Investigation of rare variants in LRP1, KPNA1, ALS2CL and ZNF480 genes in schizophrenia patients reflects genetic heterogeneity of the disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disease characterized by a high heritability and a complex genetic architecture. Recent reports based on exome sequencing analyses have highlighted a significant increase of potentially deleterious de novo mutations in different genes in individuals with schizophrenia. FINDINGS: This report presents the mutation screening results of four candidate genes for which such de novo mutations were previously reported (LRP1, KPNA1, ALS2CL and ZNF480). We have not identified any excess of rare variants in the additional SCZ cases we have screened. CONCLUSIONS: This supports the notion that de novo mutations in these four genes are extremely rare in schizophrenia and further highlights the high degree of genetic heterogeneity of this disease.
Project description:Background:Previous research has implicated de novo and inherited truncating mutations in autism-spectrum disorder. We aim to investigate whether the load of inherited truncating mutations contributes similarly to high-functioning autism, and to characterize genes that harbour de novo variants in high-functioning autism. Methods:We performed whole-exome sequencing in 20 high-functioning autism families (average IQ = 100). Results:We observed no difference in the number of transmitted versus nontransmitted truncating alleles for high-functioning autism (117 v. 130, p = 0.78). Transmitted truncating and de novo variants in high-functioning autism were not enriched in gene ontology (GO) or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) categories, or in autism-related gene sets. However, in a patient with high-functioning autism we identified a de novo variant in a canonical splice site of LRP1, a postsynaptic density gene that is a target for fragile X mental retardation protein (FRMP). This de novo variant leads to in-frame skipping of exon 29, removing 2 of 6 blades of the ?-propeller domain 4 of LRP1, with putative functional consequences. Large data sets implicate LRP1 across a number of psychiatric disorders: de novo variants are associated with autism-spectrum disorder (p = 0.039) and schizophrenia (p = 0.008) from combined sequencing projects; common variants using genome-wide association study data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium show gene-based association in schizophrenia (p = 6.6 × E?07) and in a meta-analysis across 7 psychiatric disorders (p = 2.3 × E?03); and the burden of ultra-rare pathogenic variants has been shown to be higher in autism-spectrum disorder (p = 1.2 × E?05), using whole-exome sequencing from 6135 patients with schizophrenia, 1778 patients with autism-spectrum disorder and 7875 controls. Limitations:We had a limited sample of patients with high-functioning autism, related to difficulty in recruiting probands with high cognitive performance and no family history of psychiatric disorders. Conclusion:Previous studies and ours suggest an effect of truncating mutations restricted to severe autism-spectrum disorder phenotypes that are associated with intellectual disability. We provide evidence for pleiotropic effects of common and rare variants in the LRP1 gene across psychiatric phenotypes.
Project description:We analyze de novo synonymous mutations identified in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia (SCZ) with potential impact on regulatory elements using data from whole-exome sequencing (WESs) studies. Focusing on five types of genetic regulatory functions, we found that de novo near-splice site synonymous mutations changing exonic splicing regulators and those within frontal cortex-derived DNase I hypersensitivity sites are significantly enriched in ASD and SCZ, respectively. These results remained significant, albeit less so, after incorporating two additional ASD datasets. Among the genes identified, several are hit by multiple functional de novo mutations, with RAB2A and SETD1A showing the highest statistical significance in ASD and SCZ, respectively. The estimated contribution of these synonymous mutations to disease liability is comparable to de novo protein-truncating mutations. These findings expand the repertoire of functional de novo mutations to include "functional" synonymous ones and strengthen the role of rare variants in neuropsychiatric disease risk.
