Host immune response in returning travellers infected with malaria.
ABSTRACT: Clinical observations suggest that Canadian-born (CB) travellers are prone to more severe malaria, characterized by higher parasite density in the blood, and severe symptoms, such as cerebral malaria and renal failure, than foreign-born travellers (FB) from areas of malaria endemicity. It was hypothesized that host cytokine and chemokine responses differ significantly in CB versus FB patients returning with malaria, contributing to the courses of severity. A more detailed understanding of the profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and endothelial activation may be useful in developing biomarkers and novel therapeutic approaches for malaria.The patient population for the study (n = 186) was comprised of travellers returning to Toronto, Canada between 2007 and 2011. The patient blood samples' cytokine, chemokine and angiopoietin concentrations were determined using cytokine multiplex assays, and ELISA assays.Significantly higher plasma cytokine levels of IL-12 (p40) were observed in CB compared to FB travellers, while epidermal growth factor (EGF) was observed to be higher in FB than CB travellers. Older travellers (55 years old or greater) with Plasmodium vivax infections had significantly higher mean cytokine levels for IL-6 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) than other adults with P. vivax (ages 18-55). Patients with P. vivax infections had significantly higher mean cytokine levels for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and M-CSF than patients with Plasmodium falciparum. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) was higher for patients infected with P. falciparum than P. vivax, especially when comparing just the FB groups. IL-12 (p40) was higher in FB patients with P. vivax compared to P. falciparum. Il-12 (p40) was also higher in patients infected with P. vivax than those infected with Plasmodium ovale. For patients travelling to West Africa, IFN-? and IL-6 was lower than for patients who were in other regions of Africa.Significantly higher levels of IL-12 (p40) and lower levels of EGF in CB travellers may serve as useful prognostic markers of disease severity and help guide clinical management upon return. IL-6 and M-CSF in older adults and MCP-1, IL-12 (p40) and M-CSF for P. vivax infected patients may also prove useful in understanding age-associated and species-specific host immune responses, as could the species-specific differences in Ang-2. Regional differences in host immune response to malaria infection within the same species may speak to unique strains circulating in parts of West Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n?=?85), P. falciparum (n?=?30), or both species (n?=?12), and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-?, IL-10/interferon (IFN)-?, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-? ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-? receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction of regulatory cytokines may be a critical mechanism protecting vivax malaria patients from severe clinical complications.
Project description:Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?, interferon gamma (IFN-? and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-? were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Circulating cytokine patterns may be relevant for the diagnosis of asthma, for the discrimination of certain phenotypes, and prognostic factors for exacerbation of disease.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this study we investigated serum samples from 944 individuals of 218 asthma-affected families by a multiplex, microsphere based system detecting at high sensitivity eleven asthma associated mediators: eotaxin (CCL11), granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-13, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). Single cytokine levels were largely similar between asthmatic and healthy individuals when analysing asthma as single disease entity. Regulatory differences between parental and pediatric asthma were reflected by six of the eleven mediators analyzed (eotaxin, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, TNF?). IL-12 (p40) and IL-5 were the best predictor for extrinsic asthma in children with an increased odds ratio of 2.85 and 1.96 per log pg/ml increase (IL-12 (p40): 1.2-6.8, p=0.019, and IL-5: 1.2-2.5, p=0.025). Frequent asthma attacks in children are associated with elevated IL-5 serum levels (p=0.013). Cytokine patterns seem to be individually balanced in both, healthy and diseased adults and children, with various cytokines correlating among each other (IL-17 and IFN? (rs=0.67), IL-4 and IL-5 (rs=0.55), IFN? and GM-CSF (rs=0.54)).<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Our data support mainly an age- but also an asthma phenotype-dependent systemic immune regulation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The role of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other cognitive disorders is unclear. In a well-defined mono-center population, we measured cytokines and chemokines in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.<h4>Methods</h4>Consecutive patients with AD (n = 30), stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI, n = 11), other dementias (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 18) were included. None of the subjects was treated with glucocorticoids, cholinesterase inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum and CSF concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12/23 p40, IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and three chemokines were measured using a multiplex panel.<h4>Results</h4>After correction for multiple comparisons, only CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration differed significantly between the total patient group (n = 52) and controls (n = 18; p = 0.002). Further analyses showed that CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration was decreased in all patient subgroups (AD, other dementias, and SMCI) compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). In the total study population (n = 70), CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentrations correlated positively with CSF concentrations of ?-amyloid1-42 (A?1-42) and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) whereas in AD patients (n = 30), CSF IL-12/23 p40 only correlated positively with CSF P-Tau (r = 0.46, p = 0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Most cytokines and chemokines were similar in patients and controls, but CSF IL-12/23 subunit p40 concentration was decreased in patients with cognitive impairment, and correlated with markers of AD disease status. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of CSF IL-12/23 p40 in other dementias and SMCI.
