Complete genome sequence of Marinomonas posidonica type strain (IVIA-Po-181(T)).
ABSTRACT: Marinomonas posidonica IVIA-Po-181(T) Lucas-Elío et al. 2011 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. Different species of the genus Marinomonas can be readily isolated from the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. M. posidonica is among the most abundant species of the genus detected in the cultured microbiota of P. oceanica, suggesting a close relationship with this plant, which has a great ecological value in the Mediterranean Sea, covering an estimated surface of 38,000 Km(2). Here we describe the genomic features of M. posidonica. The 3,899,940 bp long genome harbors 3,544 protein-coding genes and 107 RNA genes and is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia ofBacteriaandArchaea project.
Project description:Marinomonas mediterranea MMB-1(T) Solano & Sanchez-Amat 1999 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. This species is of interest because it is the only species described in the genus Marinomonas to date that can synthesize melanin pigments, which is mediated by the activity of a tyrosinase. M. mediterranea expresses other oxidases of biotechnological interest, such as a multicopper oxidase with laccase activity and a novel L-lysine-epsilon-oxidase. The 4,684,316 bp long genome harbors 4,228 protein-coding genes and 98 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Some Gram-negative bacteria express a novel enzyme with lysine-epsilon-oxidase (LOD) activity (EC 126.96.36.199). The oxidation of l-Lys generates, among other products, hydrogen peroxide, which confers antimicrobial properties to this kind of enzyme and has been shown to be involved in cell death during biofilm development and differentiation. In addition to LOD, the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea, which forms part of the microbiota of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica, expresses two other oxidases of biotechnological interest, a multicopper oxidase, PpoA, with laccase activity and a tyrosinase named PpoB, which is responsible for melanin synthesis. By using both lacZ fusions with the lodAB promoter and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), this study shows that the hybrid sensor histidine kinase PpoS regulates LOD activity at the transcriptional level. Although PpoS also regulates PpoA and PpoB, in this case, the regulatory effect cannot be attributed only to a transcriptional regulation. Further studies indicate that LOD activity is induced at the posttranscriptional level by l-Lys as well as by two structurally similar compounds, l-Arg and meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP), neither of which is a substrate of the enzyme. The inducing effect of these compounds is specific for LOD activity since PpoA and PpoB are not affected by them. This study offers, for the first time, insights into the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of the antimicrobial protein lysine-epsilon-oxidase in M. mediterranea, which could be important in the microbial colonization of the seagrass P. oceanica.
Project description:Members of the genus Marinomonas in the Gammaproteobacteria are broadly distributed in marine environments where they could be infected by bacteriophages. Here we report the genome sequence of bacteriophage P12026 that can lytically infect bacterial strain IMCC12026, a member of the genus Marinomonas. To our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of a lytic bacteriophage infecting the genus Marinomonas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of Posidonia oceanica inhabiting Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed. NEW INFORMATION:Here, metadata information is provided on the data set discussed in Lepoint et al. (2014a) and published on the GBIF portal as a sampling-event data set: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=ulg_bryozoa&v=1.0). The data set is enriched by data concerning species settled on Posidonia scales (dead petiole of Posidonia leaves, remaining after limb abscission).
Project description:High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content) of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H₂O₂ and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS) of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton's reagent (H₂O₂/FeSO₄) generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest.
