytosis of proteins and peptides in the intestine are poorly understood. In the present study, the expression and localization of rodent 24p3-R (r24p3-R) and human NGAL-R (hNGAL-R) was investigated in intestinal segments by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. r24p3-R/hNGAL-R was also studied in human Caco-2 BBE cells and CHO cells transiently transfected with r24p3-R by immunofluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and immunoblotting of plasma membrane enriched vesicles (PM). To assay function, endocytosis/transcytosis of putative ligands phytochelatin (PC?), metallothionein (MT) and transferrin (Tf) was assayed by measuring internalization of fluorescence-labelled ligands in Caco-2 BBE cells grown on plastic or as monolayers on Transwell inserts. The binding affinity of Alexa 488-PC? to colon-like Caco-2 BBE PM was quantified by microscale thermophoresis (MST). r24p3-R/hNGAL-R expression was detected apically in all intestinal segments but showed the highest expression in ileum and colon. Colon-like, but not duodenum-like, Caco-2 BBE cells expressed hNGAL-R on their surface. Colon-like Caco-2 BBE cells or r24p3-R transfected CHO cells internalized fluorescence-labelled PC? or MT with half-maximal saturation at submicromolar concentrations. Uptake of PC? and MT (0.7 µM) by Caco-2 BBE cells was partially blocked by hNGAL (500 pM) and an EC?? of 18.6 ± 12.2 nM was determined for binding of Alexa 488-PC? to PM vesicles by MST. Transwell experiments showed rapid (0.5-2 h) apical uptake and basolateral delivery of fluorescent PC?/MT/Tf (0.7 µM). Apical uptake of ligands was significantly blocked by 500 pM hNGAL. hNGAL-R dependent uptake was more prominent with MT but transcytosis efficiency was reduced compared to PC? and Tf. Hence, r24p3-R/hNGAL-R may represent a high-affinity multi-ligand receptor for apical internalization and transcytosis of intact proteins/peptides by the lower intestine.
Project description:Protein delivery across polarized epithelia is controlled by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Many studies have examined basolateral-to-apical trafficking of polymeric IgA (pIgA) by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Less is known about apical-to-basolateral transcytosis, the direction the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) transports maternal IgGs across intestinal epithelia. To compare apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, we co-expressed FcRn and pIgR in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and used pulse-chase experiments with confocal microscopy to examine transport of apically applied IgG Fcgamma and basolaterally applied pIgA. Fcgamma and pIgA trafficking routes were initially separate but intermixed at later chase times. Fcgamma was first localized near the apical surface, but became more equally distributed across the cell, consistent with concomitant transcytosis and recycling. By contrast, pIgA transport was strongly unidirectional: pIgA shifted from near the basolateral surface to an apical location with increasing time. Some Fcgamma and pIgA fluorescence colocalized in early (EEA1-positive), recycling (Rab11a-positive), and transferrin (Tf)-positive common/basolateral recycling endosomes. Fcgamma became more enriched in Tf-positive endosomes with time, whereas pIgA was sorted from these compartments. Live-cell imaging revealed that vesicles containing Fcgamma or pIgA shared similar mobility characteristics and were equivalently affected by depolymerizing microtubules, indicating that both trafficking routes depended to roughly the same extent on intact microtubules.
Project description:The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) transports maternal IgG across epithelial barriers, thereby providing the fetus or newborn with humoral immunity before its immune system is fully functional. In newborn rats, FcRn transfers IgG from milk to blood by apical-to-basolateral transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells. The pH difference between the apical (pH 6.0-6.5) and basolateral (pH 7.4) sides of intestinal epithelial cells facilitates the efficient unidirectional transport of IgG, because FcRn binds IgG at pH 6.0-6.5 but not at pH 7 or more. As milk passes through the neonatal intestine, maternal IgG is removed by FcRn-expressing cells in the proximal small intestine (duodenum and jejunum); remaining proteins are absorbed and degraded by FcRn-negative cells in the distal small intestine (ileum). Here we use electron tomography to make jejunal transcytosis visible directly in space and time, developing new labelling and detection methods to map individual nanogold-labelled Fc within transport vesicles and simultaneously to characterize these vesicles by immunolabelling. Combining electron tomography with a non-perturbing endocytic label allowed us to conclusively identify receptor-bound ligands, resolve interconnecting vesicles, determine whether a vesicle was microtubule-associated, and accurately trace FcRn-mediated transport of IgG. Our results present a complex picture in which Fc moves through networks of entangled tubular and irregular vesicles, only some of which are microtubule-associated, as it migrates to the basolateral surface. New features of transcytosis are elucidated, including transport involving multivesicular body inner vesicles/tubules and exocytosis through clathrin-coated pits. Markers for early, late and recycling endosomes each labelled vesicles in different and overlapping morphological classes, revealing spatial complexity in endo-lysosomal trafficking.
