Mechanism of OMP decarboxylation in orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.
ABSTRACT: Despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies, the detailed catalytic mechanism of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) remains controversial. In particular simulation studies using high level quantum mechanics have failed to reproduce experimental activation free energy. One common feature of many previous simulations is that there is a water molecule in the vicinity of the leaving CO2 group whose presence was only observed in the inhibitor bound complex of ODCase/BMP. Various roles have even been proposed for this water molecule from the perspective of stabilizing the transition state and/or intermediate state. We hypothesize that this water molecule is not present in the active ODCase/OMP complex. Based on QM/MM minimum free energy path simulations with accurate density functional methods, we show here that in the absence of this water molecule the enzyme functions through a simple direct decarboxylation mechanism. Analysis of the interactions in the active site indicates multiple factors contributing to the catalysis, including the fine-tuned electrostatic environment of the active site and multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions. To understand better the interactions between the enzyme and the inhibitor BMP molecule, simulations were also carried out to determine the binding free energy of this special water molecule in the ODCase/BMP complex. The results indicate that the water molecule in the active site plays a significant role in the binding of BMP by contributing approximately -3 kcal/mol to the binding free energy of the complex. Therefore, the complex of BMP plus a water molecule, instead of the BMP molecule alone, better represents the tight binding transition state analogue of ODCase. Our simulation results support the direct decarboxylation mechanism and highlight the importance of proper recognition of protein bound water molecules in the protein-ligand binding and the enzyme catalysis.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) accelerates the decarboxylation of its substrate by 17 orders of magnitude. One argument brought forward against steric/electrostatic repulsion causing substrate distortion at the carboxylate substituent as part of the catalysis has been the weak binding affinity of the decarboxylated product (UMP). The crystal structure of the UMP complex of ODCase at atomic resolution (1.03 Å) shows steric competition between the product UMP and the side chain of a catalytic lysine residue. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that UMP binds 5 orders of magnitude more tightly to a mutant in which the interfering side chain has been removed than to wild-type ODCase. These results explain the low affinity of UMP and counter a seemingly very strong argument against a contribution of substrate distortion to the catalytic reaction mechanism of ODCase.
Project description:Despite decades of study, the mechanism by which orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine monophosphate remains unresolved. A computational investigation of the direct decarboxylation mechanism has been performed using mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. The study was performed with the program CP2K that integrates classical dynamics and ab initio dynamics based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach. Two different QM regions were explored. The free energy barriers for direct decarboxylation of orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) in solution and in the enzyme (using the larger QM region) were determined with the metadynamics method to be 40 and 33 kcal/mol, respectively. The calculated change in activation free energy (DeltaDeltaG++) on going from solution to the enzyme is therefore -7 kcal/mol, far less than the experimental change of -23 kcal/ mol (for k(cat.)/k(uncat.): Radzicka, A.; Wolfenden, R., Science 1995, 267, 90-92). These results do not support the direct decarboxylation mechanism that has been proposed for the enzyme. However, in the context of QM/MM calculations, it was found that the size of the QM region has a dramatic effect on the calculated reaction barrier.
Project description:Fluorinated nucleosides and nucleotides are of considerable interest to medicinal chemists because of their antiviral, anticancer, and other biological activities. However, their direct interactions at target binding sites are not well understood. A new class of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-C6-substituted uridine and UMP derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase or OMPDCase). These compounds were synthesized from the key intermediate, fully protected 2'-deoxy-2'-fluorouridine. Among the synthesized compounds, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-6-iodo-UMP covalently inhibited human ODCase with a second-order rate constant of 0.62 ± 0.02 M(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, the 6-cyano-2'-fluoro derivative covalently interacted with ODCase defying the conventional thinking, where its ribosyl derivative undergoes transformation into BMP by ODCase. This confirms that the 2'-fluoro moiety influences the chemistry at the C6 position of the nucleotides and thus interactions in the active site of ODCase. Molecular interactions of the 2'-fluorinated nucleotides are compared to those with the 3'-fluorinated nucleotides bound to the corresponding target enzyme, and the carbohydrate moieties were shown to bind in different conformations.
Project description:The magnitude of an enzyme's affinity for the altered substrate in the transition state exceeds its affinity for the substrate in the ground state by a factor matching the rate enhancement that the enzyme produces. Particularly remarkable are those enzymes that act as simple protein catalysts, without the assistance of metals or other cofactors. To determine the extent to which one such enzyme, human uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, enhances the rate of substrate decarboxylation, we examined the rate of spontaneous decarboxylation of pyrrolyl-3-acetate. Extrapolation of first-order rate constants measured at elevated temperatures indicates that this reaction proceeds with a half-life of 2.3 x 10(9) years at 25 degrees C in the absence of enzyme. This enzyme shows no significant homology with orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase), another cofactorless enzyme that catalyzes a very slow reaction. It is proposed that, in both cases, a protonated basic residue (Arg-37 in the case of human UroD; Lys-93 in the case of yeast ODCase) furnishes a counterion that helps the scissile carboxylate group of the substrate leave water and enter a relatively nonpolar environment, stabilizes the incipient carbanion generated by the departure of CO(2), and supplies the proton that takes its place.
