ß-Adrenergic stimulation increases RyR2 activity via intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ regulation.
ABSTRACT: Here we investigate how ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart alters regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by intracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and the role of these changes in SR Ca(2+) release. RyRs were isolated from rat hearts, perfused in a Langendorff apparatus for 5 min and subject to 1 min perfusion with 1 µM isoproterenol or without (control) and snap frozen in liquid N2 to capture their phosphorylation state. Western Blots show that RyR2 phosphorylation was increased by isoproterenol, confirming that RyR2 were subject to normal ß-adrenergic signaling. Under basal conditions, S2808 and S2814 had phosphorylation levels of 69% and 15%, respectively. These levels were increased to 83% and 60%, respectively, after 60 s of ß-adrenergic stimulation consistent with other reports that ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart can phosphorylate RyRs at specific residues including S2808 and S2814 causing an increase in RyR activity. At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] <1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation increased luminal Ca(2+) activation of single RyR channels, decreased luminal Mg(2+) inhibition and decreased inhibition of RyRs by mM cytoplasmic Mg(2+). At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] >1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation only decreased cytoplasmic Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) inhibition of RyRs. The Ka and maximum levels of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) activation site were not affected by ß-adrenergic stimulation. Our RyR2 gating model was fitted to the single channel data. It predicted that in diastole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated by 1) increasing the activating potency of Ca(2+) binding to the luminal Ca(2+) site and decreasing its affinity for luminal Mg(2+) and 2) decreasing affinity of the low-affinity Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) cytoplasmic inhibition site. However in systole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated mainly by the latter.
Project description:During physical exercise and stress, the sympathetic system stimulates cardiac contractility via ?-adrenergic receptor activation, resulting in protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor, RyR2, at Ser2808. Hyperphosphorylation of RyR2-S2808 has been proposed as a mechanism contributing to arrhythmogenesis and heart failure. However, the role of RyR2 phosphorylation during ?-adrenergic stimulation remains controversial. We examined the contribution of RyR2-S2808 phosphorylation to altered excitation-contraction coupling and Ca(2+) signaling using an experimental approach at the interface of molecular and cellular levels and a transgenic mouse with ablation of the RyR2-S2808 phosphorylation site (RyR2-S2808A). Experimentally challenging the communication between L-type Ca(2+) channels and RyR2 led to a spatiotemporal de-synchronization of RyR2 openings, as visualized using confocal Ca(2+) imaging. ?-Adrenergic stimulation re-synchronized RyR2s, but less efficiently in RyR2-S2808A than in control cardiomyocytes, as indicated by comprehensive analysis of RyR2 activation. In addition, spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in RyR2-S2808A myocytes showed significantly slowed propagation and complete absence of acceleration during ?-adrenergic stress, unlike wild type cells. Single channel recordings revealed an attenuation of luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity in RyR2-S2808A channels upon addition of PKA. This suggests that phosphorylation of RyR2-S2808 may be involved in RyR2 modulation by luminal (intra-SR) Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](SR)). We show here by three independent experimental approaches that PKA-dependent RyR2-S2808 phosphorylation plays significant functional roles at the subcellular level, namely, Ca(2+) release synchronization, Ca(2+) wave propagation and functional adaptation of RyR2 to variable [Ca(2+)](SR). These results indicate a direct mechanistic link between RyR2 phosphorylation and SR luminal Ca(2+) sensing.
