Omega-3 fatty acids, polymorphisms and lipid related cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Inuit population.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Tissue concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and genetic variations are well-known factors which affect the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to examine whether the genetic variability of 20 candidate genes and red blood cells (RBCs) percentage of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a biomarker of dietary n-3 PUFA intake, modulate lipid related CVD risk factors in the Inuit population. METHODS:Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n?=?553) were analysed via multivariate regression models with 40 known polymorphisms, RBCs percentage of n-3 PUFA, and the interaction term to take into account the effect on plasma lipid and apolipoporotein levels. RESULTS:Individuals being heterozygotes for CETP C-4502T (rs183130) or G-971A (rs4783961) together with higher n-3 PUFA had lower triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations compared to homozygotes for the minor allele. Further, effects of a stronger beneficial association between n-3 PUFA in RBCs and plasma lipid parameters- including lower total cholesterol (TC), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations- were associated with AGT M235T (rs699) TT genotype, CETP G-971A (rs4783961) AG genotype, T allele carriers of CETP C-4502T (rs183130), and T allele carriers of CETP Ile405Val (rs5882). In contrast, higher n-3 PUFA in RBCs were associated with adverse lipid profiles- including increased LDL-C, increased apolipoprotein B100 or decreased HDL-C concentrations- in G allele carriers of the APOA5 -3 A/G (rs651821), C allele carriers of APOA5 T-1131C (rs662799), G carriers of APOC3 SstI (rs5128) and G carriers of APOA4 Asn147Ser (rs5104). CONCLUSION:Overall, these results suggest that percentage of total n-3 PUFA of RBCs are associated with lipids related CVD risk factors conferred by genetic variations in the Inuit population.
Project description:Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10??) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10??) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10??), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated CETP gene variants to assess the risk of T2D and specific complications of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy. Towards this, a total of 3023 Taiwanese individuals (1383 without T2D, 1640 with T2D) were enrolled in this study. T2D mice (+Leprdb/+Leprdb, db/db) were used to determine CETP expression in tissues. The A-alleles of rs3764261, rs4783961, and rs1800775 variants were found to be independently associated with 2.86, 1.71, and 0.91 mg/dL increase in HDL-C per allele, respectively. In addition, the A-allele of rs4783961 was significantly associated with a reduced T2D risk (odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71?0.96)), and the A-allele of rs1800775 was significantly related to a lowered DKD risk (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64?0.96). CETP expression was significantly decreased in the T2D mice kidney compared to that in the control mice (T2D mice, 0.16 0.01 vs. control mice, 0.21 0.02; p = 0.02). These collective findings indicate that CETP variants in the promoter region may affect HDL-C levels. Taiwanese individuals possessing an allele associated with higher HDL-C levels had a lower risk of T2D and DKD.
Project description:Blood lipids are important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with both genetic and environmental determinants. The Whitehall II study (n=5592) was genotyped with the gene-centric HumanCVD BeadChip (Illumina). We identified 195 SNPs in 16 genes/regions associated with 3 major lipid fractions and 2 apolipoprotein components at p<10(-5), with the associations being broadly concordant with prior genome-wide analysis. SNPs associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were located in LDLR, PCSK9, APOB, CELSR2, HMGCR, CETP, the TOMM40-APOE-C1-C2-C4 cluster, and the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 cluster; SNPs associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI were in CETP, LPL, LIPC, APOA5-A4-C3-A1, and ABCA1; and SNPs associated with triglycerides in GCKR, BAZ1B, MLXIPL, LPL, and APOA5-A4-C3-A1. For 48 SNPs in previously unreported loci that were significant at p<10(-4) in Whitehall II, in silico analysis including the British Women's Heart and Health Study, BRIGHT, ASCOT, and NORDIL studies (total n>12,500) revealed previously unreported associations of SH2B3 (p<2.2x10(-6)), BMPR2 (p<2.3x10(-7)), BCL3/PVRL2 (flanking APOE; p<4.4x10(-8)), and SMARCA4 (flanking LDLR; p<2.5x10(-7)) with LDL cholesterol. Common alleles in these genes explained 6.1%-14.7% of the variance in the five lipid-related traits, and individuals at opposite tails of the additive allele score exhibited substantial differences in trait levels (e.g., >1 mmol/L in LDL cholesterol [approximately 1 SD of the trait distribution]). These data suggest that multiple common alleles of small effect can make important contributions to individual differences in blood lipids potentially relevant to the assessment of CVD risk. These genes provide further insights into lipid metabolism and the likely effects of modifying the encoded targets therapeutically.
