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PPAR γ Regulates Genes Involved in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats.
ABSTRACT: To explore the function of PPAR γ in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR γ gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR γ gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR γ response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR γ relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR γ plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR γ in mammary gland tissue during lactation.
Project description:Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) serves as a central factor in hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and uptake of free fatty acids from the plasma. However, there are limited data concerning the action of LPL on the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the LPL gene from Xinong Saanen dairy goat mammary gland, along with a study of its phylogenetic relationships. Sequence analysis showed that goat LPL shares similarities with other species including sheep, bovine, human and mouse. LPL mRNA expression in various tissues determined by RT-qPCR revealed the highest expression in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, lung, spleen, rumen, small intestine, mammary gland, and kidney. Expression was almost undetectable in liver and muscle. The expression profiles of LPL gene in mammary gland at early, peak, mid, late lactation, and the dry period were also measured. Compared with the dry period, LPL mRNA expression was markedly greater at early lactation. However, compared with early lactation, the expression was lower at peak lactation and mid lactation. Despite those differences, LPL mRNA expression was still greater at peak, mid, and late lactation compared with the dry period. Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar degree of down-regulation of LPL (respectively). Furthermore, knockdown of LPL was associated with reduced mRNA expression of SREBF1, FASN, LIPE and PPARG but greater expression of FFAR3. There was no effect on ACACA expression. Orlistat decreased expression of LIPE, FASN, ACACA, and PPARG, and increased FFAR3 and SREBF1 expression. The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis.
Project description:In mammals, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is the master regulator of fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis. Recent gene silencing studies in mammary cells indicate that SREBP-1 has a central role in milk fat synthesis. However, SREBP-1 knockdown studies in goat mammary cells have not been performed; hence, its direct role in controlling mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes and triacylglycerol synthesis remains unknown. Inhibition of SREBP-1 in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) by small interference RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced the content of cellular triacylglycerol (~50% decrease, P < 0.05) and was partly related to downregulation of AGPAT6, LPIN1, and DGAT2 (-23%, -28% and -19%, respectively. P < 0.05), which are key enzymes involved in triacylglycerol synthesis, cellular triacylglycerol content and lipid droplet accumulation all decreased by SREBP-1 inhibition. The expression of lipid droplet formation and secretion genes was not altered in response to treatment. Although the lack of effect on expression of ACACA and FASN (rate-limiting enzymes for de novo fatty acid synthesis) with SREBP-1 knockdown was unexpected (P > 0.05), the downregulation of genes related to synthesis of acetyl-CoA and acetate activation (ACLY, ACSS2, and IDH1, P < 0.05) suggests that lipogenesis was inhibited. SREBP-1 knockdown also resulted in decreased expression of genes associated with fatty acid desaturation and elongation (SCD1 and ELOVL6, P < 0.05), long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) activation and transport (ACSL1, FABP3, and SLC27A6, P < 0.05). The results underscored the essential role of SREBP-1 not only in fatty acid synthesis but also in desaturation, elongation, and esterification in GMEC. Clearly, the lack of effect on ACACA and FASN, both of which are considered the key lipogenic enzymes, implies that there may be different regulatory mechanisms in goat compared with bovine mammary cells.
Project description:cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) is a member of the leucine zipper transcription factor family of DNA binding proteins. Although studies in non-ruminants have demonstrated a crucial role of CREB1 in lipid synthesis in liver and adipose tissue, it is unknown if this transcription regulator exerts control of fatty acid synthesis in ruminant mammary cells. To address this question, we first defined the expression dynamics of CREB1 in mammary tissue during lactation. Analysis of CREB1 in mammary tissue revealed higher mRNA abundance in mammary tissue harvested at peak lactation. Overexpression of CREB1 markedly upregulated sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase ? (ACACA), elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), lipin 1 (LPIN1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), but had no effect on glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial (GPAM) or 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT6). In addition, overexpressing CREB1 led to a significant increase in the concentration and desaturation index of C16:1 (palmitoleic acid) and C18:1 (oleic acid), along with increased concentration of triacylglycerol. Taken together, these results highlight an important role of CREB1 in regulating lipid synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Thus, manipulation of CREB1 in vivo might be one approach to improve the quality of goat milk.
