Sympathetic skin response and heart rate variability as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a diagnostic test study.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of sympathetic skin response (SSR) and heart rate variability (HRV) for the differential diagnosis of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).A diagnostic test study.Single centre in Japan.We examined 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosed with NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 20 with probable DLB diagnosed with the criteria of the third international DLB workshop.For the SSR measurement, surface electrodes were used: the active recording electrode was placed on the palm of the hand and the reference electrode was placed on the dorsum of the same hand. SSR was induced by a median nerve electrical stimulation at an amplitude of 20 mA. For the HRV measurement, the A-A intervals were measured twice for 2 min with an interval of 5 min in a sitting position after a rest of 5 min. From the low-frequency power (LF; 0.02-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF; 0.15-0.50 Hz), the ratio of LF to HF power (LF/HF) was calculated using the maximal entropy method.SSR and HRV could detect the abnormality of autonomic function in patients with DLB at sensitivities of 85% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand, SSR and HRV detected an abnormality of autonomic function in patients with AD at sensitivities of 15% and 25% (p<0.05). The combination of the SSR and the HRV (double-positive) indicated abnormal autonomic function was recorded in only 1 of 20 patients (5%) with AD. In contrast, this combination indicated autonomic abnormality in 15 of 20 patients with DLB by our criteria (75%).SSR and HRV can be applied to differentiate DLB from AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is reported that glaucoma may be associated with vascular dysregulation. Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), which feature different intraocular pressure levels, may manifest differential features of systemic autonomic dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We investigated autonomic regulation to carbohydrate ingestion and postural change in 37 glaucoma patients (19 NTG and 18 POAG) and 36 controls. Subjects were age and gender-matched, normotensive, and had normal comparable insulin sensitivity. Continuous finger arterial pressure and ECG was recorded in supine and standing positions before and after carbohydrate ingestion. Low frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4Hz) spectral power of heart rate and systolic blood pressure variability (HRV and SBPV) were calculated to estimate sympathovagal function. Overall comparison glaucoma (N = 37) and controls (N = 36) showed an increased sympathetic excitation, vagal withdrawal and unstable mean arterial pressure after carbohydrate ingestion in glaucoma patients. Glaucoma severity by retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness is positively correlated to autonomic responses (HRV LF power and HF power in normalised units (nu), and HRV LF/HF ratio) after carbohydrate ingestion. Early (30 minutes) following carbohydrate ingestion, SBP LF power and HRV parameters remained unchanged in controls; while POAG showed abnormal autonomic responses, with a paradoxical vagal enhancement (increased HRV HF power in nu) and sympathetic inhibition (decreased HRV LF power nu and HRV LF/HF ratio), and associated hypotension. Later (60-120 minutes) following carbohydrate ingestion, HRV parameters remained unaltered in controls; whereas NTG manifested vagal withdrawal (reduced HRV HF power nu) and sympathetic hyper-responsiveness (increased HRV LF power nu and HRV LF/HF ratio), despite increased SBP LF power in both controls and NTG. Both NTG and POAG exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to postural stress. CONCLUSIONS:NTG and POAG both manifest some systemic autonomic cardiovascular dysregulation. However, the two forms of glaucoma respond differentially to carbohydrate ingestion, irrespective of insulin resistance.
Project description:End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are at increased cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depressed heart rate variability (HRV), a risk factor depicting poor cardiac autonomic tone and risk of cardiovascular death. Vitamin D deficiency and depressed HRV are highly prevalent in the ESKD population. We aimed to determine the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on HRV ((low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) spectral ratio (LF:HF)) in ESKD patients on hemodialysis. Fifty-six subjects with ESKD requiring hemodialysis were recruited from January 2013-March 2015 and randomized 1:1 to either conventional (0.25 mcg alfacalcidol plus placebo 3×/week) or intensive (0.25 mcg alfacalcidol 3×/week plus 50,000 international units (IU) ergocalciferol 1×/week) vitamin D for six weeks. The primary outcome was the change in LF:HF. There was no difference in LF:HF from baseline to six weeks for either vitamin D treatment (conventional: p = 0.9 vs. baseline; intensive: p = 0.07 vs. baseline). However, participants who remained vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 ng/mL) after treatment demonstrated an increase in LF:HF (conventional: n = 13, ?LF:HF: 0.20 ± 0.06, p < 0.001 vs. insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups; intensive: n = 8: ?LF:HF: 0.15 ± 0.06, p < 0.001 vs. sufficient vitamin D group). Overall, six weeks of conventional or intensive vitamin D only augmented LF:HF in ESKD subjects who remained vitamin D-deficient after treatment. Our findings potentially suggest that while activated vitamin D, with or without additional nutritional vitamin D, does not appear to improve cardiac autonomic tone in hemodialysis patients with insufficient or sufficient baseline vitamin D levels, supplementation in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency may improve cardiac autonomic tone in this higher risk sub-population of ESKD.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01774812.
