Improvement of natamycin production by engineering of phosphopantetheinyl transferases in Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10.
ABSTRACT: Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are essential to the activities of type I/II polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) through converting acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) in PKSs and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs) in NRPSs from inactive apo-forms into active holo-forms, leading to biosynthesis of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. The industrial natamycin (NTM) producer, Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10, contains two PPTases (SchPPT and SchACPS) and five PKSs. Biochemical characterization of these two PPTases shows that SchPPT catalyzes the phosphopantetheinylation of ACPs in both type I PKSs and type II PKSs, SchACPS catalyzes the phosphopantetheinylation of ACPs in type II PKSs and fatty acid synthases (FASs), and the specificity of SchPPT is possibly controlled by its C terminus. Inactivation of SchPPT in S. chattanoogensis L10 abolished production of NTM but not the spore pigment, while overexpression of the SchPPT gene not only increased NTM production by about 40% but also accelerated productions of both NTM and the spore pigment. Thus, we elucidated a comprehensive phosphopantetheinylation network of PKSs and improved polyketide production by engineering the cognate PPTase in bacteria.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are central components of secondary metabolism in bacteria, plants, and fungi. In filamentous fungi, diverse PKSs and NRPSs participate in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as pigments, antibiotics, siderophores, and mycotoxins. However, many secondary metabolites as well as the enzymes involved in their production are yet to be discovered. Both PKSs and NRPSs require activation by enzyme members of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) family. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of Aspergillus nidulans strains carrying conditional (cfwA2) and null (DeltacfwA) mutant alleles of the cfwA gene, encoding an essential PPTase. We identify the polyketides shamixanthone, emericellin, and dehydroaustinol as well as the sterols ergosterol, peroxiergosterol, and cerevisterol in extracts from A. nidulans large-scale cultures. The PPTase CfwA/NpgA was required for the production of these polyketide compounds but dispensable for ergosterol and cerevisterol and for fatty acid biosynthesis. The asexual sporulation defects of cfwA, DeltafluG, and DeltatmpA mutants were not rescued by the cfwA-dependent compounds identified here. However, a cfwA2 mutation enhanced the sporulation defects of both DeltatmpA and DeltafluG single mutants, suggesting that unidentified CfwA-dependent PKSs and/or NRPSs are involved in the production of hitherto-unknown compounds required for sporulation. Our results expand the number of known and predicted secondary metabolites requiring CfwA/NpgA for their biosynthesis and, together with the phylogenetic analysis of fungal PPTases, suggest that a single PPTase is responsible for the activation of all PKSs and NRPSs in A. nidulans.
Project description:Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are a superfamily of essential enzymes required for the synthetic processes of many compounds including fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide metabolites. These enzymes activate carrier proteins in specific biosynthetic pathways via the transfer of a phosphopantetheinyl moiety to a serine residue in the conserved motif of carrier proteins. Since many Actinomycetales microorganisms produce a number of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide metabolites, the distribution of PPTase genes was investigated in these microorganisms. PPTases were found in bacterial protein databases using a hidden Markov model search with the PF01648 (4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase superfamily) model. Actinomycetales microorganisms harbor several genes encoding AcpS-type and Sfp-type PPTases in individual genomes, many of which were associated with the biosynthetic gene cluster for polyketide or nonribosomal peptide metabolites. The properties of these PPTases were evaluated in the heterologous expression system using the biosynthetic gene clusters and genes encoding PPTases found in the present study. Sfp-type PPTases were classified into two subgroups, and although the substrate specificities of the enzymes in one subgroup were wide, the catalytic activities of enzymes in the other subgroup were low. SAV_1784 of Streptomyces avermitilis possessed the most characteristic broad-range activity against several type I polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases.
Project description:Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: β-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species.
Project description:Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics is a powerful technique for the profiling of protein expression in cells in a high-throughput fashion. Herein we report a protocol using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics for the screening of enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis, such as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) from bacterial strains. Taking advantage of the large size of modular NRPSs and PKSs (often >200 kDa), size-based separation (SDS-PAGE) is employed prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Based upon the protein identifications obtained through software search, we can accurately pinpoint the expressed NRPS and/or PKS gene clusters from a given strain and growth condition. The proteomics screening result can be used to guide the discovery of potentially new nonribosomal peptide and polyketide natural products.