Project description:Regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) by intracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) plays a key role in determining cardiac contraction and rhythmicity, but their role in regulating the human RyR2 remains poorly defined. The Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-dependent regulation of human RyR2 was recorded in artificial lipid bilayers in the presence of 2 mM ATP and compared with that in two commonly used animal models for RyR2 function (rat and sheep). Human RyR2 displayed cytoplasmic Ca(2+) activation (K(a) = 4 µM) and inhibition by cytoplasmic Mg(2+) (K(i) = 10 µM at 100 nM Ca(2+)) that was similar to RyR2 from rat and sheep obtained under the same experimental conditions. However, in the presence of 0.1 mM Ca(2+), RyR2s from human were 3.5-fold less sensitive to cytoplasmic Mg(2+) inhibition than those from sheep and rat. The K(a) values for luminal Ca(2+) activation were similar in the three species (35 µM for human, 12 µM for sheep, and 10 µM for rat). From the relationship between open probability and luminal [Ca(2+)], the peak open probability for the human RyR2 was approximately the same as that for sheep, and both were ~10-fold greater than that for rat RyR2. Human RyR2 also showed the same sensitivity to luminal Mg(2+) as that from sheep, whereas rat RyR2 was 10-fold more sensitive. In all species, modulation of RyR2 gating by luminal Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) only occurred when cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] was <3 µM. The activation response of RyR2 to luminal and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) was strongly dependent on the Mg(2+) concentration. Addition of physiological levels (1 mM) of Mg(2+) raised the K(a) for cytoplasmic Ca(2+) to 30 µM (human and sheep) or 90 µM (rat) and raised the K(a) for luminal Ca(2+) to ~1 mM in all species. This is the first report of the regulation by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of native RyR2 receptor activity from healthy human hearts.
Project description:Junctin, a non-catalytic splice variant encoded by the aspartate-?-hydroxylase (Asph) gene, is inserted into the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) store where it modifies Ca(2+) signalling in the heart and skeletal muscle through its regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Junctin is required for normal muscle function as its knockout leads to abnormal Ca(2+) signalling, muscle dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmia. However, the nature of the molecular interaction between junctin and RyRs is largely unknown and was assumed to occur only in the SR lumen. We find that there is substantial binding of RyRs to full junctin, and the junctin luminal and, unexpectedly, cytoplasmic domains. Binding of these different junctin domains had distinct effects on RyR1 and RyR2 activity: full junctin in the luminal solution increased RyR channel activity by ?threefold, the C-terminal luminal interaction inhibited RyR channel activity by ?50%, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic binding produced an ?fivefold increase in RyR activity. The cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and RyR is required for luminal binding to replicate the influence of full junctin on RyR1 and RyR2 activity. The C-terminal domain of junctin binds to residues including the S1-S2 linker of RyR1 and N-terminal domain of junctin binds between RyR1 residues 1078 and 2156.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) phospho-site S2808 has been touted by the Marks group as a hallmark of heart failure (HF) and a critical mediator of the physiological fight-or-flight response of the heart. In support of this hypothesis, mice unable to undergo phosphorylation at RyR2-S2808 (S2808A) were significantly protected against HF and displayed a blunted response to adrenergic stimulation. However, the issue remains highly controversial because several groups have been unable to reproduce these findings. An important variable not considered before is the genetic background of the mice used to obtain these divergent results. METHODS AND RESULTS:We backcrossed a RyR2-S2808A mouse into a congenic C57Bl/6 strain, the same strain used by the Marks group to conduct their experiments. We then performed several key experiments to confirm or discard the genetic background of the mouse as a relevant variable, including induction of HF by myocardial infarction and tests of integrity of adrenergic response. Congenic C57Bl/6 harboring the S2808A mutation showed similar echocardiographic parameters that indicated identical progression towards HF compared to wild type controls, and had a normal response to adrenergic stimulation in whole animal and cellular experiments. CONCLUSIONS:The genetic background of the different mouse models is unlikely to be the source of the divergent results obtained by the Marks group in comparison to several other groups. Cardiac adrenergic response and progression towards HF proceed unaltered in mice harboring the RyR2-S2808A mutation. Preventing RyR2-S2808 phosphorylation does not preclude a normal sympathetic response nor mitigates the pathophysiological consequences of MI.
Project description:Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is modulated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). To better characterize Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding sites involved in RyR2 regulation, the effects of cytosolic and luminal earth alkaline divalent cations (M(2+): Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+)) were studied on RyR2 from pig ventricle reconstituted in bilayers. RyR2 were activated by M(2+) binding to high affinity activating sites at the cytosolic channel surface, specific for Ca(2+) or Sr(2+). This activation was interfered by Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) acting at low affinity M(2+)-unspecific binding sites. When testing the effects of luminal M(2+) as current carriers, all M(2+) increased maximal RyR2 open probability (compared to Cs(+)), suggesting the existence of low affinity activating M(2+)-unspecific sites at the luminal surface. Responses to M(2+) vary from channel to channel (heterogeneity). However, with luminal Ba(2+)or Mg(2+), RyR2 were less sensitive to cytosolic Ca(2+) and caffeine-mediated activation, openings were shorter and voltage-dependence was more marked (compared to RyR2 with luminal Ca(2+)or Sr(2+)). Kinetics of RyR2 with mixtures of luminal Ba(2+)/Ca(2+) and additive action of luminal plus cytosolic Ba(2+) or Mg(2+) suggest luminal M(2+) differentially act on luminal sites rather than accessing cytosolic sites through the pore. This suggests the presence of additional luminal activating Ca(2+)/Sr(2+)-specific sites, which stabilize high P(o) mode (less voltage-dependent) and increase RyR2 sensitivity to cytosolic Ca(2+) activation. In summary, RyR2 luminal and cytosolic surfaces have at least two sets of M(2+) binding sites (specific for Ca(2+) and unspecific for Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)) that dynamically modulate channel activity and gating status, depending on SR voltage.
Project description:Ventricular myocytes isolated from hearts of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats exhibit increased spontaneous Ca(2+) release. Studies attribute this defect to an enhancement in activity of type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2). To date, underlying reasons for RyR2 dysregulation remain undefined. This study assesses whether the responsiveness of RyR2 following stimulation by intrinsic ligands is being altered during experimental type 1 diabetes (T1D).M-mode echocardiography established a cardiomyopathy in 8 weeks STZ-diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy confirmed an increase in the spontaneous Ca(2+) release in isolated ventricular myocytes. Western blots revealed no significant change in steady-state levels of the RyR2 protein. When purified to homogeneity and incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, RyR2 from STZ-diabetic rats (dRyR2) exhibited reduced current amplitude at ±35 mV. dRyR2 was also more responsive to intrinsic cytoplasmic activators Ca(2+), adenosine triphosphate, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose and less responsive to the cytoplasmic deactivator Mg(2+). Threshold for the activation of RyR2 by trans (luminal) Ca(2+) was also reduced. These changes were independent of phosphorylation at Ser2808 and Ser2814. Two weeks of insulin treatment starting after 6 weeks of diabetes blunted the phenotype change, indicating that the gain of function is specific to the diabetes and not the result of STZ interacting directly with RyR2.These data show, for the first time, that RyR2 is acquiring a gain-of-function phenotype independent of its phosphorylation status during T1D and provides new insights for the enhanced spontaneous Ca(2+) release in myocytes from T1D rats.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) causes sudden cardiac death due to mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2), calsequestrin, or calmodulin. Flecainide, a class I antiarrhythmic drug, inhibits Na(+) and RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT. The purpose of this study is to identify inhibitory mechanisms of flecainide on RyR2. RyR2 were isolated from sheep heart, incorporated into lipid bilayers, and investigated by single-channel recording under various activating conditions, including the presence of cytoplasmic ATP (2 mM) and a range of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], [Mg(2+)], pH, and [caffeine]. Flecainide applied to either the cytoplasmic or luminal sides of the membrane inhibited RyR2 by two distinct modes: 1) a fast block consisting of brief substate and closed events with a mean duration of ?1 ms, and 2) a slow block consisting of closed events with a mean duration of ?1 second. Both inhibition modes were alleviated by increasing cytoplasmic pH from 7.4 to 9.5 but were unaffected by luminal pH. The slow block was potentiated in RyR2 channels that had relatively low open probability, whereas the fast block was unaffected by RyR2 activation. These results show that these two modes are independent mechanisms for RyR2 inhibition, both having a cytoplasmic site of action. The slow mode is a closed-channel block, whereas the fast mode blocks RyR2 in the open state. At diastolic cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] (100 nM), flecainide possesses an additional inhibitory mechanism that reduces RyR2 burst duration. Hence, multiple modes of action underlie RyR2 inhibition by flecainide.