Project description:The role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is well studied but still controversial. More recently, genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses reported the association of a promoter variant (rs3764261) with HDL-C in Caucasians and other ethnic groups. In this study, we have examined the role of genetic variation in the promoter region of CETP with HDL-C, CETP activity, coronary artery disease (CAD), CAD risk factors, and the interaction of genetic factors with environment in a unique diabetic cohort of Asian Indian Sikhs.We genotyped four variants; three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms from promoter (rs3764261, rs12447924, rs4783961) and one intronic variant (rs708272 Taq1B) on 2431 individuals from the Sikh Diabetes study. Two variants (rs3764261 and rs708272) exhibited a strong association with HDL-C in both normoglycemic controls (?=0.12; P=9.35×10 for rs3764261; ?=0.10, P=0.002 for rs708272) and diabetic cases (?=0.07, P=0.016 for rs3764261; ?=0.08, P=0.005 for rs708272) with increased levels among minor homozygous 'AA' carriers. In addition, the same 'A' allele carriers in rs3764261 showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (?=-0.08, P=0.002) in normoglycemic controls. Haplotype analysis of rs3764261, rs12447924, rs4783961, and rs708272 further revealed a significant association of 'ATAA' haplotype with an increased HDL-C (?=2.71, P=6.38×10) and 'CTAG' haplotype with decreased HDL-C levels (?=-1.78, P=2.5×10). Although there was no direct association of CETP activity and CETP polymorphisms, low CETP activity was associated with an increased risk to CAD (age, BMI, and sex-adjusted odds ratio=2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.4; P=0.001) in this study. Our data revealed a strong interaction of rs3764261 and rs708272 for affecting the association between CETP activity and HDL-C levels (P=2.2×10 and P=4.4×10, respectively).Our results, in conjunction with earlier reports confirm low CETP activity to be associated with higher CAD risk. Although there was no direct association of CETP activity with CETP polymorphisms, our findings revealed a significant interaction between CETP variants and CETP activity for affecting HDL-C levels. These results urge a deeper evaluation of the individual genetic variation in the CETP before implementing pharmaceutical intervention of blocking CETP for preventing CAD events.
Project description:Studies have consistently demonstrated that variants in a number of candidate genes are significant determinants of lipid levels in adults. However, few studies have investigated the impact of these variants in children. Therefore, in the present investigation we examined the influence of ten common variants in the genes for lipoprotein lipase (LPL-S447X), cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP-Taq1B) apolipoprotein (APO) E (epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4), APOA5 (-1131C>T and S19W), APOA4 (S347T) and APOC3 (-482C>T; 1100C>T and 3238G>C) on lipoprotein levels children from the Gene-Diet Attica Investigation on childhood obesity (GENDAI).The ten variants selected were genotyped in 882 Greek children, mean age: 11.2+/-0.7 years (418 females and 464 males). Genotypes were assessed using TaqMan technology. Significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p<0.0001) were observed in APOE epsilon4 carriers compared to epsilon3/epsilon3 homozygotes and epsilon2 carriers. The association of APOE genotype with TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (p=0.0008) was further modulated by body mass index. Carriers of the CETP TaqIB B2 allele had significantly higher HDL-C (p<0.0001) and significantly lower TC: HDL-C ratio (p<0.0001) compared to B1/B1 individuals. No significant associations were observed between APOA4, APOA5 and APOC3 variants and serum lipids.This study demonstrates that these common variants are associated with lipid levels in this healthy paediatric cohort, suggesting that even in these young children there may be potential in predicting their lifelong exposure to an adverse lipid profile.