Project description:Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are ecologically important secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi using multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), respectively. Previous phylogenetic analyses of fungal NRPSs and PKSs have suggested that a few of these genes were acquired by fungi via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, including a hybrid NPS/PKS found in Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Here, we identify this hybrid gene in fungi representing two additional classes of Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Microsporum canis, Arthroderma spp., and Trichophyton spp., Eurotiomycetes; Chaetomium spp. and Metarhizium spp., Sordariomycetes) and use phylogenetic analyses of the most highly conserved domains from NRPSs (adenylation (A) domain) and PKSs (ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain) to examine the hypothesis that the hybrid NPS7/PKS24 was acquired by fungi from bacteria via HGT relatively early in the evolution of the Pezizomycotina. Our results reveal a unique ancestry of the A domain and KS domain in the hybrid gene relative to known fungal NRPSs and PKSs, provide strong evidence for HGT of the hybrid gene from a putative bacterial donor in the Burkholderiales, and suggest the HGT event occurred early in the evolution of the filamentous Ascomycota.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are the major enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, which have diverse activities, including roles as pathogenicity/virulence factors in plant pathogenic fungi. These enzymes are activated by 4'-phosphopantetheinylation at the conserved serine residues, which is catalysed by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). PPTase is also required for primary metabolism (?-aminoadipate reductase, AAR). In the genome sequence of the cereal fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus, we identified a gene (PPT1) orthologous to the PPTase-encoding genes found in other filamentous ascomycetes. The deletion of PPT1 in C. sativus generated mutants (?ppt1) that were auxotrophic for lysine, unable to synthesize melanin, hypersensitive to oxidative stress and significantly reduced in virulence to barley cv. Bowman. To analyse the pleiotropic effects of PPT1, we also characterized deletion mutants for PKS1 (involved in melanin synthesis), AAR1 (for AAR) and NPS6 (involved in siderophore-mediated iron metabolism). The melanin-deficient strain (?pks1) showed no differences in pathogenicity and virulence compared with the wild-type strain. Lysine-auxotrophic mutants (?aar1) induced spot blotch symptoms, as produced by the wild-type strain, when inoculated on wounded barley leaves or when lysine was supplemented. The ?nps6 strain showed a slightly reduced virulence compared with the wild-type strain, but exhibited significantly higher virulence than the ?ppt1 strain. Our results suggest that an unknown virulence factor, presumably synthesized by PKSs or NRPSs which are activated by PPTase, is directly responsible for high virulence of C. sativus on barley cv. Bowman.
Project description:Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) play essential roles in both primary metabolisms and secondary metabolisms via post-translational modification of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs). In this study, an industrial FK506 producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19, together with Streptomyces avermitilis, was identified to contain the highest number (five) of discrete PPTases known among any species thus far examined. Characterization of the five PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 unveiled that stw ACP, an ACP in a type II PKS, was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT1, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; sts FAS ACP, the ACP in fatty acid synthase (FAS), was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT2, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; TcsA-ACP, an ACP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by two PPTases FKPPT3 and FKACPS; FkbP-PCP, an PCP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by all of these five PPTases FKPPT1-4 and FKACPS. Our results here indicate that the functions of these PPTases complement each other for ACPs/PCPs substrates, suggesting a complicate phosphopantetheinylation network in S. tsukubaensis L19. Engineering of these PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 resulted in a mutant strain that can improve FK506 production.
Project description:Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) are large enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of medically and ecologically important secondary metabolites. In a previous report, we described a proteomics approach to screen for expressed NRPSs or PKSs from bacteria with or without sequenced genomes. Here we used this proteome mining approach to discover a novel natural product arising from rare adenylation (A) and reductase (Red) domains in its biosynthetic machinery. We also cloned the entire gene cluster and elucidated the biosynthesis of the new compound, which is produced by an unsequenced Bacillus sp. isolated from soil collected in Koran, Louisiana.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains >20 enzymes that require activation by transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of CoA onto a conserved serine residue, a posttranslational modification catalyzed by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases). The modified proteins are involved in key metabolic processes such as cell envelope biogenesis and the production of virulence factors. We show that two PPTases conserved in all Mycobacterium spp. and in related genera activate two different subsets of proteins and are not functionally redundant. One enzyme, AcpS, activates the two fatty acid synthase systems of mycobacteria, whereas the other PPTase, PptT, acts on type-I polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthases, both of which are involved in the biosynthesis of virulence factors. We demonstrate that both PPTases are essential for Mycobacterium smegmatis viability and that PptT is required for the survival of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin. These enzymes are thus central to the biology of mycobacteria and for mycobacterial pathogenesis and represent promising targets for new antituberculosis drugs.
Project description:Modular biosynthetic machineries such as polyketide synthases (PKSs) or nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) give rise to a vast structural diversity of bioactive metabolites indispensable in the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases. Here, we provide evidence for different evolutionary processes leading to the diversification of modular NRPSs and thus, their respective products. Discovery of a novel lipo-octapeptide family from Pseudomonas, the virginiafactins, and detailed structure elucidation of closely related peptides, the cichofactins and syringafactins, allowed retracing recombinational diversification of the respective NRPS genes. Bioinformatics analyses allowed us to spot an evolutionary snapshot of these processes, where recombination occurred both within the same and between different biosynthetic gene clusters. Our systems feature a recent diversification process, which may represent a typical paradigm to variations in modular biosynthetic machineries.