Project description:To examine temporal and geographical trends, risk factors, and seasonality of imported vivax malaria in the United Kingdom to inform clinical advice and policy.Observational study.National surveillance data from the UK Public Health England Malaria Reference Laboratory, data from the International Passenger Survey, and international climactic data.All confirmed and notified cases of malaria in the UK (n=50,187) from 1987 to 2013, focusing on 12,769 cases of vivax malaria.Mortality, sociodemographic details (age, UK region, country of birth and residence, and purpose of travel), destination, and latency (time between arrival in the UK and onset of symptoms).Of the malaria cases notified, 25.4% (n=12,769) were due to Plasmodium vivax, of which 78.6% were imported from India and Pakistan. Most affected patients (53.5%) had travelled to visit friends and relatives, and 11.1% occurred in tourists. Imported P vivax is concentrated in areas with large communities of south Asian heritage. Overall mortality was 7/12,725 (0.05%), but with no deaths in 9927 patients aged under 50 years. Restricting the analysis to those aged more than 50 years, mortality was 7/2798 (0.25%), increasing to 4/526 (0.76%) (adjusted odds ratio 32.0, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 144.0, P<0.001) in those aged 70 years or older. Annual notifications decreased sharply over the period, while traveller numbers between the UK and South Asia increased. The risk of acquiring P vivax from South Asia was year round but was twice as high from June to September (40 per 100,000 trips) compared with the rest of the year. There was strong seasonality in the latency from arrival in the UK to presentation, significantly longer in those arriving in the UK from South Asia from October to March (median 143 days) versus those arriving from April to September (37 days, P<0.001).Travellers visiting friends and family in India and Pakistan are most at risk of acquiring P vivax, and older patients (especially those >70 years) are most at risk of dying; these groups should be targeted for advice before travelling. The risk of acquiring vivax malaria is year round but higher during summer monsoons, masked by latency. The latency of time to clinical presentation of imported vivax malaria in the UK is highly seasonal; seasonal latency has implications for pretravel advice but also for the control of malaria in India and Pakistan. A reduced incidence of vivax malaria in travellers may mean further areas of South Asia can be considered not to need malaria chemoprophylaxis.
Project description:Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected disease, particularly during pregnancy. Severe vivax malaria is associated with inflammatory responses but in pregnancy immune alterations make it uncertain as to what cytokine signatures predominate, and how the type and quantity of blood immune mediators influence delivery outcomes. We measured the plasma concentrations of a set of thirty-one biomarkers, comprising cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, in 987 plasma samples from a cohort of 572 pregnant women from five malaria-endemic tropical countries and related these concentrations to delivery outcomes (birth weight and hemoglobin levels) and malaria infection. Samples were collected at recruitment (first antenatal visit) and at delivery (periphery, cord and placenta). At recruitment, we found that P. vivax-infected pregnant women had higher plasma concentrations of proinflammatory (IL-6, IL-1?, CCL4, CCL2, CXCL10) and TH1-related cytokines (mainly IL-12) than uninfected women. This biomarker signature was essentially lost at delivery and was not associated with birth weight nor hemoglobin levels. Antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were positively associated with infection and poor delivery outcomes. CCL11 was the only biomarker to show a negative association with P. vivax infection and its concentration at recruitment was positively associated with hemoglobin levels at delivery. Birth weight was negatively associated with peripheral IL-4 levels at delivery. Our multi-biomarker multicenter study is the first comprehensive one to characterize the immunological signature of P. vivax infection in pregnancy thus far. In conclusion, data show that while TH1 and pro-inflammatory responses are dominant during P. vivax infection in pregnancy, antiinflammatory cytokines may compensate excessive inflammation avoiding poor delivery outcomes, and skewness toward a TH2 response may trigger worse delivery outcomes. CCL11, a chemokine largely neglected in the field of malaria, emerges as an important marker of exposure or mediator in this condition.
Project description:Malaria remains the most common specific cause of fever in returned travellers and can be life-threatening. We examined demographic and travel correlates of malaria among Canadian travellers and immigrants to identify groups for targeted pretravel intervention.Descriptive data on ill returned Canadian travellers and immigrants presenting to a CanTravNet site between 2004 and 2014 with a diagnosis of malaria were analyzed. Data were collected using the GeoSentinel data platform. This network comprises 63 specialized travel and tropical medicine clinics, including 7 Canadian sites (Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Montréal), that contribute anonymous, delinked, clinician- and questionnaire-based travel surveillance data on all ill travellers examined to a centralized Structure Query Language database.During the study period, 20?345 travellers and immigrants were evaluated, and 93% had a travel-related diagnosis. Of these, 437 (2.1%) patients received 456 malaria diagnoses, the most common species being Plasmodium falciparum (n = 282, 61.8%). People travelling to visit friends and relatives were most well-represented (n = 169, 38.7%), followed by business travellers (n = 71, 16.2%). Sub-Saharan Africa was the most common source region, accounting for 341 (74.8%) malaria diagnoses, followed by South Central Asia (n = 55, 12%). Nigeria was the most well-represented source country, accounting for 41 cases (9.0%). India, a high-volume destination for Canadians, accounted for 40 cases (8.8%), 36 of which were caused by Plasmodium vivax. Of 456 malaria diagnoses, 26 (5.7%) were severe. Of 377 nonimmigrant travellers with malaria, 19.9% (n = 75) travelled for less than 2 weeks, and 7.2% (n = 27) travelled for less than 1 week.This analysis provides an epidemiologic framework for Canadian practitioners encountering prospective and returned travellers. It confirms the importance of preventive measures and surveillance associated with travel to sub-Saharan Africa and India, particularly by travellers visiting friends or relatives. Short-duration travel confers important malaria risk.
