Poly-Ub-substrate-degradative activity of 26S proteasome is not impaired in the aging rat brain.
ABSTRACT: Proteostasis is critical for the maintenance of life. In neuronal cells an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases during aging. Partly, this seems to be due to a decrease in the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, wherein the 20S/26S proteasome complexes catalyse the proteolytic step. We have characterised 20S and 26S proteasomes from cerebrum, cerebellum and hippocampus of 3 weeks old (young) and 24 month old (aged) rats. Our data reveal that the absolute amount of the proteasome is not dfferent between both age groups. Within the majority of standard proteasomes in brain the minute amounts of immuno-subunits are slightly increased in aged rat brain. While this goes along with a decrease in the activities of 20S and 26S proteasomes to hydrolyse synthetic fluorogenic tripeptide substrates from young to aged rats, the capacity of 26S proteasomes for degradation of poly-Ub-model substrates and its activation by poly-Ub-substrates is not impaired or even slightly increased in brain of aged rats. We conclude that these alterations in proteasome properties are important for maintaining proteostasis in the brain during an uncomplicated aging process.
Project description:Ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated proteasome-dependent proteolysis is critical in regulating multiple biological processes including apoptosis. We show that the unstructured BH3-only protein, NOXA, is degraded by an Ub-independent mechanism requiring 19S regulatory particle (RP) subunits of the 26S proteasome, highlighting the possibility that other unstructured proteins reported to be degraded by 20S proteasomes in vitro may be bona fide 26S proteasome substrates in vivo. A lysine-less NOXA (NOXA-LL) mutant, which is not ubiquitinated, is degraded at a similar rate to wild-type NOXA. Myeloid cell leukemia 1, but not other anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins, stabilizes NOXA by interaction with the NOXA BH3 domain. Depletion of 19S RP subunits, but not alternate proteasome activator REG subunits, increases NOXA half-life in vivo. A NOXA-LL mutant, which is not ubiquitinated, also requires an intact 26S proteasome for degradation. Depletion of the 19S non-ATPase subunit, PSMD1 induces NOXA-dependent apoptosis. Thus, disruption of 26S proteasome function by various mechanisms triggers the rapid accumulation of NOXA and subsequent cell death strongly implicating NOXA as a sensor of 26S proteasome integrity.
Project description:The proteasome, the primary protease for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in eukaryotes, is usually found as a mixture of 30S, 26S, and 20S complexes. These complexes have common catalytic sites, which makes it challenging to determine their distinctive roles in intracellular proteolysis. Here, we chemically synthesize a panel of homogenous ubiquitinated proteins, and use them to compare 20S and 26S proteasomes with respect to substrate selection and peptide-product generation. We show that 20S proteasomes can degrade the ubiquitin tag along with the conjugated substrate. Ubiquitin remnants on branched peptide products identified by LC-MS/MS, and flexibility in the 20S gate observed by cryo-EM, reflect the ability of the 20S proteasome to proteolyze an isopeptide-linked ubiquitin-conjugate. Peptidomics identifies proteasome-trapped ubiquitin-derived peptides and peptides of potential 20S substrates in Hi20S cells, hypoxic cells, and human failing-heart. Moreover, elevated levels of 20S proteasomes appear to contribute to cell survival under stress associated with damaged proteins. The 20S particle is part of the 26S proteasome, but also exists as a free complex. Here, the authors outline signature activities of the 20S and combine chemical, structural, functional and proteomic assays to show that the 20S can degrade ubiquitin tags along with conjugated substrates.