Project description:It is generally accepted that the activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which consists of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous systems (PNS), are reflected in the low- (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands in heart rate variability (HRV)-while, not without some controversy, the ratio of the powers in those frequency bands, the so called LF-HF ratio (LF/HF), has been used to quantify the degree of sympathovagal balance. Indeed, recent studies demonstrate that, in general: (i) sympathovagal balance cannot be accurately measured via the ratio of the LF- and HF- power bands; and (ii) the correspondence between the LF/HF ratio and the psychological and physiological state of a person is not unique. Since the standard LF/HF ratio provides only a single degree of freedom for the analysis of this 2D phenomenon, we propose a joint treatment of the LF and HF powers in HRV within a two-dimensional representation framework, thus providing the required degrees of freedom. By virtue of the proposed 2D representation, the restrictive assumption of the linear dependence between the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the LF-HF frequency band powers is demonstrated to become unnecessary. The proposed analysis framework also opens up completely new possibilities for a more comprehensive and rigorous examination of HRV in relation to physical and mental states of an individual, and makes possible the categorization of different stress states based on HRV. In addition, based on instantaneous amplitudes of Hilbert-transformed LF- and HF-bands, a novel approach to estimate the markers of stress in HRV is proposed and is shown to improve the robustness to artifacts and irregularities, critical issues in real-world recordings. The proposed approach for resolving the ambiguities in the standard LF/HF-ratio analyses is verified over a number of real-world stress-invoking scenarios.
Project description:Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.
Project description:Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 dibetes mellitus (T2DM) patients is frequent and associated with high cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability (HRV) is the gold standard to measure cardiac autonomic neuropathy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of T2DM on HRV parameters.The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched on 1st October 2017 using the keywords "diabetes" AND ("heart rate variability" OR "HRV"). Included articles had to report HRV parameters in T2DM patients and healthy controls measured during 24 hours with a Holter-electrocardiogram. Measurements of HRV retieved were: RR-intervals (or Normal to Normal intervals-NN), standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN), percetange of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), total power, Low Frequency (LF), High Frequency (HF) and LF/HF ratio, as per Task Force recommendations.We included twenty-five case-control studies with 2,932 patients: 1,356 with T2DM and 1,576 healthy controls. T2DM patients had significantly (P<0.01) lower RR-intervals (effect size = -0.61; 95%CI -1.21 to -0.01), lower SDNN (-0.65; -0.83 to -0.47), lower RMSSD (-0.92; -1.37 to -0.47), lower pNN50 (-0.46; -0.84 to -0.09), lower total power (-1.52; -2.13 to -0.91), lower LF (-1.08; -1.46 to -0.69]), and lower HF (-0.79; -1.09 to -0.50). LF/HF did not differ between groups. Levels of blood glucose and HbA1c were associated with several HRV parameters, as well as Time from diagnosis of T2DM.T2DM was associated with an overall decrease in the HRV of T2DM patients. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity were decreased, which can be explained by the deleterious effects of altered glucose metabolism on HRV, leading to cardiac autonomic neuropathy.
Project description:The prevalence and severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) declines with age, but the cause of this is unknown. This study tested 2 hypotheses: (1) autonomic nervous system responses to eating and bowel distention, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), differs by age in IBS patients and (2) HRV is correlated with colonic motility and IBS symptoms.One hundred and fifty-six Rome III positive IBS patients and 31 healthy controls underwent colonic manometry with bag distention in the descending colon, followed by ingestion of an 810-kcal meal. HRV, evaluated by low frequency (%LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) component, high frequency (%HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) component, and the LF/HF ratio, was measured during colonic distention and after the meal. Motility index and subjective symptom scores were simultaneously quantified.Both colonic distention and eating decreased %HF and increased the LF/HF ratio, and both indices of autonomic nervous system correlated with age. In IBS patients, %HF negatively correlated with the postprandial motility index after adjusting for age. The %HF and LF/HF ratios also correlated with psychological symptoms but not bowel symptoms in IBS patients.Decreased vagal activity is associated with increase in age and greater postprandial colonic motility in patients with IBS, which may contribute to postprandial symptoms.
Project description:Frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is an effective tool to evaluate autonomic balance. This study aimed to investigate gender differences in HRV among individuals undergoing regular resistance training.This preliminary cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2016 in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF) and LF/HF ratio components of HRV spectral analysis were analysed among 22 men and 27 women undergoing regular resistance training.Among the male participants, the LF component was significantly increased compared to females in both the supine (1,171 ± 192 versus 545 ± 74 ms2; P = 0.0067) and upright (1,824 ± 260 versus 738 ± 133; P = 0.0011) positions. The LF/HF ratio was also significantly increased in both positions among male participants (P <0.0500 each).These preliminary data suggest a possible gender difference in the HRV of individuals undergoing resistance training.
Project description:In healthy individuals, a reduction in cardiovascular output and a shift to parasympathetic/vagal dominant activity is observed across nocturnal sleep. This cardiac autonomic profile, often measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has been associated with significant benefits for the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the autonomic profile during daytime sleep. Here, we investigated the autonomic profile and short-term reliability of HRV during daytime naps in 66 healthy young adults. Participants took an 80-120 min polysomnographically recorded nap at 1:30 pm. Beat-by-beat RR interval values (RR), high (HF) and low frequency (LF) power, total power (TP), HF normalized units (HF(nu)), and the LF/HF ratio were obtained for 5 min during presleep wakefulness and during nap sleep stages (N2, N3, REM). A subsample of 37 participants took two additional naps with 2 weeks between recordings. We observed lengthening of the RR, higher HF and HF(nu), and lower LF/HF during NREM, compared with REM and wake, and a marked reduction of LF and TP during N3. Intraclass correlation coefficients highlighted a short-term stability of RR and HF ranging across sleep stages between 0.52-0.76 and 0.52-0.80, respectively. Our results suggest that daytime napping in healthy young adults is associated with dynamic changes in the autonomic profile, similar to those seen during nocturnal sleep. Moreover, a reliable intraindividual measure of autonomic cardiac activity can be obtained by just a single daytime nap depending on specific parameters and recording purposes. Nap methodology may be a new and promising tool to explore sleep-dependent, autonomic fluctuations in healthy and at-risk populations.
Project description:Purpose:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on postoperative autonomic nervous system function and serum biomarkers in the elderly. Patients and methods:A total of 122 American Society of Anesthesiologists class II or III patients with coronary heart disease undergoing spinal surgery were randomly divided into two groups: TEAS (received TEAS at Neiguan [PC6] and Ximen [PC4] for 30 minutes before anesthesia induction until the end of surgery) and control (received electrode plate at the same acupuncture points without any electrical stimulation). Serum was isolated for the measurement of concentration of high-sensitive troponin T (hs-cTnT), CRP, and CK. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) including: total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) power, high-frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio were used to assess autonomic nervous system function. The primary outcome was to evaluate whether TEAS changed the postoperative serum hs-cTnT. The secondary outcomes were to observe the effects of TEAS on HRV, circulating CK and CRP after surgery. Results:Hs-cTnT, CRP, and CK concentrations were significantly higher on first, third and fifth day after surgery than those before anesthesia induction in both groups. Hs-cTnT concentration was significantly lower on the first and third day after surgery in TEAS group than in control group. Compared with 1 day before surgery, TP, LF, and HF decreased significantly and HR, LF/HF increased significantly on first, third, and fifth day after surgery in control group. Compared with control group, HR was significantly lower on the first, third, and fifth day after surgery, LF/HF decreased and TP, LF, HF were significantly higher on the first day after surgery in TEAS group. Conclusion:TEAS at PC6 and PC4 could reduce postoperative serum hs-cTnT concentration and change HRV index to improve autonomic nervous system activity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether prior type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment or glycemic control over time are independently associated with heart rate variability (HRV) and whether the presence of cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with arterial stiffness in young adults with youth-onset T2D enrolled in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Heartbeats over 10 min were measured to derive the normal R-Rs (NN intervals). Outcomes included the standard deviation of the NN intervals (SDNN), the root mean square differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), percent of NN beats that differ by more than 50 ms (PNN50), and the low-frequency (LF) power domain, high-frequency (HF) power domain, and their ratio (LF:HF). Autonomic dysfunction was defined as ?3 of 5 abnormal HRV indices compared with obese controls from a separate study. RESULTS:A total of 397 TODAY participants were evaluated 7 years after randomization. TODAY participants had reduced HRV (SDNN 58.1 ± 29.6 ms vs. controls 67.1 ± 25.4 ms; P < 0.0001) with parasympathetic loss (RMSSD 53.2 ± 36.7 ms vs. controls 67.9 ± 35.2 ms; P < 0.0001) with sympathetic overdrive (LF:HF ratio 1.4 ± 1.7 vs. controls 1.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.0001). Cardiac autonomic dysfunction was present in 8% of TODAY participants, and these participants had greater pulse wave velocity compared with those without dysfunction (P = 0.0001). HRV did not differ by randomized treatment, but higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time was independently associated with lower SDNN and RMSSD and higher LF:HF ratio after adjustment for age, race-ethnicity, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS:Young adults with youth-onset T2D show evidence of cardiac autonomic dysfunction with both parasympathetic and sympathetic impairments that are associated with higher HbA1c.