Construction of photoenergetic mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells.
ABSTRACT: The proton motive force (PMF) is bio-energetically important for various cellular reactions to occur. We developed PMF-photogenerating mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells. An archaebacterial rhodopsin, delta-rhodopsin, which is a light-driven proton pump derived from Haloterrigena turkmenica, was expressed in the mitochondria of CHO-K1 cells. The constructed stable CHO-K1 cell lines showed suppression of cell death induced by rotenone, a pesticide that inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity involved in PMF generation through the electron transport chain. Delta-rhodopsin was also introduced into the mitochondria of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The constructed stable SH-SY5Y cell lines showed suppression of dopaminergic neuronal cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), an inducer of Parkinson's disease models, which acts through inhibition of complex I activity. These results suggest that the light-activated proton pump functioned as a PMF generator in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, and suppressed cell death induced by inhibition of respiratory PMF generation.
Project description:Monoamine oxidases (MAO) catalyze the oxidative deamination of many biogenic amines and are integral proteins found in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Changes in MAO-A levels are associated with depression, trait aggression, and addiction. Here we report the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of novel fluorescent peptide-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) chimeras for MAOA mRNA imaging in live neuronal cells. The probes were designed to include MAOA-specific PNA dodecamers, separated by an N-terminal spacer to a ?-opioid receptor targeting peptide (DAMGO), with a spacer and a fluorophore on the C-terminus. The probe was successfully delivered into human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through ?-opioid receptor-mediated endocytosis. The K(d) by flow cytometry was 11.6 ± 0.8 nM. Uptake studies by fluorescence microscopy showed ?5-fold higher signal in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells than in negative control CHO-K1 cells that lack ?-opioid receptors. Moreover, a peptide-mismatch control sequence showed no significant uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. Such mRNA imaging agents with near-infrared fluorophores might enable real time imaging and quantitation of neuronal mRNAs in live animal models.
Project description:Synthesis of ATP by the F1F0 ATP synthase in mitochondria and most bacteria is energized by the proton motive force (pmf) established and maintained by respiratory chain enzymes. Conversely, in the presence of ATP and in the absence of a pmf, the enzyme works as an ATP-driven proton pump. Here, we investigate how high concentrations of ATP affect the enzymatic activity of the F1F0 ATP synthase under high pmf conditions, which is the typical situation in mitochondria or growing bacteria. Using the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate) (ATPαS), we have developed a modified luminescence-based assay to measure ATP synthesis in the presence of millimolar ATP concentrations, replacing an assay using radioactive nucleotides. In inverted membrane vesicles of E. coli, we found that under saturating pmf conditions, ATP synthesis was reduced to ~10% at 5 mM ATPαS. This reduction was reversed by ADP, but not Pi, indicating that the ATP/ADP ratio controls the ATP synthesis rate. Our data suggests that the ATP/ADP ratio ~30 in growing E. coli limits the ATP synthesis rate to ~20% of the maximal rate possible at the applied pmf and that the rate reduction occurs via product inhibition rather than an increased ATP hydrolysis rate.
Project description:G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been extremely successful drug targets for a multitude of diseases from heart failure to depression. This superfamily of cell surface receptors have not, however, been widely considered as a viable target in cancer treatment. In this study we show that a classical G(q/11)-coupled GPCR, the M(3)-muscarinic receptor, was able to regulate apoptosis through receptors that are endogenously expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, and when ectopically expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Stimulation of the M(3)-muscarinic receptor was shown to inhibit the ability of the DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, from mediating apoptosis. This protective response in CHO cells correlated with the ability of the receptor to regulate the expression levels of p53. In contrast, stimulation of endogenous muscarinic receptors in SH-SY5Y cells did not regulate p53 expression but rather was able to inhibit p53 translocation to the mitochondria and p53 phosphorylation at serine 15 and 37. This study suggests the possibility that a GPCR can regulate the apoptotic properties of a chemotherapeutic DNA-damaging agent by regulating the expression, subcellular trafficking and modification of p53 in a manner that is, in part, dependent on the cell type.
Project description:Several transmembrane molecules are cleaved at juxtamembrane extracellular sites leading to shedding of ectodomains. We analysed shedding of members of the Vps10p-D (Vps10p domain; where Vps is vacuolar protein sorting) family of neuronal type-I receptors with partially overlapping functions, and additional proteolytic events initiated by the shedding. When transfected into CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells (CHO-K1), sorCS1a-sorCS1c isoforms were shed at high rates (approximately 0.61% x min(-1)) that were increased approx. 3-fold upon stimulation with phorbol ester. sorCS1c identified in the cultured neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y was shed similarly. In CHO-K1 transfectants, constitutive and stimulated shedding of sorCS3 also occurred at high rates (0.29% and 1.03% x min(-1)). By comparison, constitutive and stimulated shedding of sorLA occurred at somewhat lower rates (0.07% and 0.48% x min(-1)), whereas sorCS2 and sortilin were shed at very low rates even when stimulated (approximately 0.01% x min(-1)). Except for sorCS2, shedding of the receptors was dramatically reduced in mutant CHO cells (CHO-M2) devoid of active TACE (tumour necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme), demonstrating that this enzyme accounts for most sheddase activity. The release of sorCS1 and sorLA ectodomains initiated rapid cleavage of the membrane-tethered C-terminal stubs that accumulated only in the presence of gamma-secretase inhibitors. Purified shed sorLA bound several ligands similarly to the entire luminal domain of the receptor, including PDGF-BB (platelet-derived growth factor-BB) and amyloid-beta precursor protein. In addition, PDGF-BB also bound to the luminal domains of sorCS1 and sorCS3. The results suggest that ectodomains shed from a subset of Vps10p-D receptors can function as carrier proteins.
Project description:Mitochondria are implicated in a variety of degenerative disorders and aging. Mitochondria are responsive to the oxygen in their environment, yet tissue culture is performed at atmospheric (21%) oxygen and not at physiological (1-11%) oxygen levels found in tissues. We employed imaging of mitochondrial probes, mass spectrometry, Western blots, and ATP assays of the human neuroblastoma cell-line SH-SY5Y and imaging of mitochondrial probes in human primary neurons under standard nonphysiological oxygen conditions (atmospheric) and under physiological oxygen levels in the nervous system to assess the impact of oxygen on mitochondrial function. SH-SY5Y cells cultured in physiological 5% oxygen exhibited the lowest reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, indicating that culture at 5% oxygen is favored; these results were mimicked in primary human cells. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed extensive mitochondrial proteomic alterations in SH-SY5Y cells based on oxygen culture condition. Among these, the rotenone-sensitive subunit of complex I NDUFV3 was increased in cells cultured at 5% oxygen. Rotenone is a Parkinson's disease-linked toxin, and correspondingly SH-SY5Y cells cultured at 5% oxygen also exhibited over 10 times greater sensitivity to rotenone than those cultured in atmospheric, 21%, oxygen. Our results indicate that neuronal mitochondria are responsive to oxygen levels and produce differential responses under different oxygen levels.
Project description:We previously showed that the chimeric proteins of microbial rhodopsins, such as light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) that contain cytoplasmic loops of bovine rhodopsin, are able to activate Gt protein upon light absorption. These facts suggest similar protein structural changes in both the light-driven proton pump and animal rhodopsin. Here we report two trials to engineer chimeric rhodopsins, one for the inserted loop, and another for the microbial rhodopsin template. For the former, we successfully activated Gs protein by light through the incorporation of the cytoplasmic loop of ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR). For the latter, we did not observe any G-protein activation for the light-driven sodium pump from Indibacter alkaliphilus (IndiR2) or a light-driven chloride pump halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR), whereas the light-driven proton pump GR showed light-dependent G-protein activation. This fact suggests that a helix opening motion is common to G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and GR, but not to IndiR2 and NpHR. Light-induced difference FTIR spectroscopy revealed similar structural changes between WT and the third loop chimera for each light-driven pump. A helical structural perturbation, which was largest for GR, was further enhanced in the chimera. We conclude that similar structural dynamics that occur on the cytoplasmic side of GPCR are needed to design chimeric microbial rhodopsins.
Project description:Oxaliplatin (Oxa) treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel), could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin's protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic pathways of platinum compounds in cancer treatment.
Project description:Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells. Most importantly, the pro-autophagy factor AMBRA1 is sufficient to restore mitophagy in fibroblasts of PD patients carrying PINK1 and PARKIN mutations. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of AMBRA1-induced mitophagy against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and rotenone-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We demonstrated that AMBRA1ActA overexpression was sufficient to induce mitochondrial clearance in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA and rotenone was reversed by AMBRA1-induced mitophagy. Finally, transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a vector encoding AMBRA1ActA significantly reduced 6-OHDA and rotenone-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, our results indicate that AMBRA1ActA is able to induce mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells in order to suppress oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by both 6-OHDA and rotenone. These results strongly suggest that AMBRA1 may have promising neuroprotective properties with an important role in limiting ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death, and the utmost potential to prevent PD or other neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress.
Project description:San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT), composed of Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat gastritis, gastric bleeding and peptic ulcers. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of SHXT on microglia-mediated neurotoxicity using co-cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia-like BV-2 cells with neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Effects of SHXT on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity were also examined in SH-SY5Y cells. Results indicated SHXT inhibited LPS-induced inflammation of BV-2 cells by downregulation of iNOS, NO, COX-2, PGE(2), gp91(phox), iROS, TNF-?, IL-1?, inhibition of I?B? degradation and upregulation of HO-1. In addition, SHXT increased cell viability and down regulated nNOS, COX-2 and gp91(phox) of SH-SY5Y cells co-cultured with LPS activated BV-2 cells. SHXT treatment increased cell viability and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), decreased expression of nNOS, COX-2, gp91(phox) and iROS, and inhibited I?B? degradation in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells. SHXT also attenuated LPS activated BV-2 cells- and 6-OHDA-induced cell death in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with db-cAMP. Furthermore, SHXT-inhibited nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-?B in LPS treated BV-2 cells and 6-OHDA treated SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, SHXT showed protection from activated microglia- and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Rhodopsin-encoding microorganisms are common in many environments. However, knowing that rhodopsin genes are present provides little insight into how the host cells utilize light. The genome of the freshwater actinobacterium Rhodoluna lacicola encodes a rhodopsin of the uncharacterized actinorhodopsin family. We hypothesized that actinorhodopsin was a light-activated proton pump and confirmed this by heterologously expressing R. lacicola actinorhodopsin in retinal-producing Escherichia coli. However, cultures of R. lacicola did not pump protons, even though actinorhodopsin mRNA and protein were both detected. Proton pumping in R. lacicola was induced by providing exogenous retinal, suggesting that the cells lacked the retinal cofactor. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and oxidation of accessory pigments to confirm that R. lacicola does not synthesize retinal. These results suggest that in some organisms, the actinorhodopsin gene is constitutively expressed, but rhodopsin-based light capture may require cofactors obtained from the environment.Up to 70% of microbial genomes in some environments are predicted to encode rhodopsins. Because most microbial rhodopsins are light-activated proton pumps, the prevalence of this gene suggests that in some environments, most microorganisms respond to or utilize light energy. Actinorhodopsins were discovered in an analysis of freshwater metagenomic data and subsequently identified in freshwater actinobacterial cultures. We hypothesized that actinorhodopsin from the freshwater actinobacterium Rhodoluna lacicola was a light-activated proton pump and confirmed this by expressing actinorhodopsin in retinal-producing Escherichia coli. Proton pumping in R. lacicola was induced only after both light and retinal were provided, suggesting that the cells lacked the retinal cofactor. These results indicate that photoheterotrophy in this organism and others may require cofactors obtained from the environment.