Project description:The molecular mechanism underlying bilirubin neurotoxicity remains obscure. Ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis is pivotal to virtually all cellular processes and cell survival. Here we report for the first time that bilirubin at a clinically relevant elevated level impairs proteasomal function via inhibiting both the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (USP14 and UCHL5) and the chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, thereby contributing to bilirubin neurotoxicity. This is supported by multiple lines of evidence. First, sera from patients with hyperbilirubinemia were able to inhibit the peptidase activity of purified 20S proteasome in vitro in a bilirubin concentration-dependent manner; meanwhile, the blood cells of these patients showed significantly increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-prs), consistent with proteasome inhibition. Second, intracerebroventricular injection to adult rats or intraperitoneal injections to neonatal rats of bilirubin-induced neural accumulation of Ub-prs, concurrent with other neural pathology; and brain malfunction and pathology induced by neonatal exposure to hyperbilirubinemia were detectable in the rats during their adulthood. Third, in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, bilirubin strikingly induced Ub-pr accumulation before the activation of cell death pathway becomes discernible. Finally, bilirubin in vitro directly inhibited both the deubiquitination activity of proteasome-associated USP14 and UCHL5 and the CT-like peptidase activity of purified 20S proteasomes, in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, this study has discovered that increased bilirubin at a clinically achievable level can act as a proteasome inhibitor via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) and, perhaps to a less extent, the 20S proteasome, identifying a novel mechanism for bilirubin neurotoxicity.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, ubiquitination of proteins leads to their degradation by the 26S proteasome. We tested if the ubiquitin (Ub) chain also regulates the proteasome's capacity for proteolysis. After incubation with polyubiquitinated proteins, 26S proteasomes hydrolyzed peptides and proteins 2- to 7-fold faster. Ub conjugates enhanced peptide hydrolysis by stimulating gate opening in the 20S proteasome. This stimulation was seen when this gate was closed or transiently open, but not maximally open. Gate opening requires conjugate association with Usp14/Ubp6 and also occurs if Ub aldehyde occupies this isopeptidase's active site. No stimulation was observed with 26S from Ubp6Delta mutants, but this effect was restored upon addition of Usp14/Ubp6 (even an inactive Ubp6). The stimulation of gate opening by Ub conjugates through Usp14/Ubp6 requires nucleotide binding to the gate-regulatory ATPases. This activation enhances the selectivity of the 26S proteasome for ubiquitinated proteins and links their deubiquitination to their degradation.
Project description:Proteasomes are large intracellular complexes responsible for the degradation of cellular proteins. The altered protein homeostasis of cancer cells results in increased dependency on proteasome function. The cellular proteasome composition comprises the 20S catalytic complex that is frequently capped with the 19S regulatory particle in forming the 26S proteasome. Proteasome inhibitors target the catalytic barrel (20S) and thus this inhibition does not allow the deconvolution of the distinct roles of 20S versus 26S proteasomes in cancer progression. We examined the degree of dependency of cancer cells specifically to the level of the 26S proteasome complex. Oncogenic transformation of human and mouse immortalized cells with mutant Ras induced a strong posttranscriptional increase of the 26S proteasome subunits, giving rise to high 26S complex levels. Depletion of a single subunit of the 19S RP was sufficient to reduce the 26S proteasome level and lower the cellular 26S/20S ratio. Under this condition the viability of the Ras-transformed MCF10A cells was severely compromised. This observation led us to hypothesize that cancer cell survival is dependent on maximal utilization of its 26S proteasomes. We validated this possibility in a large number of cancer cell lines and found that partial reduction of the 26S proteasome level impairs viability in all cancer cells examined and was not correlated with cell doubling time or reduction efficiency. Interstingly, normal human fibroblasts are refractory to the same type of 26S proteasome reduction. The suppression of 26S proteasomes in cancer cells activated the UPR and caspase-3 and cells stained positive with Annexin V. In addition, suppression of the 26S proteasome resulted in cellular proteasome redistribution, cytoplasm shrinkage, and nuclear deformation, the hallmarks of apoptosis. The observed tumor cell-specific addiction to the 26S proteasome levels sets the stage for future strategies in exploiting this dependency in cancer therapy.
Project description:The proteasome is responsible for selective degradation of proteins. It exists in mammalian cells under four main subtypes, which differ by the combination of their catalytic subunits: the standard proteasome (?1-?2-?5), the immunoproteasome (?1i-?2i-?5i) and the two intermediate proteasomes (?1-?2-?5i and ?1i-?2-?5i). The efficiency of the four proteasome subtypes to degrade ubiquitinated or oxidized proteins remains unclear. Using cells expressing exclusively one proteasome subtype, we observed that ubiquitinated p21 and c--myc were degraded at similar rates, indicating that the four 26S proteasomes degrade ubiquitinated proteins equally well. Under oxidative stress, we observed a partial dissociation of 26S into 20S proteasomes, which can degrade non-ubiquitinated oxidized proteins. Oxidized calmodulin and hemoglobin were best degraded in vitro by the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, while their native forms were not degraded. Circular dichroism analyses indicated that ubiquitin-independent recognition of oxidized proteins by 20S proteasomes was triggered by the disruption of their structure. Accordingly, ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes degraded unoxidized naturally disordered protein tau, while 26S proteasomes did not. Our results suggest that the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, namely the immunoproteasome and the two intermediate proteasomes, might help cells to eliminate proteins containing disordered domains, including those induced by oxidative stress.
