Integrative analyses identify osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 as critical pro-metastatic genes for lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To explore the key regulatory genes associated with lung cancer in order to reduce its occurrence and progress through silencing these key genes. METHODS: To identify the key regulatory genes involved in lung cancer, we performed a combination of gene array and bioinformatics analyses to compare gene transcription profiles in 3 monoclonal cell strains with high, medium or low metastatic abilities, which were separated from the SPC-A-1sci and SPC-A-1 cell lines by limiting dilution monoclone assay. We then analyzed those genes' biological activities by knocking down their expression in SPC-A-1sci cells using siRNA and lenti-viral shRNA vectors, followed by determinations of the invasion and migration capabilities of the resulting cell lines in vitro as well as their potential for inducing occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer in vivo. To examine the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression levels of the identified genes in human lung cancer tissues (n?=?135) and matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. RESULTS: Three monoclonal cell strains characterized with high, medium or low metastatic abilities were successfully selected. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses implied that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 were key genes involved in lung cancer. Knockdown of these genes suppressed human lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Clinical sample analyses indicated that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 protein expression levels were higher in lung cancer patients, compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues, and correlated with lymphatic metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 played important roles in the occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer, thus provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of metastasis and contributing to the therapeutic treatment of lung cancer.
Project description:Metastasis to the lung may be the final step in the breast cancer-related morbidity. Conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and surgery are somewhat successful, however, metastasis-related breast cancer morbidity remains high. Thus, a novel approach to prevent breast tumor metastasis is needed.Aerosol of lentivirus-based small hairpin osteopontin was delivered into mice with breast cancer twice a week for 1 or 2 months using a nose-only inhalation system. The effects of small hairpin osteopontin on breast cancer metastasis to the lung were evaluated using near infrared imaging as well as diverse molecular techniques. Aerosol-delivered small hairpin osteopontin significantly decreased the expression level of osteopontin and altered the expression of several important metastasis-related proteins in our murine breast cancer model.Aerosol-delivered small hairpin osteopontin blocked breast cancer metastasis. Our results showed that noninvasive targeting of pulmonary osteopontin or other specific genes responsible for cancer metastasis could be used as an effective therapeutic regimen for the treatment of metastatic epithelial tumors.
Project description:PURPOSE: Osteopontin (OPN) plays important roles in the modulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis, immune response, and tumor invasion. Elevated osteopontin expression has been reported in the lung cancer tissues compared to counterpart normal tissues. This study examined whether genetic variations in the osteopontin gene are associated with survival of lung cancer patients and occurrence rate of bone metastasis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three hundred and sixty patients with stages I to IV between 2003 and 2007 were recruited in this study and same number of healthy persons were used as control. Three promoter osteopontin polymorphisms, OPN-66 T/G, -156G/GG, and -443C/T variants were genotyped using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Chi-square test and a Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the genotype distribution among TNM stages and incidence of bone metastasis and lymph mode metastasis. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare survival by different genotypes. RESULTS: For the variant at nt -443 (CC), there was a significant difference between the number of patients with stage IV and those with all other stages of lung cancer (p?<?0.01). Patients with -443 (CC) variant had significant higher incidence of bone metastasis development compared to other genotypes. For the variant at nt -443 (CT), there was a significant difference between the number of lung cancer patients with stage III?+?IV and those with stage I?+?II (P?<?0.01). The survival rates for patients with the C/C genotype were significantly lower than for patients with the other two genotypes (C/T, T/T). CONCLUSION: OSTEOPONTIN -443C/T polymorphism is a potential predictive marker of survival in lung cancer patients, it is correlated with bone metastasis significantly.
Project description:The poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is partially attributed to the invasive and metastatic behavior of this disease. Laminin subunit beta-3 (LAMB3) encodes one of the three subunits of LM-332, an extracellular matrix protein secreted by cultured human keratinocytes. In addition, LAMB3 is involved in the invasive and metastatic abilities of some types of cancer, including colon, pancreas, lung, cervix, stomach, and prostate cancer, but the role and mechanism of LAMB3 in PDAC have not been previously determined. Herein, we tentatively investigated the role of LAMB3 in the malignant biological behavior of PDAC. In this study, we demonstrated that LAMB3 is upregulated in PDAC. Inhibition of LAMB3 abrogated the tumorigenic outcomes of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation, including those involving cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro, and tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. Our results showed that LAMB3 could mediate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PDAC cells and alter the proliferative, invasive, and metastatic behaviors of PDAC by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LAMB3 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of PDAC in the future.