Project description:Seagrasses as Posidonia oceanica reproduce mostly by vegetative propagation, which can reduce genetic variability within populations. Since, in clonally propagated species, insurgence of genetic variability can be determined by the activity of transposable elements, we have estimated the activity of such repeat elements by measuring their expression level in the leaves of plants from a Mediterranean site, for which Illumina complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence reads (produced from RNAs isolated by leaves of plants from deep and shallow meadows) were publicly available. Firstly, we produced a collection of retrotransposon-related sequences and then mapped Illumina cDNA reads onto these sequences. With this approach, it was evident that Posidonia retrotransposons are, in general, barely expressed; only nine elements resulted transcribed at levels comparable with those of reference genes encoding tubulins and actins. Differences in transcript abundance were observed according to the superfamily and the lineage to which the retrotransposons belonged. Only small differences were observed between retrotransposon expression levels in leaves of shallow and deep Posidonia meadow stands, whereas one TAR/Tork element resulted differentially expressed in deep plants exposed to heat. It can be concluded that, in P. oceanica, the contribution of retrotransposon activity to genetic variability is reduced, although the nine specific active elements could actually produce new structural variations.
Project description:We isolated a novel bacterial strain from a prokaryotic consortium associated to the psychrophilic marine ciliate Euplotes focardii, endemic of the Antarctic coastal seawater. The 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis revealed the close evolutionary relationship to the Antarctic marine bacterium Marinomonas sp. BSw10506 and the sub antarctic Marinomonas polaris. We named this new strain Marinomonas sp. ef1. The optimal growth temperature in LB medium was 22?°C. Whole genome sequencing and analysis showed a reduced gene loss limited to regions encoding for transposases. Additionally, five genomic islands, e.g. DNA fragments that facilitate horizontal gene transfer phenomena, were identified. Two open reading frames predicted from the genomic islands coded for enzymes belonging to the Nitro-FMN-reductase superfamily. One of these, the putative NAD(P)H nitroreductase YfkO, has been reported to be involved in the bioreduction of silver (Ag) ions and the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). After the Marinomonas sp. ef1 biomass incubation with 1?mM of AgNO3 at 22?°C, we obtained AgNPs within 24?h. The AgNPs were relatively small in size (50?nm) and had a strong antimicrobial activity against twelve common nosocomial pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus and two Candida strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AgNPs biosynthesis by a Marinomonas strain. This biosynthesis may play a dual role in detoxification from silver nitrate and protection from pathogens for the bacterium and potentially for the associated ciliate. Biosynthetic AgNPs also represent a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics against common pathogens.
Project description:Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.
Project description:The genus Marinomonas comprises Gram negative bacteria which are widespread in the marine environment and there is no report on the genomic analysis of SXT/R391 ICEs derived from this group of bacteria. This study describes the genomic features of three new SXT/R391 integrating conjugating elements (ICEs) identified in the genome of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476T (ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b) and in Marinomonas profundimaris strain D104 (ICEMprChn1). Structural organizations of the three ICEs were similar to the typical SXT/R391 family of ICEs and showed high degree of conservation in the core genes. Sequence analysis revealed ICEMfuInd1b and ICEMprChn1 were inserted into the genome at 5'-end of an typical host prfC gene, while ICEMfuInd1a was inserted at 5'-end of an atypical hipA-like gene. Despite their coexistence, the ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b were not present in a tandem fashion in the genome of M. fungiae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the three ICEs either evolved independently or high degrees of recombination events had masked their evolution from a common SXT ancestor. Further, we found that the typical entry exclusion mechanism mediated by the TraG/EeX protein pair was likely defective in preventing the conjugative transfer of a second copy of the same S (SXT) group ICE into the M. fungiae genome due to mutations. Our analysis showed the presence of 16, 25, and 27 variable genes in the hotspots of ICEMfuInd1a, ICEMfuInd1b, and ICEMprChn1, respectively, many of which were not reported earlier for SXT/R391 ICEs. Sequence analysis predicted these hotspot regions were shaped by acquisition of genes through homologous recombination between the SXT and R391 related ICEs or mobile genetic elements present in disparate marine bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes which are hallmark feature of SXT/R391 ICEs were not present in either of the two ICEs from M. fungiae but were present within a transposon cassette in the HS-1 of the ICEMprChn1 from M. profundimaris. Finally, our data provided information on the genetic diversity and predicted functions encoded by variable genes present in the hotspot regions of these new ICEs.