Project description:Calcium-dependent lectin I from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL) binds specifically to oligosaccharides presenting an alpha-galactose residue at their nonreducing end, such as the disaccharides alphaGal1-2betaGalOMe, alphaGal1-3betaGalOMe, and alphaGal1-4betaGalOMe. This provides a unique model for studying the effect of the glycosidic linkage of the ligands on structure and thermodynamics of the complexes by means of experimental and theoretical tools. The structural features of PA-IL in complex with the three disaccharides were established by docking and molecular dynamics simulations and compared with those observed in available crystal structures, including PA-IL.alphaGal1-2betaGalOMe complex, which was solved at 2.4 A resolution and reported herein. The role of a structural bridge water molecule in the binding site of PA-IL was also elucidated through molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. This water molecule establishes three very stable hydrogen bonds with O6 of nonreducing galactose, oxygen from Pro-51 main chain, and nitrogen from Gln-53 main chain of the lectin binding site. Binding free energies for PA-IL in complex with the three disaccharides were investigated, and the results were compared with the experimental data determined by titration microcalorimetry. When the bridge water molecule was included in the free energy calculations, the simulations predicted the correct binding affinity trends with the 1-2-linked disaccharide presenting three times stronger affinity ligand than the other two. These results highlight the role of the water molecule in the binding site of PA-IL and indicate that it should be taken into account when designing glycoderivatives active against P. aeruginosa adhesion.
Project description:A mixed centroid path integral and free energy perturbation method (PI-FEP/UM) has been used to investigate the primary carbon and secondary hydrogen kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in the amino acid decarboxylation of L-Dopa catalyzed by the enzyme L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) along with the corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in water. DDC is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme. The cofactor undergoes an internal proton transfer between the zwitterionic protonated Schiff base configuration and the neutral hydroxyimine tautomer. It was found that the cofactor PLP makes significant contributions to lowering the decarboxylation barrier, while the enzyme active site provides further stabilization of the transition state. Interestingly, the O-protonated configuration is preferred both in the Michaelis complex and at the decarboxylation transition state. The computed kinetic isotope effects (KIE) on the carboxylate C-13 are consistent with that observed on decarboxylation reactions of other PLP-dependent enzymes, whereas the KIEs on the ? carbon and secondary proton, which can easily be validated experimentally, may be used as a possible identification for the active form of the PLP tautomer in the active site of DDC.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) accelerates the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) to uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) by 17 orders of magnitude. Eight new crystal structures with ligand analogues combined with computational analyses of the enzyme's short-lived intermediates and the intrinsic electronic energies to distort the substrate and other ligands improve our understanding of the still controversially discussed reaction mechanism. In their respective complexes, 6-methyl-UMP displays significant distortion of its methyl substituent bond, 6-amino-UMP shows the competition between the K72 and C6 substituents for a position close to D70, and the methyl and ethyl esters of OMP both induce rotation of the carboxylate group substituent out of the plane of the pyrimidine ring. Molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics computations of the enzyme-substrate complex also show the bond between the carboxylate group and the pyrimidine ring to be distorted, with the distortion contributing a 10-15% decrease of the ??G(?) value. These results are consistent with ODCase using both substrate distortion and transition-state stabilization, primarily exerted by K72, in its catalysis of the OMP decarboxylation reaction.
Project description:Glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase is a biotin-dependent ion pump whereby the free energy of the glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylation to crotonyl-CoA drives the electrogenic transport of sodium ions from the cytoplasm into the periplasm. Here we present the crystal structure of the decarboxylase subunit (Gcdalpha) from Acidaminococcus fermentans and its complex with glutaconyl-CoA. The active sites of the dimeric Gcdalpha lie at the two interfaces between the mono mers, whereas the N-terminal domain provides the glutaconyl-CoA-binding site and the C-terminal domain binds the biotinyllysine moiety. The Gcdalpha catalyses the transfer of carbon dioxide from glutaconyl-CoA to a biotin carrier (Gcdgamma) that subsequently is decarboxylated by the carboxybiotin decarboxylation site within the actual Na(+) pump (Gcdbeta). The analysis of the active site lead to a novel mechanism for the biotin-dependent carboxy transfer whereby biotin acts as general acid. Furthermore, we propose a holoenzyme assembly in which the water-filled central channel of the Gcdalpha dimer lies co-axial with the ion channel (Gcdbeta). The central channel is blocked by arginines against passage of sodium ions which might enter the central channel through two side channels.
Project description:The oxaloacetate decarboxylase sodium pump (OAD) is a unique primary-active transporter that utilizes the free energy derived from oxaloacetate decarboxylation for sodium transport across the cell membrane. It is composed of 3 subunits: the ? subunit catalyzes carboxyl-transfer from oxaloacetate to biotin, the membrane integrated ? subunit catalyzes the subsequent carboxyl-biotin decarboxylation and the coupled sodium transport, the ? subunit interacts with the ? and ? subunits and stabilizes the OAD complex. We present here structure of the Salmonella typhimurium OAD ?? sub-complex. The structure revealed that the ? and ? subunits form a ?3?3 hetero-hexamer with extensive interactions between the subunits and shed light on the OAD holo-enzyme assembly. Structure-guided functional studies provided insights into the sodium binding sites in the ? subunit and the coupling between carboxyl-biotin decarboxylation and sodium transport by the OAD ? subunit.
Project description:Understanding the underlying physics of the binding of small-molecule ligands to protein active sites is a key objective of computational chemistry and biology. It is widely believed that displacement of water molecules from the active site by the ligand is a principal (if not the dominant) source of binding free energy. Although continuum theories of hydration are routinely used to describe the contributions of the solvent to the binding affinity of the complex, it is still an unsettled question as to whether or not these continuum solvation theories describe the underlying molecular physics with sufficient accuracy to reliably rank the binding affinities of a set of ligands for a given protein. Here we develop a novel, computationally efficient descriptor of the contribution of the solvent to the binding free energy of a small molecule and its associated receptor that captures the effects of the ligand displacing the solvent from the protein active site with atomic detail. This descriptor quantitatively predicts (R(2) = 0.81) the binding free energy differences between congeneric ligand pairs for the test system factor Xa, elucidates physical properties of the active-site solvent that appear to be missing in most continuum theories of hydration, and identifies several features of the hydration of the factor Xa active site relevant to the structure-activity relationship of its inhibitors.