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Blood lipids are well-known risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to explore the association between 17 lipid-related gene polymorphisms and CHD. METHODS:The current study examined with 784 CHD cases and 739 non-CHD controls. Genotyping was performed on the MassARRAY iPLEX® assay platform. RESULTS:Our analyses revealed a significant association of APOE rs7259620 with CHD (genotype: ?2=6.353, df=2, p=0.042; allele: ?2=5.05, df=1, p=0.025; recessive model: ?2=5.57, df=1, p=0.018). A further gender-based subgroup analysis revealed significant associations of APOE rs7259620 and PPAP2B rs72664392 with CHD in males (genotype: ?2=8.379, df=2, p=0.015; allele: ?2=5.190, df=1, p=0.023; recessive model: ?2=19.3, df=1, p<0.0001) and females (genotype: ?2=9.878, df=2, p=0.007), respectively. Subsequent breakdown analysis by age showed that CETP rs4783961, MLXIPL rs35493868, and PON2 rs12704796 were significantly associated with CHD among individuals younger than 55 years of age (CETP rs4783961: ?2=8.966, df=1, p=0.011 by genotype; MLXIPL rs35493868: ?2=4.87, df=1, p=0.027 by allele; ?2=4.88, df=1, p=0.027 by dominant model; PON2 rs12704796: ?2=6.511, df=2, p=0.039 by genotype; ?2=6.210, df=1, p=0.013 by allele; ?2=5.03, df=1, p=0.025 by dominant model). Significant allelic association was observed between LEPR rs656451 and CHD among individuals older than 65 years of age (?2=4.410, df=1, p=0.036). CONCLUSION:Our study revealed significant associations of APOE, PPAP2B, CETP, MLXIPL, PON2, and LEPR gene polymorphisms with CHD among the Han Chinese.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) which is caused by obesity and insulin resistance, is well known for its predictive capability for the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The development of MetS is associated with multiple genetic factors, environmental factors and lifestyle. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) related to MetS in large Korean population based samples of 1,362 subjects with MetS and 6,061 controls using the Axiom® Korean Biobank Array 1.0. We replicated the data in another sample including 502 subjects with MetS and 1,751 controls. After adjusting for age and sex, rs662799 located in the APOA5 gene were significantly associated with MetS. 15 SNPs in GCKR, C2orf16, APOA5, ZPR1, and BUD13 were associated with high triglyceride (TG). 14 SNPs in APOA5, ALDH1A2, LIPC, HERPUD1, and CETP, and 2 SNPs in MTNR1B were associated with low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high fasting blood glucose respectively. Among these SNPs, 6 TG SNPs: rs1260326, rs1260333, rs1919127, rs964184, rs2075295 and rs1558861 and 11 HDL-C SNPs: rs4775041, rs10468017, rs1800588, rs72786786, rs173539, rs247616, rs247617, rs3764261, rs4783961, rs708272, and rs7499892 were first discovered in Koreans. Additional research is needed to confirm these 17 novel SNPs in Korean population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have evaluated the associations between the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB polymorphism (rs708272), the risk of developing composite ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between these factors. METHODS:We conducted a meta-analysis of available studies to clarify the associations of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism with HDL-C concentration and the composite ischemic CVD risk in both Asians and Caucasians. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 12.0. RESULTS:Through utilization of the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, China Science and Technology Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Google Scholar, and Baidu Library, a total of 45 studies from 44 papers with 20,866 cases and 21,298 controls were combined showing a significant association between the CETP TaqIB variant and composite ischemic CVD risk. Carriers of allele TaqIB-B1 were found to have a higher risk of composite ischemic CVD than non-carriers: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.21, p < 0.001. Meanwhile, 28 studies with 23,959 subjects were included in the association between the CETP TaqIB polymorphism and the concentration of HDL-C. RESULTS suggested that carriers of the B1B1 genotype had lower concentrations of HDL-C than those of the B2B2 genotype: SMD = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36-0.65, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS:The synthesis of available evidence demonstrates that the CETP TaqIB polymorphism protects against composite ischemic CVD risk and is associated with a higher HDL-C concentration in both Asians and Caucasians.