Lumican expression, localization and antitumor activity in prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: The stromal reaction surrounding tumors leads to the formation of a tumor-specific microenvironment, which may play either a restrictive role or a supportive role in the growth and progression of the tumors. Lumican, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) of the extracellular matrix (ECM), regulates collagen fibrillogenesis. Recently, lumican has also been shown to regulate cell behavior during embryonic development, tissue repair and tumor progression. The role of lumican in cancer varies according to the type of tumor. In this study we analyze the role of lumican in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer both in vivo and in vitro. Overall lumican up-regulation was observed in the primary tumors analyzed through both real-time PCR and immunostaining. The increase in lumican expression was observed in the reactive stroma surrounding prostate primary tumors with fibrotic deposition surrounding the acinar glands. In vitro analysis demonstrated that lumican inhibited both the migration and invasion of metastatic prostate cancer cells isolated from lymph node, bone and brain. Moreover, prostate cancer cells seeded on lumican presented a decrease in the formation of cellular projections, lamellipodia detected by a decreased rearrangement in ZO-1, keratin 8/18, integrin ?1 and MT1-MMP, and invadopodia detected by disruption of ?-smooth muscle actin, cortactin and N-WASP. Moreover, a significant increase in prostate cancer cell invasion was observed through the peritoneum of lumican knockout mice, further demonstrating the restrictive role lumican present in the ECM has on prostate cancer invasion. In conclusion, lumican present in the reactive stroma surrounding prostate primary tumors plays a restrictive role on cancer progression, and we therefore postulate that lumican could be a valuable marker in prostate cancer staging.
Project description:To evaluate the relevance between lumican expression patterns and the clinical course of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to investigate the role of lumican in PDAC progression.One hundred thirty-one patient tumors were chosen for tissue microarray staining, and Cox regression analysis was used to test the associations between lumican expression and clinical, pathologic, and oncologic outcomes in all patients. Primary PDAC cells and recombinant human lumican protein were used to establish a working model to mimic the in vivo interactions between stromal lumican and PDAC cells. Using this model, we tested the effects of lumican on EGFR signaling via Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF1?) and its subsequent influence on glucose consumption, lactate production, intracellular ATP, and apoptotic cell death.Lumican was present in the stroma surrounding PDAC cells in roughly one-half of primary tumors and the direct xenografts. Patients with stromal lumican were associated with a profound reduction in metastatic recurrence after surgery and 3-fold longer survival than patients without stromal lumican. In PDAC cells, extracellular lumican reduced EGFR expression and phosphorylation through enhanced dimerization and internalization of EGFR and the resultant inhibition of Akt kinase activity. Lumican also reduced HIF1? expression and activity via Akt. PDAC cells with enhanced HIF1? activity were resistant to lumican-induced inhibition of glucose consumption, lactate production, intracellular ATP, and apoptosis.There is a positive association between stromal lumican in primary PDAC tumors and prolonged survival after tumor resection. Lumican plays a restrictive role in EGFR-expressing pancreatic cancer progression.
Project description:Adenocarcinoma (AdC) is the most common lung cancer subtype and is often associated with pleural effusion (PE). Its poor prognosis is attributable to diagnostic delay and lack of effective treatments and there is a pressing need in discovering new biomarkers for early diagnosis or targeted therapies. To date, little is known about lung AdC proteome. We investigated protein expression of lung AdC in PE using the isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) approach to identify possible novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. This provided the identification of 109 of lung AdC-related proteins. We further analyzed lumican, one of the overexpressed proteins, in 88 resected lung AdCs and in 23 malignant PE cell-blocks (13 lung AdCs and 10 non-lung cancers) using immunohistochemistry. In AdC surgical samples, lumican expression was low in cancer cells, whereas it was strong and diffuse in the stroma surrounding the tumor. However, lumican expression was not associated with tumor grade, stage, and vascular/pleural invasion. None of the lung cancer cell-blocks showed lumican immunoreaction, whereas those of all the other tumors were strongly positive. Finally, immunoblotting analysis showed lumican expression in both cell lysate and conditioned medium of a fibroblast culture but not in those of A549 lung cancer cell line. PE is a valid source of information for proteomic analysis without many of the restrictions of plasma. The high lumican levels characterizing AdC PEs are probably due to its release by the fibroblasts surrounding the tumor. Despite the role of lumican in lung AdC is still elusive, it could be of diagnostic value.