Project description:Aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) regulation is believed to contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we tested whether inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) prevents dystrophic cardiomyopathy by reducing SR Ca(2+) leak in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. mdx mice were crossed with RyR2-S2808A mice, in which PKA phosphorylation site S2808 on RyR2 is inactivated by alanine substitution. Compared with mdx mice that developed age-dependent heart failure, mdx-S2808A mice exhibited improved fractional shortening and reduced cardiac dilation. Whereas application of isoproterenol severely depressed cardiac contractility and caused 95% mortality in mdx mice, contractility was preserved with only 19% mortality in mdx-S2808A mice. SR Ca(2+) leak was greater in ventricular myocytes from mdx than mdx-S2808A mice. Myocytes from mdx mice had a higher incidence of isoproterenol-induced diastolic Ca(2+) release events than myocytes from mdx-S2808A mice. Thus, inhibition of PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 reduced SR Ca(2+) leak and attenuated cardiomyopathy in mdx mice, suggesting that enhanced PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 at S2808 contributes to abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis associated with dystrophic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:During physical exercise or stress, the sympathetic system stimulates cardiac contractility via β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) activation, resulting in protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor RyR2. PKA-dependent "hyperphosphorylation" of the RyR2 channel has been proposed as a major impairment that contributes to progression of heart failure. However, the sites of PKA phosphorylation and their phosphorylation status in cardiac diseases are not well defined. Among the known RyR2 phosphorylation sites, serine 2030 (S2030) remains highly controversial as a site of functional impact. We examined the contribution of RyR2-S2030 to Ca2+ signaling and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in a transgenic mouse with an ablated RyR2-S2030 phosphorylation site (RyR2-S2030A+/+). We assessed ECC gain by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and confocal Ca2+ imaging during β-ARs stimulation with isoproterenol (Iso) and consistent SR Ca2+ loading and L-type Ca2+ current (I Ca) triggering. Under these conditions, ECC gain is diminished in mutant compared with WT cardiomyocytes. Resting Ca2+ spark frequency (CaSpF) with Iso is also reduced by mutation of S2030. In permeabilized cells, when SR Ca2+ pump activity is kept constant (using 2D12 antibody against phospholamban), cAMP does not change CaSpF in S2030A+/+ myocytes. Using Ca2+ spark recovery analysis, we found that mutant RyR Ca2+ sensitivity is not enhanced by Iso application, contrary to WT RyRs. Furthermore, ablation of RyR2-S2030 prevents acceleration of Ca2+ waves and increases latency to the first spontaneous Ca2+ release after a train of stimulations during Iso treatment. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation at S2030 may represent an important step in the modulation of RyR2 activity during β-adrenergic stimulation and a potential target for the development of new antiarrhythmic drugs.
Project description:Mutations in the cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations cause fatal ventricular arrhythmias in young individuals during ?-adrenergic stimulation.This study sought to determine the effects of a novel RyR2-G230C mutation and whether this mutation and RyR2-P2328S alter the sensitivity of the channel to luminal calcium (Ca(2+)).Functional characterizations of recombinant human RyR2-G230C channels were performed under conditions mimicking stress. Human RyR2 mutant channels were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells together with calstabin2. RyR2 channels were measured to examine the regulation of the channels by cytosolic versus luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+). A 50-year-old white man with repeated syncopal episodes after exercise had a cardiac arrest and harbored the mutation RyR2-G230C. cAMP-dependent protein kinase-phosphorylated RyR2-G230C channels exhibited a significantly higher open probability at diastolic Ca(2+) concentrations, associated with a depletion of calstabin2. The luminal Ca(2+) sensitivities of RyR2-G230C and RyR2-P2328S channels were WT-like.The RyR2-G230C mutant exhibits similar biophysical defects compared with previously characterized CPVT mutations: decreased binding of the stabilizing subunit calstabin2 and a leftward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence for activation under conditions that simulate exercise, consistent with a "leaky" channel. Both RyR2-G230C and RyR2-P2328S channels exhibit normal luminal Ca(2+) activation. Thus, diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak caused by reduced calstabin2 binding and a leftward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence for activation by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) is a common mechanism underlying CPVT.