Project description:Pharmacological, genetic and expression studies implicate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia (SCZ). Similarly, several lines of evidence suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could be due to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. As part of a project aimed at exploring rare and/or de novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders, we have sequenced the seven genes encoding for NMDA receptor subunits (NMDARs) in a large cohort of individuals affected with SCZ or ASD (n=429 and 428, respectively), parents of these subjects and controls (n=568). Here, we identified two de novo mutations in patients with sporadic SCZ in GRIN2A and one de novo mutation in GRIN2B in a patient with ASD. Truncating mutations in GRIN2C, GRIN3A and GRIN3B were identified in both subjects and controls, but no truncating mutations were found in the GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2D genes, both in patients and controls, suggesting that these subunits are critical for neurodevelopment. The present results support the hypothesis that rare de novo mutations in GRIN2A or GRIN2B can be associated with cases of sporadic SCZ or ASD, just as it has recently been described for the related neurodevelopmental disease intellectual disability. The influence of genetic variants appears different, depending on NMDAR subunits. Functional compensation could occur to counteract the loss of one allele in GRIN2C and GRIN3 family genes, whereas GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2D appear instrumental to normal brain development and function.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex and heterogeneous mental disorder that affects about 1% of global population. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in genetic studies of SCZ. A number of common variants with small effects and rare variants with relatively larger effects have been identified. These variants include risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies, rare copy-number variants identified by comparative genomic analyses, and de novo mutations identified by high-throughput DNA sequencing. Collectively, they contribute to the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we update recent discoveries in the field of SCZ genetics, and outline the perspectives of future directions.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with an estimated heritability of ~80%. Recently, de novo mutations, identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, have been suggested to contribute to the risk of developing SCZ. Although these studies show an overall excess of de novo mutations among patients compared with controls, it is not easy to pinpoint specific genes hit by de novo mutations as actually involved in the disease process. Importantly, support for a specific gene can be provided by the identification of additional alterations in several independent patients. We took advantage of existing genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data sets to screen for deletions or duplications (copy number variations, CNVs) in genes previously implicated by NGS studies. Our approach was based on the observation that CNVs constitute part of the mutational spectrum in many human disease-associated genes. In a discovery step, we investigated whether CNVs in 55 candidate genes, suggested from NGS studies, were more frequent among 1637 patients compared with 1627 controls. Duplications in RB1CC1 were overrepresented among patients. This finding was followed-up in large, independent European sample sets. In the combined analysis, totaling 8461 patients and 112 871 controls, duplications in RB1CC1 were found to be associated with SCZ (P=1.29 × 10(-5); odds ratio=8.58). Our study provides evidence for rare duplications in RB1CC1 as a risk factor for SCZ.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component. High heritability of SCZ suggests a major role for transmitted genetic variants. Furthermore, SCZ is also associated with a marked reduction in fecundity, leading to the hypothesis that alleles with large effects on risk might often occur de novo. In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing for 23 families from two cohorts with unaffected siblings and parents. Two nonsense de novo mutations (DNMs) in GJC1 and HIST1H2AD were identified in SCZ patients. Ten genes (DPYSL2, NBPF1, SDK1, ZNF595, ZNF718, GCNT2, SNX9, AACS, KCNQ1, and MSI2) were found to carry more DNMs in SCZ patients than their unaffected siblings by burden test. Expression analyses indicated that these DNM implicated genes showed significantly higher expression in prefrontal cortex in prenatal stage. The DNM in the GJC1 gene is highly likely a loss function mutation (pLI?=?0.94), leading to the dysregulation of ion channel in the glutamatergic excitatory neurons. Analysis of rare variants in independent exome sequencing dataset indicates that GJC1 has significantly more rare variants in SCZ patients than in unaffected controls. Data from genome-wide association studies suggested that common variants in the GJC1 gene may be associated with SCZ and SCZ-related traits. Genes co-expressed with GJC1 are involved in SCZ, SCZ-associated pathways, and drug targets. These evidences suggest that GJC1 may be a risk gene for SCZ and its function may be involved in prenatal and early neurodevelopment, a vulnerable period for developmental disorders such as SCZ.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are two common neurodevelopmental syndromes that result from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors. We set out to test the hypothesis that rare variants in many different genes, including de novo variants, could predispose to these conditions in a fraction of cases. In addition, for both disorders, males are either more significantly or more severely affected than females, which may be explained in part by X-linked genetic factors. Therefore, we directly sequenced 111 X-linked synaptic genes in individuals with ASD (n = 142; 122 males and 20 females) or SCZ (n = 143; 95 males and 48 females). We identified >200 non-synonymous variants, with an excess of rare damaging variants, which suggest the presence of disease-causing mutations. Truncating mutations in genes encoding the calcium-related protein IL1RAPL1 (already described in Piton et al. Hum Mol Genet 2008) and the monoamine degradation enzyme monoamine oxidase B were found in ASD and SCZ, respectively. Moreover, several promising non-synonymous rare variants were identified in genes encoding proteins involved in regulation of neurite outgrowth and other various synaptic functions (MECP2, TM4SF2/TSPAN7, PPP1R3F, PSMD10, MCF2, SLITRK2, GPRASP2, and OPHN1).
