Comparative field evaluation of combinations of long-lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying, relative to either method alone, for malaria prevention in an area where the main vector is Anopheles arabiensis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are commonly used together in the same households to improve malaria control despite inconsistent evidence on whether such combinations actually offer better protection than nets alone or IRS alone. METHODS: Comparative tests were conducted using experimental huts fitted with LLINs, untreated nets, IRS plus untreated nets, or combinations of LLINs and IRS, in an area where Anopheles arabiensis is the predominant malaria vector species. Three LLIN types, Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0® and Icon Life® nets and three IRS treatments, pirimiphos-methyl, DDT, and lambda cyhalothrin, were used singly or in combinations. We compared, number of mosquitoes entering huts, proportion and number killed, proportions prevented from blood-feeding, time when mosquitoes exited the huts, and proportions caught exiting. The tests were done for four months in dry season and another six months in wet season, each time using new intact nets. RESULTS: All the net types, used with or without IRS, prevented >99% of indoor mosquito bites. Adding PermaNet 2.0® and Icon Life®, but not Olyset® nets into huts with any IRS increased mortality of malaria vectors relative to IRS alone. However, of all IRS treatments, only pirimiphos-methyl significantly increased vector mortality relative to LLINs alone, though this increase was modest. Overall, median mortality of An. arabiensis caught in huts with any of the treatments did not exceed 29%. No treatment reduced entry of the vectors into huts, except for marginal reductions due to PermaNet 2.0® nets and DDT. More than 95% of all mosquitoes were caught in exit traps rather than inside huts. CONCLUSIONS: Where the main malaria vector is An. arabiensis, adding IRS into houses with intact pyrethroid LLINs does not enhance house-hold level protection except where the IRS employs non-pyrethroid insecticides such as pirimiphos-methyl, which can confer modest enhancements. In contrast, adding intact bednets onto IRS enhances protection by preventing mosquito blood-feeding (even if the nets are non-insecticidal) and by slightly increasing mosquito mortality (in case of LLINs). The primary mode of action of intact LLINs against An. arabiensis is clearly bite prevention rather than insecticidal activity. Therefore, where resources are limited, priority should be to ensure that everyone at risk consistently uses LLINs and that the nets are regularly replaced before being excessively torn. Measures that maximize bite prevention (e.g. proper net sizes to effectively cover sleeping spaces, stronger net fibres that resist tears and burns and net use practices that preserve net longevity), should be emphasized.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. METHODS: Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life®) and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts). Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS) or wire balls (nets only). Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr) genes. RESULTS: IRS treatments killed ? 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ? 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1-3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In bioassays where sufficient contact with treated surfaces is assured, LLINs and IRS kill high proportions of susceptible An. arabiensis mosquitoes, though these efficacies decay gradually for LLINs and rapidly for IRS. It is, therefore, important to always add intact nets in sprayed houses, guaranteeing protection even after the IRS decays, and to ensure accurate timing, quality control and regular re-spraying in IRS programmes. By contrast, adding IRS in houses with intact LLINs is unlikely to improve protection relative to LLINs alone, since there is no guarantee that unfed vectors would rest long enough on the sprayed surfaces, and because of the rapid IRS decay. However, there is need to clarify these effects using data from observations of free flying mosquitoes in huts. Physiological susceptibility of An. arabiensis in the area remains 100% against DDT, but is slightly reduced against pyrethroids, necessitating caution over possible spread of resistance. The loss of LLIN toxicity, particularly Olyset® nets suggests that protection offered by these nets against An. arabiensis may be primarily due to physical bite prevention rather than insecticidal efficacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. METHODS: A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset, PermaNet 2.0, Icon Life nets) with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT), in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. RESULTS: Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset or PermaNet 2.0 nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. CONCLUSIONS: Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used), but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used) or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS). Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of whether they are delivered as LLINs or IRS. The insecticidal action of LLINs and IRS probably already approaches their absolute limit of potential impact upon this persistent vector so personal protection of nets should be enhanced by improving the physical integrity and durability. Combining LLINs and non-pyrethroid IRS in residual transmission systems may nevertheless be justified as a means to manage insecticide resistance and prevent potential rebound of not only An. arabiensis, but also more potent, vulnerable and historically important species such as Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. METHODS: The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN) washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. RESULTS: Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes exiting the huts was significantly lower with the control than for the treatment arms (P < 0.001). Mortality rates with resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P < 0.001), which did not differ (P > 0.05) except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P < 0.001), which gave significantly higher mortality (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN. The increased efficacy with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 over PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN was also demonstrated by higher KD and mortality rates (KD > 95% and mortality rate > 80%) in cone bioassays performed with wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro.