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be one of the causes of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Among the several treatable risk factors of CKD, that of dyslipidemia is relatively controversial. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipid metabolism with the risk of CKD in the Japanese population, we used cross-sectional data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study.A total of 3,268 men and women, aged 35-69 years, were selected from J-MICC Study participants for inclusion in this study. Twenty-eight candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected in 17 genes associated with the risk of lipid metabolism disorders, and genotyping of the subjects was conducted using the multiplex PCR-based invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for stages 3-5 (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2).Logistic regression analysis revealed that SNPs APOA5 T?-?1131C (rs662799), APOA5 T1259C (rs2266788), TOMM40 A/G (rs157580), and CETP TaqIB (rs708272) were significantly associated with CKD risk in those individuals genotyped, with age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per minor allele (and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of OR 1.22 (95% CI: 1.06-1.39), 1.19 (1.03-1.37), 1.27 (1.12-1.45), and 0.81 (0.71-0.92), respectively. Analysis of the gene-environment interaction revealed that body mass index (BMI) was a significant effect modifier for APOA5 T?-?1131C (rs662799) and a marginally significant effect modifier for APOA5 T/C (rs2266788), with the interaction between BMI ?30 and individuals with at least one minor allele of each genotype of OR 10.43 (95% CI: 1.29-84.19) and 3.36 (0.87-13.01), respectively.Four polymorphisms in APOA5, TOMM40, and CETP were shown to be significantly associated with CKD risk, and a significant interaction between the two APOA5 SNPs and BMI on CKD risk was also demonstrated. This suggests the future possibility of personalized risk estimation for this life-limiting disease.
Project description:Polymorphisms in some host genes have a significant impact on susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and rate of disease progression (1, 2). The purpose of the current sub-study was to find out the relationship between polymorphisms in genes involved in the lipid metabolism and the CD4/CD8 T-cell counts.Sub-study of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in 468 patients with HIV infection attended at the outpatient clinic to investigate individual genetic predisposition to atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD). All patients were genetically characterized and all polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Thirteen polymorphisms were selected from nine genes: APOA5 (rs662799 and rs3135506); APOC3 (rs5128 and rs4520); LPL (rs328 and rs268); CETP (rs708272); HL (rs1800588); MTP (rs1800591); APOE (rs7412 and rs429358); LRP5 (rs7116604); and VLDLR (rs1454626). Lipid and lipoprotein parameters, CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts and plasma HIV-RNA were determinate. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software version 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).We studied 468 HIV-infected patients (men, 77%), with a mean (SD) age of 45.9 (19.7) years. The mean CD4 T-cell count and nadir CD4 was 547 (459) and 193 (159) cells/µL, respectively; 78.7% of participants were virologically suppressed. Patients carrying rs3135506 in the APOA5 gene presented a 9% increase in circulating TG levels (p=0.002) and 10% decrease in HDLc levels (p=0.005). Such association of APOA5 towards dyslipidemia was accompanied by a 21% decrease of the CD4 T-cell count (p=0.024) and a 19% increase in CD8 T-cell count (p=0.002) in carriers of the rare allele in the APOA5 rs662799 polymorphism adjusted by age and gender. Patients carrying the rare allele in rs5128 (APOC3) had a 16% decrease in circulating CD4 T cells (p=0.029); patients carrying rs1800591 (MTP) had a 29% decrease in CD4 T cells and 14% decrease in CD8 T cells (p=0.018 and p=0.008, respectively); patients carrying the rare allele rs1800588 in HL had a 11% increase in CD4 T cells (p=0.043); and carriers of the rs145626 in the VLDLR gene had 10% decrease in CD4 circulating T cells (p=0.013).Variants in genes involved in the development of AD may also influence the immunological host-virus equilibrium in chronically HIV-infected subjects (2, 3).