Project description:Plasmodium knowlesi has entered the human population of Southeast Asia. Naturally acquired knowlesi malaria is newly described with relatively little available data, including data on the host response to infection. Therefore pre-treatment cytokine and chemokine profiles were determined for 94 P. knowlesi, and for comparison, 20, P. vivax and 22 P. falciparum, patients recruited in Malaysian Borneo. Nine, five and one patient with P. knowlesi, P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively had complicated malaria as defined by World Health Organisation. Patients with uncomplicated P. knowlesi had lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF? than those with complicated disease (both p<0.05, Dunn's post test, DPT). The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 were detected in all patients in the study. IL-1ra, the most abundant cytokine measured, correlated with parasitaemia in P. knowlesi (r(s)?=?0.47, p?=? <0.0001), P. vivax (r(s)?=?0.61, p?=?0.0042) and P. falciparum (r(s)?=?0.57,p?=?0.0054) malaria. IL-10 correlated with parasitaemia in both P. knowlesi (r(s)?=?0.54, p?=? <0.0001) and P. vivax (r(s)?=?0.78, p?=? <0.0001) infections. There were between group differences in soluble markers of macrophage activation (MIP-1? and MCP-1). P. knowlesi patients had significantly lower levels of MIP-1? than P. falciparum (DPT, p?=? <0.01). Uncomplicated P. knowlesi patients had significantly lower levels of MCP-1 than uncomplicated P. falciparum patients (DPT, p?=? <0.001). There was no significant difference between complicated and uncomplicated P. knowlesi infections. MCP-1, MIP-1?, IL-8 and TNF? increased in complicated P. knowlesi but decreased in complicated P. falciparum infections. Descriptions of human knowlesi malaria provide a comparative means to discover mediators of pathophysiology in severe P. knowlesi as well as P. falciparum malaria. Crucially, P. knowlesi may be the disease and experimental primate model for severe malaria.
Project description:Clearing blood-stage malaria parasites without inducing major host pathology requires a finely tuned balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. The interplay between regulatory T (Treg) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) is one of the key determinants of this balance. Although experimental models have revealed various patterns of Treg cell expansion, DC maturation, and cytokine production according to the infecting malaria parasite species, no studies have compared all of these parameters in human infections with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in the same setting of endemicity. Here we show that during uncomplicated acute malaria, both species induced a significant expansion of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cells expressing the key immunomodulatory molecule CTLA-4 and a significant increase in the proportion of DCs that were plasmacytoid (CD123(+)), with a decrease in the myeloid/plasmacytoid DC ratio. These changes were proportional to parasite loads but correlated neither with the intensity of clinical symptoms nor with circulating cytokine levels. One-third of P. vivax-infected patients, but no P. falciparum-infected subjects, showed impaired maturation of circulating DCs, with low surface expression of CD86. Although vivax malaria patients overall had a less inflammatory cytokine response, with a higher interleukin-10 (IL-10)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) ratio, this finding did not translate to milder clinical manifestations than those of falciparum malaria patients. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for species-specific pathogenesis and long-lasting protective immunity to malaria.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are increased in tumor patients. Studies have shown generation of MDSCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by various cytokine combinations. However, large scale expansion of human MDSCs has not been demonstrated or applied in clinic settings. We investigated which cytokine combinations among GM-CSF/SCF, G-CSF/SCF, or M-CSF/SCF efficiently expand and differentiate human MDSCs following culture CD34<sup>+</sup> cells of umbilical cord blood (CB). GM-CSF/SCF showed the greatest expansion of MDSCs. Up to 10<sup>8</sup> MDSCs (HLA-DR<sup>low</sup>CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD33<sup>+</sup>) could be produced from 1 unit of CB following 6 weeks of continuous culture. MDSCs produced from culture of CD34<sup>+</sup> cells with GM-CSF/SCF for 6 weeks had the greatest suppressive function of T cell proliferation and had the highest expression of immunosuppressive molecules including iNOS, arginase 1 and IDO compared to those differentiated with G-CSF/SCF or M-CSF/SCF. MDSCs secreted IL-10, TGB-?, and VEGF. The infusion of expanded MDSCs significantly prolonged the survival and decreased the GVHD score in a NSG xenogeneic model of GVHD. Injected MDSCs increased IL-10 and TGF-? but decreased the level of TNF-? and IL-6 in the serum of treated mice. Notably, FoxP3 expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells were increased while IFN-? (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) producing T cells were decreased in the spleen of MDSC treated mice compared to untreated GVHD mice. Our results demonstrate that human MDSCs are generated from CB CD34<sup>+</sup> cells using GM-CSF/SCF. These MDSCs exhibited potent immunosuppressive function, suggesting that they are useable as a treatment for inflammatory diseases such as GVHD.