Project description:The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control is threatened by resistance to commonly used pyrethroid insecticides. Rotations, mosaics, combinations, or mixtures of insecticides from different complementary classes are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for mitigating against resistance, but many of the alternatives to pyrethroids are prohibitively expensive to apply in large national IRS campaigns. Recent evaluations of window screens and eave baffles (WSEBs) treated with pirimiphos-methyl (PM), to selectively target insecticides inside houses, demonstrated malaria vector mortality rates equivalent or superior to IRS. However, the durability of efficacy when co-applied with polyacrylate-binding agents (BA) remains to be established. This study evaluated whether WSEBs, co-treated with PM and BA have comparable wash resistance to LLINs and might therefore remain insecticidal for years rather than months.WHO-recommended wire ball assays of insecticidal efficacy were applied to polyester netting treated with or without BA plus 1 or 2 g/sq m PM. They were then tested for insecticidal efficacy using fully susceptible insectary-reared Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, following 0, 5, 10, 15, then 20 washes as per WHO-recommended protocols for accelerated ageing of LLINs. This was followed by a small-scale field trial in experimental huts to measure malaria vector mortality achieved by polyester netting WSEBs treated with BA and 2 g/sq m PM after 0, 10 and then 20 standardized washes, alongside recently applied IRS using PM.Co-treatment with BA and either dosage of PM remained insecticidal over 20 washes in the laboratory. In experimental huts, WSEBs treated with PM plus BA consistently killed similar proportions of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes to PM-IRS (both consistently???94%), even after 20 washes.Co-treating WSEBs with both PM and BA results in wash-resistant insecticidal activity comparable with LLINs. Insecticide treatments for WSEBs may potentially last for years rather than months, therefore, reducing insecticide consumption by an order of magnitude relative to IRS. However, durability of WSEBs will still have to be assessed in real houses under representative field conditions of exposure to wear and tear, sunlight and rain.
Project description:Since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in Benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. Few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. We therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (IRS) in semi-field conditions and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in laboratory conditions. The results observed showed low repulsion and low toxicity of pyrethroids compounds in the test populations. The toxicity of pyrethroids used in IRS was significantly low with An. gambiae s.l (< 46%) but high for other predominant species such as Mansonia africana (93% to 97%). There were significant differences in terms of the repellent effect expressed as exophily and deterrence compared to the untreated huts (P<0.001). Furthermore, mortality was 23.71% for OlyseNet® and 39.06% for PermaNet®. However, with laboratory susceptible "Kisumu", mortality was 100% for both nets suggesting a resistance within the wild mosquito populations. Thus treatment with pyrethroids at World Health Organization recommended dose will not be effective at reducing malaria in the coming years. Therefore it is necessary to study how insecticide resistance decreases the efficacy of particular pyrethroids used in pyrethroid-based vector control so that a targeted approach can be adopted.
Project description:LLINs containing an insecticide plus the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) have been designed for increased efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. In this study, two LLINs with PBO, PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus, and a pyrethroid-only LLIN, Yorkool®, were evaluated in experimental huts against a free-flying, wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Kolokopé, a cotton cultivated area of Togo. WHO susceptibility tube tests and subsequent molecular assays determine the An. gambiae s.l. populations to be resistant to pyrethroids and DDT with both target site kdr and metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in the resistance observed. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzi were present in sympatry though the kdr (L1014F) mutation was observed at a higher frequency in An. gambiae s.s. The experimental hut results showed that both PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus nets induced similar levels of deterrence, exophily, and reduced blood feeding rate against wild An. gambiae s.l. in contrast to the pyrethroid only LLIN, Yorkool®. The proportion of wild An. gambiae s.l. killed by unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 was significantly higher than unwashed Olyset® Plus (corrected mortality 80.5% compared to 66.6%). Similar blood feeding inhibition rates were observed for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus; however, PermaNet® 3.0 washed 20 times demonstrated significantly higher blood feeding inhibition rate than Olyset® Plus washed 20 times (91.1% compared with 85.6% respectively). Yorkool® performed the worst for all the parameters evaluated. In an area of pyrethroid resistance of An. gambiae s.l involving kdr target site and metabolic resistance mechanisms, LLINs with PBO can provide additional protection in terms of reduction in blood feeding and increase in mosquito mortality compared to a pyrethroid-only net, and should be considered in malaria vector control strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There are major concerns over sustaining the efficacy of current malaria vector control interventions given the rapid spread of resistance, particularly to pyrethroids. This study assessed the bioefficacy of five WHO-recommended long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae field populations from Uganda. METHODS: Adult An. gambiae from Lira, Tororo, Wakiso and Kanungu districts were exposed to permethrin (0.75%) or deltamethrin (0.05%) in standard WHO susceptibility tests. Cone bioassays were used to measure the bioefficacy of four mono-treated LLINs (Olyset®, Interceptor®, Netprotect® and PermaNet® 2.0) and one combination LLIN (PermaNet® 3.0) against the four mosquito populations. Wireball assays were similarly conducted to determine knockdown rates. Species composition and kdr mutation frequency were determined for a sample of mosquitoes from each population. Chemical assays confirmed that test nets fell within target dose ranges. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae s.s. predominated at all four sites (86-99% of Anopheles spp.) with moderate kdr L1014S allelic frequency (0.34-0.37). Confirmed or possible resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin was identified for all four test populations. Reduced susceptibility to standard LLINs was observed for all four populations, with mortality rates as low as 45.8% even though the nets were unused. The combination LLIN PermaNet®3.0 showed the highest overall bioefficacy against all four An. gambiae s.l. populations (98.5-100% mortality). Wireball assays provided a more sensitive indicator of comparative bioefficacy, and PermaNet 3.0 was again associated with the highest bioefficacy against all four populations (76.5-91.7% mortality after 30 mins). CONCLUSIONS: The bioefficacy of mono-treated LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant field populations of An. gambiae varied by LLIN type and mosquito population, indicating that certain LLINs may be more suitable than others at particular sites. In contrast, the combination LLIN PermaNet 3.0 performed optimally against the four An. gambiae populations tested. The observed reduced susceptibility of malaria vectors to mono-treated LLINs is of particular concern, especially considering all nets were unused. With ongoing scale-up of insecticidal tools in the advent of increasing resistance, it is essential that those interventions with proven enhanced efficacy are given preference particularly in areas with high resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vector control through long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a major component of the Tanzania national malaria control strategy. In mainland Tanzania, IRS has been conducted annually around Lake Victoria basin since 2007. Due to pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, use of pyrethroids for IRS was phased out and from 2014 to 2017 pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) was sprayed in regions of Kagera, Geita, Mwanza, and Mara. Entomological surveillance was conducted in 10 sprayed and 4 unsprayed sites to determine the impact of IRS on entomological indices related to malaria transmission risk. METHODS:WHO cone bioassays were conducted monthly on interior house walls to determine residual efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl CS. Indoor CDC light traps with or without bottle rotator were hung next to protected sleepers indoors and also set outdoors (unbaited) as a proxy measure for indoor and outdoor biting rate and time of biting. Prokopack aspirators were used indoors to capture resting malaria vectors. A sub-sample of Anopheles was tested by PCR to determine species identity and ELISA for sporozoite rate. RESULTS:Annual IRS with Actellic® 300CS from 2015 to 2017 was effective on sprayed walls for a mean of 7 months in cone bioassay. PCR of 2016 and 2017 samples showed vector populations were predominantly Anopheles arabiensis (58.1%, n?=?4,403 IRS sites, 58%, n?=?2,441 unsprayed sites). There was a greater proportion of Anopheles funestus sensu stricto in unsprayed sites (20.4%, n?=?858) than in sprayed sites (7.9%, n?=?595) and fewer Anopheles parensis (2%, n?=?85 unsprayed, 7.8%, n?=?591 sprayed). Biting peaks of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) followed periods of rainfall occurring between October and April, but were generally lower in sprayed sites than unsprayed. In most sprayed sites, An. gambiae s.l. indoor densities increased between January and February, i.e., 10-12 months after IRS. The predominant species An. arabiensis had a sporozoite rate in 2017 of 2.0% (95% CI 1.4-2.9) in unsprayed sites compared to 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3) in sprayed sites (p?=?0.003). Sporozoite rates were also lower for An. funestus collected in sprayed sites. CONCLUSION:This study contributes to the understanding of malaria vector species composition, behaviour and transmission risk following IRS around Lake Victoria and can be used to guide malaria vector control strategies in Tanzania.
Project description:Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) are one of the major malaria vector control tools, with most countries adopting free or subsidised universal coverage campaigns of populations at-risk from malaria. It is essential to understand LLIN durability so that public health policy makers can select the most cost effective nets that last for the longest time, and estimate the optimal timing of repeated distribution campaigns. However, there is limited knowledge from few countries of the durability of LLINs under user conditions.This study investigates LLIN durability in eight districts of Tanzania, selected for their demographic, geographic and ecological representativeness of the country as a whole. We use a two-stage approach: First, LLINs from recent national net campaigns will be evaluated retrospectively in 3,420 households. Those households will receive one of three leading LLIN products at random (Olyset®, PermaNet®2.0 or Netprotect®) and will be followed up for three years in a prospective study to compare their performance under user conditions. LLIN durability will be evaluated by measuring Attrition (the rate at which nets are discarded by households), Bioefficacy (the insecticidal efficacy of the nets measured by knock-down and mortality of mosquitoes), Chemical content (g/kg of insecticide available in net fibres) and physical Degradation (size and location of holes). In addition, we will extend the current national mosquito insecticide Resistance monitoring program to additional districts and use these data sets to provide GIS maps for use in health surveillance and decision making by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP).The data will be of importance to policy makers and vector control specialists both in Tanzania and the SSA region to inform best practice for the maintenance of high and cost-effective coverage and to maximise current health gains in malaria control.