Project description:The role of de novo mutations (DNMs) in common diseases remains largely unknown. Nonetheless, the rate of de novo deleterious mutations and the strength of selection against de novo mutations are critical to understanding the genetic architecture of a disease. Discovery of high-impact DNMs requires substantial high-resolution interrogation of partial or complete genomes of families via resequencing. We hypothesized that deleterious DNMs may play a role in cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), two etiologically heterogeneous disorders with significantly reduced reproductive fitness. We present a direct measure of the de novo mutation rate (μ) and selective constraints from DNMs estimated from a deep resequencing data set generated from a large cohort of ASD and SCZ cases (n = 285) and population control individuals (n = 285) with available parental DNA. A survey of ∼430 Mb of DNA from 401 synapse-expressed genes across all cases and 25 Mb of DNA in controls found 28 candidate DNMs, 13 of which were cell line artifacts. Our calculated direct neutral mutation rate (1.36 × 10(-8)) is similar to previous indirect estimates, but we observed a significant excess of potentially deleterious DNMs in ASD and SCZ individuals. Our results emphasize the importance of DNMs as genetic mechanisms in ASD and SCZ and the limitations of using DNA from archived cell lines to identify functional variants.
Project description:A number of studies indicate that rare copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to the risk of schizophrenia (SCZ). Most of these studies have focused on protein-coding genes residing in the CNVs. Here, we investigated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) within 10 SCZ risk-associated CNV deletion regions (CNV-lncRNAs) and examined their potential contribution to SCZ risk. We used RNA sequencing transcriptome data derived from postmortem brain tissue from control individuals without psychiatric disease as part of the PsychENCODE BrainGVEX and Developmental Capstone projects. We carried out weighted gene coexpression network analysis to identify protein-coding genes coexpressed with CNV-lncRNAs in the human brain. We identified one neuronal function-related coexpression module shared by both datasets. This module contained a lncRNA called DGCR5 within the 22q11.2 CNV region, which was identified as a hub gene. Protein-coding genes associated with SCZ genome-wide association study signals, de novo mutations, or differential expression were also contained in this neuronal module. Using DGCR5 knockdown and overexpression experiments in human neural progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, we identified a potential role for DGCR5 in regulating certain SCZ-related genes.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a heritable, heterogeneous common psychiatric disorder. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that de novo variants (DNVs) contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We performed exome sequencing in Chinese patients (N?=?45) with schizophrenia and their unaffected parents (N?=?90). Forty genes were found to contain DNVs. These genes had enriched transcriptional co-expression profile in prenatal frontal cortex (Bonferroni corrected p?<?9.1?×?10(-3)), and in prenatal temporal and parietal regions (Bonferroni corrected p?<?0.03). Also, four prenatal anatomical subregions (VCF, MFC, OFC and ITC) have shown significant enrichment of connectedness in co-expression networks. Moreover, four genes (LRP1, MACF1, DICER1 and ABCA2) harboring the damaging de novo mutations are strongly prioritized as susceptibility genes by multiple evidences. Our findings in Chinese schizophrenic patients indicate the pathogenic role of DNVs, supporting the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease.