CDC44: a putative nucleotide-binding protein required for cell cycle progression that has homology to subunits of replication factor C.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the means by which a cell regulates the progression of the mitotic cell cycle, we characterized cdc44, a mutation that causes Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to arrest before mitosis. CDC44 encodes a 96-kDa basic protein with significant homology to a human protein that binds DNA (PO-GA) and to three subunits of human replication factor C (also called activator 1). The hypothesis that Cdc44p is involved in DNA metabolism is supported by the observations that (i) levels of mitotic recombination suggest elevated rates of DNA damage in cdc44 mutants and (ii) the cell cycle arrest observed in cdc44 mutants is alleviated by the DNA damage checkpoint mutations rad9, mec1, and mec2. The predicted amino acid sequence of Cdc44p contains GTPase consensus sites, and mutations in these regions cause a conditional cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these observations suggest that the essential CDC44 gene may encode the large subunit of yeast replication factor C.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae polo-like kinase Cdc5 promotes adaptation to the DNA damage checkpoint, in addition to its numerous roles in mitotic progression. The process of adaptation occurs when cells are presented with persistent or irreparable DNA damage and escape the cell-cycle arrest imposed by the DNA damage checkpoint. However, the precise mechanism of adaptation remains unknown. We report here that CDC5 is dose-dependent for adaptation and that its overexpression promotes faster adaptation, indicating that high levels of Cdc5 modulate the ability of the checkpoint to inhibit the downstream cell-cycle machinery. To pinpoint the step in the checkpoint pathway at which Cdc5 acts, we overexpressed CDC5 from the GAL1 promoter in damaged cells and examined key steps in checkpoint activation individually. Cdc5 overproduction appeared to have little effect on the early steps leading to Rad53 activation. The checkpoint sensors, Ddc1 (a member of the 9-1-1 complex) and Ddc2 (a member of the Ddc2/Mec1 complex), properly localized to damage sites. Mec1 appeared to be active, since the Rad9 adaptor retained its Mec1 phosphorylation. Moreover, the damage-induced interaction between phosphorylated Rad9 and Rad53 remained intact. In contrast, Rad53 hyperphosphorylation was significantly reduced, consistent with the observation that cell-cycle arrest is lost during adaptation. Thus, we conclude Cdc5 acts to attenuate the DNA damage checkpoint through loss of Rad53 hyperphosphorylation to allow cells to adapt to DNA damage. Polo-like kinase homologs have been shown to inhibit the ability of Claspin to facilitate the activation of downstream checkpoint kinases, suggesting that this function is conserved in vertebrates.
Project description:The SUMO ligase activity of Mms21/Nse2, a conserved member of the Smc5/6 complex, is required for resisting extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. We report that the Mms21 SUMO ligase activity is also required during the unchallenged mitotic cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SUMO ligase-defective cells were slow growing and spontaneously incurred DNA damage. These cells required caffeine-sensitive Mec1 kinase-dependent checkpoint signaling for survival even in the absence of extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. SUMO ligase-defective cells were sensitive to replication stress and displayed synthetic growth defects with DNA damage checkpoint-defective mutants such as mec1, rad9, and rad24. MMS21 SUMO ligase and mediator of replication checkpoint 1 gene (MRC1) were epistatic with respect to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress or methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage sensitivity. Subjecting Mms21 SUMO ligase-deficient cells to transient replication stress resulted in enhancement of cell cycle progression defects such as mitotic delay and accumulation of hyperploid cells. Consistent with the spontaneous activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway observed in the Mms21-mediated sumoylation-deficient cells, enhanced frequency of chromosome breakage and loss was detected in these mutant cells. A mutation in the conserved cysteine 221 that is engaged in coordination of the zinc ion in Loop 2 of the Mms21 SPL-RING E3 ligase catalytic domain resulted in strong replication stress sensitivity and also conferred slow growth and Mec1 dependence to unchallenged mitotically dividing cells. Our findings establish Mms21-mediated sumoylation as a determinant of cell cycle progression and maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in budding yeast.
Project description:Broken replication forks result in DNA breaks that are normally repaired via homologous recombination or break induced replication (BIR). Mild insufficiency in the replicative ligase Cdc9 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a population of cells with persistent DNA damage, most likely due to broken replication forks, constitutive activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and longer telomeres. This telomere lengthening required functional telomerase, the core DNA damage signaling cascade Mec1-Rad9-Rad53, and the components of the BIR repair pathway - Rad51, Rad52, Pol32, and Pif1. The Mec1-Rad53 induced phosphorylation of Pif1, previously found necessary for inhibition of telomerase at double strand breaks, was also important for the role of Pif1 in BIR and telomere elongation in cdc9-1 cells. Two other mutants with impaired DNA replication, cdc44-5 and rrm3?, were similar to cdc9-1: their long telomere phenotype was dependent on the Pif1 phosphorylation locus. We propose a model whereby the passage of BIR forks through telomeres promotes telomerase activity and leads to telomere lengthening.
Project description:In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control.
Project description:In response to genotoxic stress, a transient arrest in cell-cycle progression enforced by the DNA-damage checkpoint (DDC) signalling pathway positively contributes to genome maintenance. Because hyperactivated DDC signalling can lead to a persistent and detrimental cell-cycle arrest, cells must tightly regulate the activity of the kinases involved in this pathway. Despite their importance, the mechanisms for monitoring and modulating DDC signalling are not fully understood. Here we show that the DNA-repair scaffolding proteins Slx4 and Rtt107 prevent the aberrant hyperactivation of DDC signalling by lesions that are generated during DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On replication stress, cells lacking Slx4 or Rtt107 show hyperactivation of the downstream DDC kinase Rad53, whereas activation of the upstream DDC kinase Mec1 remains normal. An Slx4-Rtt107 complex counteracts the checkpoint adaptor Rad9 by physically interacting with Dpb11 and phosphorylated histone H2A, two positive regulators of Rad9-dependent Rad53 activation. A decrease in DDC signalling results from hypomorphic mutations in RAD53 and H2A and rescues the hypersensitivity to replication stress of cells lacking Slx4 or Rtt107. We propose that the Slx4-Rtt107 complex modulates Rad53 activation by a competition-based mechanism that balances the engagement of Rad9 at replication-induced lesions. Our findings show that DDC signalling is monitored and modulated through the direct action of DNA-repair factors.
Project description:Budding yeast Rad9, like its orthologs, controls two aspects of the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) - signalling of the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA end resection. Rad9 binds to damaged chromatin via modified nucleosomes independently of the cell cycle phase. Additionally, Rad9 engages in a cell cycle-regulated interaction with Dpb11 and the 9-1-1 clamp, generating a second pathway that recruits Rad9 to DNA damage sites. Binding to Dpb11 depends on specific S/TP phosphorylation sites of Rad9, which are modified by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). Here, we show that these sites additionally become phosphorylated upon DNA damage. We define the requirements for DNA damage-induced S/TP phosphorylation of Rad9 and show that it is independent of the cell cycle or CDK activity but requires prior recruitment of Rad9 to damaged chromatin, indicating that it is catalysed by a chromatin-bound kinase. The checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Tel1 are required for Rad9 S/TP phosphorylation, but their influence is likely indirect and involves phosphorylation of Rad9 at S/TQ sites. Notably, DNA damage-induced S/TP phosphorylation triggers Dpb11 binding to Rad9, but the DNA damage-induced Rad9-Dpb11 interaction is dispensable for recruitment to DNA damage sites, indicating that the Rad9-Dpb11 interaction functions beyond Rad9 recruitment.
Project description:A cdc13 temperature-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae arrests in the G2 phase of the cell cycle at the restrictive temperature as a result of DNA damage that activates the RAD9 checkpoint. The DNA lesions present after a failure of Cdc13p function appear to be located almost exclusively in telomere-proximal regions, on the basis of the profile of induced mitotic recombination. cdc13 rad9 cells dividing at the restrictive temperature contain single-stranded DNA corresponding to telomeric and telomere-proximal DNA sequences and eventually lose telomere-associated sequences. These results suggest that the CDC13 product functions in telomere metabolism, either in the replication of telomeric DNA or in protecting telomeres from the double-strand break repair system. Moreover, since cdc13 rad9 cells divide at a wild-type rate for several divisions at the restrictive temperature while cdc13 RAD9 cells arrest in G2, these results also suggest that single-stranded DNA may be a specific signal for the RAD9 checkpoint.
Project description:A single HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break (DSB) is sufficient to activate the DNA damage checkpoint and cause Saccharomyces cells to arrest at G(2)/M for 12-14 h, after which cells adapt to the presence of the DSB and resume cell cycle progression. The checkpoint signal leading to G(2)/M arrest was previously shown to be nuclear-limited. Cells lacking ATR-like Mec1 exhibit no DSB-induced cell cycle delay; however, cells lacking Mec1's downstream protein kinase targets, Rad53 or Chk1, still have substantial G(2)/M delay, as do cells lacking securin, Pds1. This delay is eliminated only in the triple mutant chk1Delta rad53Delta pds1Delta, suggesting that Rad53 and Chk1 control targets other than the stability of securin in enforcing checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. The G(2)/M arrest in rad53Delta and chk1Delta revealed a unique cytoplasmic phenotype in which there are frequent dynein-dependent excursions of the nucleus through the bud neck, without entering anaphase. Such excursions are infrequent in wild-type arrested cells, but have been observed in cells defective in mitotic exit, including the semidominant cdc5-ad mutation. We suggest that Mec1-dependent checkpoint signaling through Rad53 and Chk1 includes the repression of nuclear movements that are normally associated with the execution of anaphase.
Project description:The DNA damage checkpoint response is controlled by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKK), including ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR). ATR forms a complex with its partner ATRIP. In budding yeast, ATR and ATRIP correspond to Mec1 and Ddc2, respectively. ATRIP/Ddc2 interacts with replication protein A-bound single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) and recruits ATR/Mec1 to sites of DNA damage. Mec1 is stimulated by the canonical activators including Ddc1, Dpb11 and Dna2. We have characterized the ddc2-S4 mutation and shown that Ddc2 not only recruits Mec1 to sites of DNA damage but also stimulates Mec1 kinase activity. However, the underlying mechanism of Ddc2-dependent Mec1 activation remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Ddc2 promotes Mec1 activation independently of Ddc1/Dpb11/Dna2 function in vivo and through ssDNA recognition in vitro. The ddc2-S4 mutation diminishes damage-induced phosphorylation of the checkpoint mediators, Rad9 and Mrc1. Rad9 controls checkpoint throughout the cell-cycle whereas Mrc1 is specifically required for the S-phase checkpoint. Notably, S-phase checkpoint signaling is more defective in ddc2-S4 mutants than in cells where the Mec1 activators (Ddc1/Dpb11 and Dna2) are dysfunctional. To understand a role of Ddc2 in Mec1 activation, we reconstituted an in vitro assay using purified Mec1-Ddc2 complex, RPA and ssDNA. Whereas ssDNA stimulates kinase activity of the Mec1-Ddc2 complex, RPA does not. However, RPA can promote ssDNA-dependent Mec1 activation. Neither ssDNA nor RPA-ssDNA efficiently stimulates the Mec1-Ddc2 complex containing Ddc2-S4 mutant. Together, our data support a model in which Ddc2 promotes Mec1 activation at RPA-ssDNA tracts.
Project description:Following genotoxic insults, eukaryotic cells trigger a signal transduction cascade known as the DNA damage checkpoint response, which involves the loading onto DNA of an apical kinase and several downstream factors. Chromatin modifications play an important role in recruiting checkpoint proteins. In budding yeast, methylated H3-K79 is bound by the checkpoint factor Rad9. Loss of Dot1 prevents H3-K79 methylation, leading to a checkpoint defect in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle and to a reduction of checkpoint activation in mitosis, suggesting that another pathway contributes to Rad9 recruitment in M phase. We found that the replication factor Dpb11 is the keystone of this second pathway. dot1Delta dpb11-1 mutant cells are sensitive to UV or Zeocin treatment and cannot activate Rad53 if irradiated in M phase. Our data suggest that Dpb11 is held in proximity to damaged DNA through an interaction with the phosphorylated 9-1-1 complex, leading to Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Rad9. Dpb11 is also phosphorylated after DNA damage, and this modification is lost in a nonphosphorylatable ddc1-T602A mutant. Finally, we show that, in vivo, Dpb11 cooperates with Dot1 in promoting Rad9 phosphorylation but also contributes to the full activation of Mec1 kinase.