Project description:Studies of dietary fat absorption are generally conducted by using an animal model equipped with a lymph cannula. Although this animal model is widely accepted as the in vivo model of dietary fat absorption, the surgical techniques involved are challenging and expensive. Genetic manipulation of the animal model is also costly and time consuming. The alternative in vitro model is arguably more affordable, timesaving, and less challenging. Importantly, the in vitro model allows investigators to examine the enterocytes as an isolated system, reducing the complexity inherent in the whole organism model. This paper describes how human colon carcinoma cells (Caco-2) can serve as an in vitro model to study the enterocyte transport of lipids, and lipid-soluble drugs and vitamins. It explains the proper maintenance of Caco-2 cells and the preparation of their lipid mixture; and it further discusses the valuable option of using the permeable membrane system. Since differentiated Caco-2 cells are polarized, the main advantage of using the permeable membrane system is that it separates the apical from the basolateral compartment. Consequently, the lipid mixture can be added to the apical compartment while the lipoproteins can be collected from the basolateral compartment. In addition, the effectiveness of the lentivirus expression system in upregulating gene expression in Caco-2 cells is discussed. Lastly, this paper describes how to confirm the successful isolation of intestinal lipoproteins by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Project description:Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin--the most abundant dietary polyphenol--are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3'UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption.
Project description:The primary aim of this study was to identify structural features that alter the intestinal epithelial permeability and efflux in a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). Eleven PIs were selected containing a tertiary alcohol in a transition-state mimicking scaffold, in which two substituents (R(1) and R(2) ) were varied systematically. Indinavir was selected as a reference compound. The apical-to-basolateral permeability was investigated in 2/4/A1 and Caco-2 monolayers. In addition, the basolateral-to-apical permeability was investigated in the Caco-2 monolayers and the efflux ratios were calculated. The absence of active drug transport processes in 2/4/A1 cells allowed identification and modeling of structural elements affecting the passive permeability. For instance, small aromatic R(1) substituents and a small (bromo-) R(2) substituent were associated with a high passive permeability. Efflux studies in Caco-2 cells indicated that amide-substituted neutral hydrophobic amino acids, such as valine and leucine, in the R(1) position, reduced the apical-to-basolateral transport and enhanced the efflux. We conclude that our investigation revealed structural features that alter the intestinal epithelial permeability and efflux in the series of PIs and hope that these results can contribute to the synthesis of PIs with improved permeability and limited efflux properties.
Project description:ZIP14 (encoded by the solute carrier 39 family member 14 (SLC39A14) gene) is a manganese transporter that is abundantly expressed in the liver and small intestine. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC39A14 cause severe hypermanganesemia. Because the liver is regarded as the main regulatory organ involved in manganese homeostasis, impaired hepatic manganese uptake for subsequent biliary excretion has been proposed as the underlying disease mechanism. However, liver-specific Zip14 KO mice exhibit decreased manganese only in the liver and do not develop manganese accumulation in other tissues under normal conditions. This suggests that impaired hepatobiliary excretion is not the primary cause for manganese overload observed in individuals lacking functional ZIP14. We therefore hypothesized that increased intestinal manganese absorption could induce manganese hyperaccumulation when ZIP14 is inactivated. To elucidate the role of ZIP14 in manganese absorption, here we used CaCo-2 Transwell cultures as a model system for intestinal epithelia. The generation of a ZIP14-deficient CaCo-2 cell line enabled the identification of ZIP14 as the major transporter mediating basolateral manganese uptake in enterocytes. Lack of ZIP14 severely impaired basolateral-to-apical (secretory) manganese transport and strongly enhanced manganese transport in the apical-to-basolateral (absorptive) direction. Mechanistic studies provided evidence that ZIP14 restricts manganese transport in the absorptive direction via direct basolateral reuptake of freshly absorbed manganese. In support of such function of intestinal ZIP14 in vivo, manganese levels in the livers and brains of intestine-specific Zip14 KO mice were significantly elevated. Our findings highlight the importance of intestinal ZIP14 in regulating systemic manganese homeostasis.