Project description:The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) degrades misfolded proteins including those implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the effects of tau accumulation on proteasome function in a mouse model of tauopathy and in a cross to a UPS reporter mouse (line Ub-G76V-GFP). Accumulation of insoluble tau was associated with a decrease in the peptidase activity of brain 26S proteasomes, higher levels of ubiquitinated proteins and undegraded Ub-G76V-GFP. 26S proteasomes from mice with tauopathy were physically associated with tau and were less active in hydrolyzing ubiquitinated proteins, small peptides and ATP. 26S proteasomes from normal mice incubated with recombinant oligomers or fibrils also showed lower hydrolyzing capacity in the same assays, implicating tau as a proteotoxin. Administration of an agent that activates cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling led to attenuation of proteasome dysfunction, probably through proteasome subunit phosphorylation. In vivo, this led to lower levels of aggregated tau and improvements in cognitive performance.
Project description:In animal cells there are several regulatory complexes which interact with 20S proteasomes and give rise to functionally distinct proteasome complexes. gamma-Interferon upregulates three immuno beta catalytic subunits of the 20S proteasome and the PA28 regulator, and decreases the level of 26S proteasomes. It also decreases the level of phosphorylation of two proteasome alpha subunits, C8 (alpha7) and C9 (alpha3). In the present study we have investigated the role of phosphorylation of C8 by protein kinase CK2 in the formation and stability of 26S proteasomes. An epitope-tagged C8 subunit expressed in mammalian cells was efficiently incorporated into both 20S proteasomes and 26S proteasomes. Investigation of mutants of C8 at the two known CK2 phosphorylation sites demonstrated that these are the two phosphorylation sites of C8 in animal cells. Although phosphorylation of C8 was not absolutely essential for the formation of 26S proteasomes, it did have a substantial effect on their stability. Also, when cells were treated with gamma-interferon, there was a marked decrease in phosphorylation of C8, a decrease in the level of 26S proteasomes, and an increase in immunoproteasomes and PA28 complexes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of 26S proteasomes after gamma-interferon treatment results from the destabilization that occurs after dephosphorylation of the C8 subunit.
Project description:The critical role of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system in regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes is well established. In contrast, the impact of the ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity of proteasomes is poorly understood. Through biochemical analysis of mammalian lysates, we find that the 20S proteasome, latent in peptide hydrolysis, specifically cleaves more than 20% of all cellular proteins. Thirty intrinsic proteasome substrates (IPSs) were identified and in vitro studies of their processing revealed that cleavage occurs at disordered regions, generating stable products encompassing structured domains. The mechanism of IPS recognition is remarkably well conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom, as mammalian and yeast 20S proteasomes exhibit the same target specificity. Further, 26S proteasomes specifically recognize and cleave IPSs at similar sites, independent of ubiquitination, suggesting that disordered regions likely constitute the universal structural signal for IPS proteolysis by proteasomes. Finally, we show that proteasomes contribute to physiological regulation of IPS levels in living cells and the inactivation of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 does not prevent IPS degradation. Collectively, these findings suggest a significant contribution of the ubiquitin-independent proteasome degradation pathway to the regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes.
Project description:The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, human HSPA1A) plays indispensable roles in cellular stress responses and protein quality control (PQC). In the framework of PQC, it cooperates with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to clear damaged and dysfunctional proteins in the cell. Moreover, Hsp70 itself is rapidly degraded following the recovery from stress. It was demonstrated that its fast turnover is mediated via ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. At the same time, the effect of Hsp70 on the functional state of proteasomes has been insufficiently investigated. Here, we characterized the direct effect of recombinant Hsp70 on the activity of 20S and 26S proteasomes and studied Hsp70 degradation by the 20S proteasome in vitro. We have shown that the activity of purified 20S proteasomes is decreased following incubation with recombinant human Hsp70. On the other hand, high concentrations of Hsp70 activated 26S proteasomes. Finally, we obtained evidence that in addition to previously reported ubiquitin-dependent degradation, Hsp70 could be cleaved independent of ubiquitination by the 20S proteasome. The results obtained reveal novel aspects of the interplay between Hsp70 and proteasomes.