Project description:The landscape of genetic alterations in disease models such as transgenic mice or mice with carcinogen-induced tumors has provided a huge amount of information that has shed light on the process of tumorigenesis in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously identified stratifin (SFN) as a potent oncogene, and generated SFN-transgenic (Tg-SPC-SFN+/- ) mice, which express human SFN (hSFN) only in the lung. Here, we have found that carcinogen nicotine-derived nitrosaminoketone (NNK)-induced tumors developing in Tg-SPC-SFN+/- mice show a similar histology to human lung adenocarcinoma and exhibit high hSFN expression. In order to compare the genetic characteristics of Tg-SPC-SFN+/- tumors and human lung adenocarcinoma, the former were subjected to whole-exome sequencing. Interestingly, Tg-SPC-SFN+/- tumors showed the distinct distribution of exonic mutations and high number of mutated genes and transversion. Moreover, Tg-SPC-SFN+/- tumors showed 73 genes that were commonly detected in more than 2 tumors, mutations of which were also found in human lung adenocarcinoma. The expression levels of some of these genes were significantly associated with the clinical outcome of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Additionally, mutated genes in Tg-SPC-SFN+/- tumors were closely associated with key canonical pathways such as PI3K/AKT signaling and apoptosis signaling. These results suggest that SFN overexpression is a universal abnormality in human lung adenocarcinogenesis and Tg-SPC-SFN+/- tumors recapitulate key features of major human lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, Tg-SPC-SFN+/- mice provide a useful model for clarifying the molecular mechanism underlying lung adenocarcinogenesis.
Project description:Cervical Cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. The present study aimed to identify key genes and pathways involved in cervical cancer (CC) progression, via a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. The GSE63514 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was analyzed for hub genes and cancer progression was divided into four phases (phases I-IV). Pathway enrichment, protein-protein interaction (PPI) and pathway crosstalk analyses were performed, to identify key genes and pathways using a criterion nodal degree ?5. Gene pathway analysis was determined by mapping the key genes into the key pathways. Co-expression between key genes and their effect on overall survival (OS) time was assessed using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. A total of 3,446 differentially expressed genes with 107 hub genes were identified within the four phases. A total of 14 key genes with 11 key pathways were obtained, following extraction of ?5 degree nodes from the PPI and pathway crosstalk networks. Gene pathway analysis revealed that CDK1 and CCNB1 regulated the cell cycle and were activated in phase I. Notably, the following terms, 'pathways in cancer', 'focal adhesion' and the 'PI3K-Akt signaling pathway' ranked the highest in phases II-IV. Furthermore, FN1, ITGB1 and MMP9 may be associated with metastasis of tumor cells. STAT1 was indicated to predominantly function at the phase IV via cancer-associated signaling pathways, including 'pathways in cancer' and 'Toll-like receptor signaling pathway'. Survival analysis revealed that high ITGB1 and FN1 expression levels resulted in significantly worse OS. CDK1 and CCNB1 were revealed to regulate proliferation and differentiation through the cell cycle and viral tumorigenesis, while FN1 and ITGB1, which may be developed as novel prognostic factors, were co-expressed to induce metastasis via cancer-associated signaling pathways, including PI3K-Art signaling pathway, and focal adhesion in CC; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms require further research.
Project description:Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a key role in tumor invasion and metastasis, but the mechanism of its involvement in these processes is not clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible molecular mechanism of hTERT in the promotion of gastric cancer (GC) metastasis. We found that the up-regulation of hTERT in gastric cancer cells could inhibit the expression of miR-29a and enhance the expression of Integrin ?1 (ITGB1). In addition, the invasive capacity of gastric cancer cells was also highly increased after hTERT overexpression. Our study also found that the restoration of miR-29a suppressed the expression of ITGB1 and inhibited GC cell metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results suggested that hTERT may promote GC metastasis through the hTERT-miR-29a-ITGB1 regulatory pathway.
Project description:Breast cancer remains the second cause of tumor-related mortality in women worldwide mainly due to chemoresistance and metastasis. The chemoresistance and metastasis are attributed to a rare subpopulation with enriched stem-like characteristics, thus called Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). We have previously reported aberrant expression of the actin-bundling protein (fascin) in breast cancer cells, which enhances their chemoresistance, metastasis and enriches CSC population. The intracellular mechanisms that link fascin with its downstream effectors are not fully elucidated. Here, loss and gain of function approaches in two different breast cancer models were used to understand how fascin promotes disease progression. Importantly, findings were aligned with expression data from actual breast cancer patients. Expression profiling of a large breast cancer dataset (TCGA, 530 patients) showed statistically significant correlation between fascin expression and a key adherence molecule, ?1 integrin (ITGB1). In vitro manipulation of fascin expression in breast cancer cells exhibited its direct effect on ITGB1 expression. Fascin-mediated regulation of ITGB1 was critical for several breast cancer cell functions including adhesion to different extracellular matrix, self-renewability and chemoresistance. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between fascin and ITGB1 co-expression and short disease-free as well as overall survival in chemo-treated breast cancer patients. This novel role of fascin effect on ITGB1 expression and its outcome on cell self-renewability and chemoresistance strongly encourages for dual targeting of fascin-ITGB1 axis as a therapeutic approach to halt breast cancer progression and eradicate it from the root.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of human cancers. This study aims to clarify the role of miR-374b in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:In this study, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were used to measure mRNA and protein expression. The regulatory mechanism of miR-374b/ITGB1 was investigated by dual-luciferase reporter, CCK-8, and transwell assays. RESULTS:MiR-374b expression was reduced in NSCLC tissues and associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and prognosis in NSCLC patients. Functionally, overexpression of miR-374b inhibited cell viability and metastasis in NSCLC. In addition, miR-374b blocked EMT and promoted p53 expression in NSCLC. MiR-374b was found to directly target ITGB1. Furthermore, upregulation of ITGB1 weakened the antitumor effect of miR-374b in NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS:MiR-374b inhibits the tumorigenesis of NSCLC by downregulating ITGB1 and upregulating p53.
Project description:Fibrotic disease is associated with abrogated stromal cell proliferation and activity. The precise identity of the cells that drive fibrosis remains obscure, in part because of a lack of information on their lineage development. To investigate the role of an early stromal progenitor cell (SPC) on the fibrotic process, we selected for, and monitored the stages of, fibroblast development from a previously reported free-floating anchorage-independent cell (AIC) progenitor population. Our findings demonstrate that organotypic pulmonary, cardiac, and renal fibroblast commitment follows a two-step process of attachment and remodeling in culture. Cell differentiation was confirmed by the inability of SPCs to revert to the free-floating state and functional mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) differentiation into osteoblast, adipocyte, chondrocyte, and fibroblastic lineages. The myofibroblastic phenotype was reflected by actin stress-fiber formation, ?-smooth muscle production, and a greater than threefold increase in proliferative activity compared with that of the progenitors. SPC-derived pulmonary myofibroblasts demonstrated a more than 300-fold increase in fibronectin-1 (Fn1), collagen, type 1, ?1, integrin ?-5 (Itga5), and integrin ?-1 (Itgb1) transcript levels. Very late antigen-5 (ITGA5/ITGB1) protein cluster formations were also prevalent on the differentiated cells. Normalized SPC-derived myofibroblast expression patterns reflected those of primary cultured lung myofibroblasts. Intratracheal implantation of pulmonary AICs into recipient mouse lungs resulted in donor cell FN1 production and evidence of epithelial derivation. SPC derivation into stromal tissue in vitro and in vivo and the observation that MSC and fibroblast lineages share a common ancestor could potentially lead to personalized antifibrotic therapies.
Project description:Increasing evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation plays a significant functional role in cancer progression. To investigate the expression and clinical significance of ITGB1 in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the expression levels of ITGB1 in NSCLC tissues and human normal lung tissues were analyzed in silico using genes microarray, KEGG pathway and hierarchical clustering analysis followed by validation with quantitative RT-PCR. Our results showed that ITGB1 was upregulated in NSCLC tissues when compared with normal lung tissues. Survival analysis based on the qRT-PCR data established that ITGB1 expression was attentively related to the prognosis of NSCLC, and patients with higher ITGB1 expression had shorter overall survival (OS). Moreover, ITGB1 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-493-5p. Furthermore, concomitant high expression of ITGB1 and low expression of miR-493-5p correlated with a shorter median OS and PFS in NSCLC patients. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that ITGB1 is a direct target of miR-493-5p suggesting that ITGB1 and miR-493-5p may have potential prognostic value and may be useful as tumor biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC patients.