Project description:Aberrant transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling is a hallmark of the stromal microenvironment in cancer. Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3), shown to inhibit TGF-? signaling, is downregulated in prostate cancer and upregulated in the stroma in benign prostatic hyperplasia, but the function of stromal Dkk-3 is unclear. Here we show that DKK3 silencing in WPMY-1 prostate stromal cells increases TGF-? signaling activity and that stromal cell-conditioned media inhibit prostate cancer cell invasion in a Dkk-3-dependent manner. DKK3 silencing increased the level of the cell-adhesion regulator TGF-?-induced protein (TGFBI) in stromal and epithelial cell-conditioned media, and recombinant TGFBI increased prostate cancer cell invasion. Reduced expression of Dkk-3 in patient tumors was associated with increased expression of TGFBI. DKK3 silencing reduced the level of extracellular matrix protein-1 (ECM-1) in prostate stromal cell-conditioned media but increased it in epithelial cell-conditioned media, and recombinant ECM-1 inhibited TGFBI-induced prostate cancer cell invasion. Increased ECM1 and DKK3 mRNA expression in prostate tumors was associated with increased relapse-free survival. These observations are consistent with a model in which the loss of Dkk-3 in prostate cancer leads to increased secretion of TGFBI and ECM-1, which have tumor-promoting and tumor-protective roles, respectively. Determining how the balance between the opposing roles of extracellular factors influences prostate carcinogenesis will be key to developing therapies that target the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Background: The microarray analysis of whole-genome expression indicated that the gene encoding the protein lumican, which is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, was highly expressed in osteotropic lung cancer cell lines with an enhanced capacity of bone metastasis. Methods: The expression of lumican in the osteotropic lung cancer cells was downregulated, and the in vitro migration, invasion, and adhesion of cancer cells to ECM components, and the in vivo bone metastasis capacity of these cells were examined. Exogenous lumican was provided to study the autocrine regulation mechanism of lumican in the bone metastasis of lung cancer cells. Results: Transfection with lumican-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the osteotropic lung cancer cells reduced the establishment of in vivo bone metastasis, but not lung metastasis. Reduction in the expression of lumican also decreased the attachment of lung osteotropic cancer cells to several components of the ECM and suppressed cell migration and invasion in vitro. Exogenous lumican restored these reduced capacities of lumican knockdown cells and promoted the seeding of lung cancer cells in the bone microenvironment. Conclusions: These results suggested that lumican promotes the metastasis of lung cancer cells to the bones via an autocrine regulatory mechanism, and blocking this interaction may provide a new therapeutic approach to reduce bone metastasis in cases of lung cancer.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in stromal cells is important in prostate cancer, yet the mechanisms underpinning stromal AR contribution to disease development and progression remain unclear. Using patient-matched benign and malignant prostate samples, we show a significant association between low AR levels in cancer associated stroma and increased prostate cancer-related death at one, three and five years post-diganosis, and in tissue recombination models with primary prostate cancer cells that low stromal AR decreases castration-induced apoptosis. AR-regulation was found to be different in primary human fibroblasts isolated from adjacent to cancerous and non-cancerous prostate epithelia, and to represent altered activation of myofibroblast pathways involved in cell cycle, adhesion, migration, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Without AR signaling, the fibroblast-derived ECM loses the capacity to promote attachment of both myofibroblasts and cancer cells, is less able to prevent cell-matrix disruption, and is less likely to impede cancer cell invasion. AR signaling in prostate cancer stroma appears therefore to alter patient outcome by maintaining an ECM microenvironment inhibitory to cancer cell invasion. This paper provides comprehensive insight into AR signaling in the non-epithelial prostate microenvironment, and a resource from which the prognostic and therapeutic implications of stromal AR levels can be further explored.
Project description:Increasing number of evidence shows that soluble factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components provide an optimal microenvironment controlling human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) functions. Successful in vivo administration of stem cells lies in their ability to migrate through ECM barriers and to differentiate along tissue-specific lineages, including endothelium. Lumican, a protein of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, was shown to impede cell migration and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of lumican in the control of MSC migration and transition to functional endothelial progenitor cell (EPC).Lumican inhibited tube-like structures formation on Matrigel® by MSC, but not EPC. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-14, play an important role in remodelling of ECM and enhancing cell migration, their expression and activity were investigated in the cells grown on different ECM substrata. Lumican down-regulated the MMP-14 expression and activity in MSC, but not in EPC. Lumican inhibited MSC, but not EPC migration and invasion. The inhibition of MSC migration and invasion by lumican was reversed by MMP-14 overexpression.Altogether, our results suggest that lumican inhibits MSC tube-like structure formation and migration via mechanisms that involve a decrease of MMP-14 expression and activity.
Project description:Reactive stroma is a tissue feature commonly observed in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer and has previously been associated with more aggressive tumors. The aim of this study was to detect differentially expressed genes and metabolites according to reactive stroma content measured on the exact same prostate cancer tissue sample. Reactive stroma was evaluated using histopathology from 108 fresh frozen prostate cancer samples gathered from 43 patients after prostatectomy (Biobank1). A subset of the samples was analyzed both for metabolic (n?=?85) and transcriptomic alterations (n?=?78) using high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS) and RNA microarray, respectively. Recurrence-free survival was assessed in patients with clinical follow-up of minimum five years (n?=?38) using biochemical recurrence (BCR) as endpoint. Multivariate metabolomics and gene expression analysis compared low (?15%) against high reactive stroma content (?16%). High reactive stroma content was associated with BCR in prostate cancer patients even when accounting for the influence of Grade Group (Cox hazard proportional analysis, p?=?0.013). In samples with high reactive stroma content, metabolites and genes linked to immune functions and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling were significantly upregulated. Future validation of these findings is important to reveal novel biomarkers and drug targets connected to immune mechanisms and ECM in prostate cancer. The fact that high reactive stroma grading is connected to BCR adds further support for the clinical integration of this histopathological evaluation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR) was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood.<h4>Methods</h4>Immunohistochemistry assays are applied to human prostate tissue biopsies. Cell migration, invasion and proliferation assays are performed using human prostate cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to measure gene expression at molecular levels.<h4>Results</h4>Immunohistochemistry assays showed that PR protein levels were decreased in cancer associated stroma when compared with paired normal prostate stroma. Using in vitro prostate stromal cell models, we showed that conditioned media collected from PR positive stromal cells inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, but had minor suppressive impacts on cancer cell proliferation. PR suppressed the secretion of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) by stromal cells independent to PR ligands. Blocking PR expression by siRNA or supplementation of exogenous SDF-1 or IL-6 to conditioned media from PR positive stromal cells counteracted the inhibitory effects of PR to cancer cell migration and invasion.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Decreased expression of the PR in cancer associated stroma may contribute to the elevated SDF-1 and IL-6 levels in prostate tumors and enhance prostate tumor progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tumor stroma plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of colon cancer. The glycoproteins versican and lumican are overexpressed in colon carcinomas and are associated with the formation of tumor stroma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of versican and lumican expression in the epithelial and stromal compartment of Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage II and III colon cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Clinicopathological data and tissue samples were collected from stage II (n = 226) and stage III (n = 160) colon cancer patients. Tissue microarrays were constructed with cores taken from both the center and the periphery of the tumor. These were immunohistochemically stained for lumican and versican. Expression levels were scored on digitized slides. Statistical evaluation was performed.<h4>Results</h4>Versican expression by epithelial cells in the periphery of the tumor, i.e., near the invasive front, was correlated to a longer disease-free survival for the whole cohort (P = 0.01), stage III patients only (P = 0.01), stage III patients with microsatellite-instable tumors (P = 0.04), and stage III patients with microsatellite-stable tumors who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.006). Lumican expression in epithelial cells overall in the tumor was correlated to a longer disease-specific survival in stage II patients (P = 0.05) and to a longer disease-free survival and disease-specific survival in microsatellite-stable stage II patients (P = 0.02 and P = 0.004).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Protein expression of versican and lumican predicted good clinical outcome for stage III and II colon cancer patients, respectively.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>One prominent event associated with colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression is genomic instability. Approximately 85% of colorectal cancer cases exhibit chromosomal instability characterized by accumulation of chromosome copy number aberrations (CNAs). Adenomas with gain of chromosome 8q, 13q, and/or 20q are at high risk of progression to cancer. Tumor progression is also associated with expansion of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the activation of non-malignant cells within the tumor stroma. The glycoproteins versican and lumican are overexpressed at the mRNA level in colon carcinomas compared to adenomas, and are associated with the formation of tumor stroma.<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this study was to characterize versican and lumican protein expression in tumor progression and investigate their association with CNAs commonly associated with adenoma-to-carcinoma progression.<h4>Methods</h4>Tissue microarrays were constructed with colon adenomas and carcinomas that were characterized for MSI-status and DNA copy number gains of chromosomes 8q, 13q and 20q. Sections were immunohistochemically stained for lumican and versican. Protein expression levels were evaluated using digitized slides, and scores were finally dichotomized into a positive or negative score per sample.<h4>Results</h4>Lumican and versican expression were both observed in neoplastic cells and in the tumor stroma of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Lumican expression was more frequently present in epithelial cells of carcinomas than adenomas (49% versus 18%; P = 0.0001) and in high-risk adenomas and carcinomas combined compared to low-risk adenomas (43% versus 16%; P = 0.005). Versican staining in the tumor stroma was more often present in high-risk adenomas combined with carcinomas compared to low-risk adenomas (57% versus 36%; P = 0.03) and was associated with the presence of gain of 13q (71% versus 44%; P = 0.04).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Epithelial lumican and stromal versican protein expression are increased during colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression.