A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat.
ABSTRACT: The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in these animals. During maintenance of this strain by mating fa/fa males and fa/+ heterozygous females, we further identified fa/fa male rats exhibiting diabetes. We then performed selective breeding using the fa/fa male rats that exhibited relatively high blood glucose levels at 10 weeks of age, resulting in establishment of a diabetic strain that we designated Hos:ZFDM-Lepr(fa) (ZFDM). These fa/fa male rats developed diabetes as early as 10 weeks of age, reaching 100% incidence by 21 weeks of age, while none of the fa/+ male rats developed diabetes. The phenotypic characteristics of this diabetic strain are distinct from those of normoglycemic ZF rats. ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D.
Project description:The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats.
Project description:To correlate changes between VEGF expression with systemic and retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in rodent models of obesity induced insulin resistance and diabetes.Retinal VEGF mRNA and protein levels were assessed by RT-PCR and VEGF ELISA, respectively. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CD11b/c positive cell ratio were used as systemic inflammatory markers. Retinal expression of Nox2, Nox4, and p47phox mRNA levels were measured as oxidative stress markers. TNF-?, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), IL1?, and activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) were used as retinal inflammatory markers.Retinal VEGF mRNA and protein expression increased in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF(fa/fa)) rats and streptozotosin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, after two months of disease, but not in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were elevated in insulin resistant and diabetic rats. Some oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-6, ICAM-1, and IL1-?) were upregulated in the retina of ZDF(fa/fa) and STZ diabetic rats after 4 months of disease. In contrast, activation of NF-?B in the retina was observed in high fat fed nondiabetic and diabetic cis-NF-?B(EGFP) mice, ZF, ZDF(fa/fa), and STZ-induced diabetic rats.Only persistent hyperglycemia and diabetes increased retinal VEGF expression. Some markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were elevated in the retina and systemic circulation of obese and insulin resistant rodents with and without diabetes. Induction of VEGF and its associated retinal pathologies by diabetes requires chronic hyperglycemia and factors in addition to inflammation and oxidative stress.
Project description:We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-? levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.
Project description:Patients with long-duration diabetes develop cardiovascular complications resulting in highly increased mortality and complications which affect the kidneys, eyes and peripheral nerves associated with high morbidity. Among the diabetic complications, damage in the eye, diabetic retinopathy, is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision-loss globally. It is characterized by a number of different patho-mechanisms including changes in vascular permeability, capillary degeneration, and finally at a late stage overshooting formation of new blood vessels. This expression analysis focused on the use of different experimental models for Diabetes Mellitus and its complications (for a review see 1: Al-Awar et al: Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models. J Diabetes Res. 2016; doi: 10.1155/2016/9051426). By that, we wanted to uncover the relative contributions of systemic hyperinsulinaemia and/or hyperglycemia to molecular regulations. The following models have been used: As insulinopenic, hyperglycemic model reflecting Type 1 diabetes, male STZ-Wistar rats (60mg/kg BW; i.p.) were used. Wistar rats without STZ injection served as non-diabetic controls. Male obese ZDF rats (Fa/Fa) were used as type-2 diabetes model characterized by persisting hyperglycemia and transient hyperinsulinemia. Male lean ZDF rats (Fa/-) served as non-diabetic controls. Male obese ZF rats (Fa/Fa) hyperglycemia were used reflecting euglycemia and severe insulin resistance. Male lean ZF rats (Fa/-) served as controls. ZDF and ZF rats were obtained in two genotypes, obese (genotype fa/fa) and lean littermates (genotype Fa/?). All rats were housed in standard cages under a normal light-dark cycle for 16 weeks. All animals had free access to food and water. ZF and Wistar rats received a standard chow (Ssniff R/M) and ZDF rats received Purina 5008 chow. A group size of n=8 were used for all study groups. Wistar rats were rendered type-1 like hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic via a single injection of streptocotocin (STZ, 60mg/kg; i.p.) at 7 weeks of age. Obese ZDF rats (fa/fa) develop spontaneously a type-2 diabetes phenotype with persisting hyperglycemia and transient hyperinsulinemia (hyperglycemic, hypoinsulinemic). Obese ZF rats (fa/fa) develop insulin resistance with permanent hyperinsulinemia without concomitant hyperglycemia and no overt diabetes phenotype. Non STZ treated Wistar rats, lean ZDF littermates (Fa/?), and lean ZF littermates (Fa/?) served as controls. All groups were kept for 12 weeks on respective conditions together with appropriate age-matched controls. Unbiased gene expression analysis was performed per group using Affymetrix gene arrays.
Project description:Both obesity and chronic inflammation are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat (fa/fa) is an obese animal model frequently used in type 2 diabetes research. The current study determines whether chronic administration (from 5 weeks of age through 24 weeks of age) of salsalate, a salicylate with anti-inflammatory properties, would be effective in mitigating diabetes disease progression in ZDF rats. Although a trend existed for lower blood glucose in the salsalate-treated group, significant differences were obscured by high animal-level variability. However, even in the non-drug-treated group, not all ZDF rats became diabetic as expected. Therefore, animals were parsed into two groups, regardless of drug treatment: normoglycemic ZDF rats, which maintained blood glucose profiles identical to nondiabetic Zucker lean rats (ZLRs), and hyperglycemic ZDF rats, which exhibited progressive elevation in blood glucose. To ascertain the differences between ZDF rats that became hyperglycemic and those that did not, relevant physiological indices and expression levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs in adipose tissue were measured at sacrifice. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations and expression levels of cytokine and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs suggested more prevalent chronic inflammation in hyperglycemic animals. Early elevation of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, was present in both ZDF groups, with the rate of its age-related decline faster in hyperglycemic animals. The most marked difference between the two groups of ZDF animals was in insulin output. Although the two ZDF populations had very similar elevated plasma insulin concentrations for the first 10 weeks, after that time, plasma insulin decreased markedly in the animals that became hyperglycemic, whereas it remained high in the normoglycemic ZDF rats. Thus, hyperglycemic ZDF animals exhibit both insulin resistance and progressive beta cell failure, whereas normoglycemic ZDF rats exhibit a lesser degree of insulin resistance that does not progress to beta cell failure. In these respects, the normoglycemic ZDF rats appear to revert back to a phenotype that strongly resembles that of nondiabetic Zucker fatty rats from which they were derived.
Project description:We investigated whether the administration of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 modulate the expression of genes in the intestinal mucosa of obese Zucker rats. Forty-eight Zucker-Leprfa/fa and 16 Zucker lean Lepr+/fa rats were used. Eight Zucker lean Lepr+/fa and 8 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were euthanized as a reference. The remaining 40 Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats were then assigned to receive 1010 colony forming units (CFU) of one of the three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo by oral administration for 30 days. An additional group of 8 Zucker lean Lepr+/fa rats received the placebo for 30 days. Over 27,000 rat genes were studied using a DNA array. Four animals per group were used. Total RNA was extracted from intestinal mucosa and cDNA was synthesized, fragmented and labeled. Labeled cDNA was hybridized using GeneChip kits, and the latter were scanned. Intensity values of each probe were processed and normalized to obtain an individual value for each set of probes.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an attractive therapeutic target to combat diabetes and obesity due to its ability to increase glucose expenditure. In a genetic rat model (ZDF fa/fa) of type-2 diabetes and obesity, we aimed to investigate glucose utilization of BAT by 18F-FDG PET imaging. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Male Zucker lean (ZL) control rats were studied at 13 weeks. Three weeks prior to imaging, ZDF rats were randomized into a no-restriction (ZDF-ND) and a mild calorie restriction (ZDF-CR) group. Dynamic 18F-FDG PET using a dedicated small animal PET system was performed under hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. 18F-FDG PET identified intense inter-scapular BAT glucose uptake in all ZL control rats, while no focally increased 18F-FDG uptake was detected in all ZDF-ND rats. Mild but significant improved BAT tracer uptake was identified after calorie restriction in diabetic rats (ZDF-CR). The weight of BAT tissue and fat deposits were significantly increased in ZDF-CR and ZDF-ND rats as compared to ZL controls, while UCP-1 and mitochondrial concentrations were significantly decreased. Whitening and severely impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in BAT was confirmed in a rat model of type-2 diabetes. Additionally, calorie restriction partially restored the impaired BAT glucose uptake.
Project description:Genistein, a natural food compound mainly present in soybeans, is considered a potent antioxidant and to improve glucose homeostasis. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed whether genistein could antagonize the progression of the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic state (pre-diabetes) toward full-blown T2DM in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats by decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Rats were assigned to three groups: (1) lean control (CNTL), (2) fa/fa CNTL, and (3) fa/fa genistein (GEN). GEN animals were subjected to a 0.02% (w/w) genistein-enriched diet for 8 weeks, whereas CNTL rats received a standard diet. We show that genistein did not affect the overall response to a glucose challenge in ZDF rats. In fact, genistein may exacerbate glucose intolerance as fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in fa/fa GEN (17.6 ± 0.7 mM) compared with fa/fa CNTL animals (14.9 ± 1.4 mM). Oxidative stress, established by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, carbonylated protein content and UCP3 levels, remained unchanged upon dietary genistein supplementation. Furthermore, respirometry measurements revealed no effects of genistein on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, dietary genistein supplementation did not improve glucose homeostasis, alleviate oxidative stress, or augment skeletal muscle metabolism in ZDF rats.
Project description:Hyperglycemia associated with inflammation and oxidative stress is a major cause of vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Recent data reports that a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), empagliflozin (Jardiance®), ameliorates glucotoxicity via excretion of excess glucose in urine (glucosuria) and significantly improves cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The overarching hypothesis is that hyperglycemia and glucotoxicity are upstream of all other complications seen in diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of empagliflozin on glucotoxicity, β-cell function, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats were used as a model of T2DM (35 diabetic ZDF-Leprfa/fa and 16 ZDF-Lepr+/+ controls). Empagliflozin (10 and 30mg/kg/d) was administered via drinking water for 6 weeks. Treatment with empagliflozin restored glycemic control. Empagliflozin improved endothelial function (thoracic aorta) and reduced oxidative stress in the aorta and in blood of diabetic rats. Inflammation and glucotoxicity (AGE/RAGE signaling) were epigenetically prevented by SGLT2i treatment (ChIP). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of endothelial function with HbA1c, whereas leukocyte-dependent oxidative burst and C-reactive protein (CRP) were positively correlated with HbA1c. Viability of hyperglycemic endothelial cells was pleiotropically improved by SGLT2i. Empagliflozin reduces glucotoxicity and thereby prevents the development of endothelial dysfunction, reduces oxidative stress and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in ZDF rats, despite persisting hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Our preclinical observations provide insights into the mechanisms by which empagliflozin reduces cardiovascular mortality in humans (EMPA-REG trial).
Project description:Overaccumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues of obese rodents may lead to lipotoxic complications such as diabetes. To assess the pathogenic role of the lipogenic transcription factor, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), we measured its mRNA in liver and islets of obese, leptin-unresponsive fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Hepatic SREBP-1 mRNA was 2.4 times higher than in lean +/+ controls, primarily because of increased SREBP-1c expression. mRNA of lipogenic enzymes ranged from 2.4- to 4.6-fold higher than lean controls, and triacylglycerol (TG) content was 5.4 times higher. In pancreatic islets of fa/fa rats, SREBP-1c was 3.4 times higher than in lean +/+ Zucker diabetic fatty rats. The increase of SREBP-1 in liver and islets of untreated fa/fa rats was blocked by 6 weeks of troglitazone therapy, and the diabetic phenotype was prevented. Up-regulation of SREBP-1 also occurred in livers of Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity. Hyperleptinemia, induced in lean +/+ rats by adenovirus gene transfer, lowered hepatic SREBP-1c by 74% and the lipogenic enzymes from 35 to 59%. In conclusion, overnutrition increases and adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia decreases SREBP-1c expression in liver and islets. SREBP-1 overexpression, which is prevented by troglitazone, may play a role in the ectopic lipogenesis and lipotoxicity complicating obesity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.