Project description:Histological and functional changes associated with involution in the mammary gland are partly regulated by changes in gene expression. At 42 d postpartum, Holstein cows underwent a period of 5 d during which they were milked 1X daily until complete cessation of milking. Percutaneous mammary biopsies (n = 5/time point) were obtained on d 1, 5, 14, and 21 relative to the start of 1X milking for transcript profiling via qPCR of 57 genes associated with metabolism, apoptosis/proliferation, immune response/inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue remodeling. Not surprisingly, there was clear downregulation of genes associated with milk fat synthesis (FASN, ACACA, CD36, FABP3, SCD) and lipid-related transcription regulation (SREBF1, SREBF2). Similar to milk fat synthesis-related genes, those encoding proteins required for glucose uptake (SLC2A1), casein synthesis (CSN2, CSN3), and lactose synthesis (LALBA) decreased during involution. Unlike metabolic genes, those associated with immune response and inflammation (C3, LTF, SAA3), oxidative stress (GPX1, SOD2), and pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling (SPP1, TNF) increased to peak levels by d 14 from the start of 1X milking. These adaptations appeared to be related with tissue remodeling as indicated by upregulation of proteins encoding matrix proteinases (MMP2), IGFBP3, and transcriptional regulation of apoptosis/cell proliferation (MYC). In contrast, the concerted upregulation of STAT3, TGFB1, and TGFB1R during the first 14 d was suggestive of an activation of these signaling pathways probably as an acute response to regulate differentiation and/or mammary cell survival upon the onset of a marked pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress response induced by the gradual reduction in milk removal. Results suggest a central role of STAT3, MYC, PPARG, SREBF1, and SREBF2 in regulating concerted alterations in metabolic and cell survival mechanisms, which were induced partly via oxidative stressed-triggered inflammation and the decline in metabolic activity.
Project description:The lactating mammary gland synthesizes large amounts of triglyceride from fatty acids derived from the blood and from de novo lipogenesis. The latter is significantly increased at parturition and decreased when additional dietary fatty acids become available. To begin to understand the molecular regulation of de novo lipogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding factor (SREBF)-1c is a primary regulator of this system. Expression of Srebf1c mRNA and six of its known target genes increased ?2.5-fold at parturition. However, Srebf1c-null mice showed only minor deficiencies in lipid synthesis during lactation, possibly due to compensation by Srebf1a expression. To abrogate the function of both isoforms of Srebf1, we bred mice to obtain a mammary epithelial cell-specific deletion of SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), the SREBF escort protein. These dams showed a significant lactation deficiency, and expression of mRNA for fatty acid synthase (Fasn), insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), mitochondrial citrate transporter (Slc25a1), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (Scd2) was reduced threefold or more; however, the mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1? (Acaca) and ATP citrate lyase (Acly) were unchanged. Furthermore, a 46% fat diet significantly decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis and reduced the protein levels of ACACA, ACLY, and FASN significantly, with no change in their mRNA levels. These data lead us to conclude that two modes of regulation exist to control fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of the lactating mouse: the well-known SREBF1 system and a novel mechanism that acts at the posttranscriptional level in the presence of SCAP deletion and high-fat feeding to alter enzyme protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The molecular events associated with regulation of milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland remain largely unknown. Our objective was to study mammary tissue mRNA expression via quantitative PCR of 45 genes associated with lipid synthesis (triacylglycerol and phospholipids) and secretion from the late pre-partum/non-lactating period through the end of subsequent lactation. mRNA expression was coupled with milk fatty acid (FA) composition and calculated indexes of FA desaturation and de novo synthesis by the mammary gland. RESULTS: Marked up-regulation and/or % relative mRNA abundance during lactation were observed for genes associated with mammary FA uptake from blood (LPL, CD36), intracellular FA trafficking (FABP3), long-chain (ACSL1) and short-chain (ACSS2) intracellular FA activation, de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN), desaturation (SCD, FADS1), triacylglycerol synthesis (AGPAT6, GPAM, LPIN1), lipid droplet formation (BTN1A1, XDH), ketone body utilization (BDH1), and transcription regulation (INSIG1, PPARG, PPARGC1A). Change in SREBF1 mRNA expression during lactation, thought to be central for milk fat synthesis regulation, was < or =2-fold in magnitude, while expression of INSIG1, which negatively regulates SREBP activation, was >12-fold and had a parallel pattern of expression to PPARGC1A. Genes involved in phospholipid synthesis had moderate up-regulation in expression and % relative mRNA abundance. The mRNA abundance and up-regulation in expression of ABCG2 during lactation was markedly high, suggesting a biological role of this gene in milk synthesis/secretion. Weak correlations were observed between both milk FA composition and desaturase indexes (i.e., apparent SCD activity) with mRNA expression pattern of genes measured. CONCLUSION: A network of genes participates in coordinating milk fat synthesis and secretion. Results challenge the proposal that SREBF1 is central for milk fat synthesis regulation and highlight a pivotal role for a concerted action among PPARG, PPARGC1A, and INSIG1. Expression of SCD, the most abundant gene measured, appears to be key during milk fat synthesis. The lack of correlation between gene expression and calculated desaturase indexes does not support their use to infer mRNA expression or enzyme activity (e.g., SCD). Longitudinal mRNA expression allowed development of transcriptional regulation networks and an updated model of milk fat synthesis regulation.
Project description:Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that plays an important role in controlling gene expression. Although important in mediating the function of various hormones, the role of SP1 in regulating milk fat formation remains unknown. To investigate the sequence and expression information, as well as its role in modulating lipid metabolism, we cloned SP1 gene from mammary gland of Xinong Saanen dairy goat. The full-length cDNA of the SP1 gene is 4376 bp including 103 bp of 5'UTR, 2358 bp of ORF (HM_236311) and 1915 bp of 3'UTR, which is predicted to encode a 786 amino acids polypeptide. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that goat SP1 has the closest relationship with sheep, followed by bovines (bos taurus, odobenus and ceratotherium), pig, primates (pongo, gorilla, macaca and papio) and murine (rattus and mus), while the furthest relationship was with canis and otolemur. Expression was predominant in the lungs, small intestine, muscle, spleen, mammary gland and subcutaneous fat. There were no significant expression level differences between the mammary gland tissues collected at lactation and dry-off period. Overexpression of SP1 in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) led to higher mRNA expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and lower liver X receptor ? (LXR?) mRNA level, both of which were crucial in regulating fatty acid metabolism, and correspondingly altered the expression of their downstream genes in GMECs. These results were further enhanced by the silencing of SP1. These findings suggest that SP1 may play an important role in fatty acid metabolism.
Project description:The microRNA-26 (miR-26) family is known to control adipogenesis in non-ruminants. The genomic loci of miR-26a and miR-26b have been localized in the introns of genes encoding for the proteins of the C-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase (CTDSP) family. Insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) encodes a protein with a key role in the regulation of lipogenesis in rodent liver. In the present study, we investigated the synergistic function of the miR-26 family and their host genes in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Downregulation of miR-26a/b and their host genes in GMEC decreased the expression of genes relate to fatty acid synthesis (PPARG, LXRA, SREBF1, FASN, ACACA, GPAM, LPIN1, DGAT1 and SCD1), triacylglycerol accumulation and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed INSIG1 as a direct target of miR-26a/b. Furthermore, inhibition of the CTDSP family also downregulated the expression of INSIG1. Taken together, our findings highlight a functional association of miR-26a/b, their host genes and INSIG1, and provide new insights into the regulatory network controlling milk fat synthesis in GMEC. The data indicate that targeting this network via nutrition might be important for regulating milk fat synthesis in ruminants.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of '18-25' nt RNA molecules which regulate gene expression and play an important role in several biologic processes including fatty acid metabolism. Here we used S-Poly (T) and high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the expression of miRNA and mRNA during early-lactation and in the non-lactating ("dry") period in goat mammary gland tissue. Results indicated that miR-148a, miR-17-5p, PPARGC1A and PPARA are highly expressed in the goat mammary gland in early-lactation and non-lactating periods. Utilizing a Luciferase reporter assay and Western Blot, PPARA, an important regulator of fatty acid oxidation, and PGC1a (PPARGC1A), a major regulator of fat metabolism, were demonstrated to be targets of miR-148a and miR-17-5p in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). It was also revealed that miR-148a expression can regulate PPARA, and miR-17-5p represses PPARGC1A in GMECs. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-148a and miR-17-5p promoted triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis while the knockdown of miR-148a and miR-17-5p impaired TAG synthesis in GMEC. These findings underscore the importance of miR-148a and miR-17-5p as key components in the regulation of TAG synthesis. In addition, miR-148a cooperates with miR-17-5p to regulate fatty acid metabolism by repressing PPARGC1A and PPARA in GMECs. Further studies on the functional role of miRNAs in lipid metabolism of ruminant mammary cells seem warranted.
Project description:Background:Milk in mammals is a key source of lipids for offspring, providing both critical energy and essential fatty acids. For lactating sows, palmitic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in milk, providing 10~12% of the suckling pig total dietary energy supply. However, the effects of exogenous palmitic acid on milk fat synthesis in sow mammary glands are not well-known. In this study, we investigated the effects of palmitic acid on lipogenic genes in porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMECs) to explore the role of exogenous palmitic acid in mediating milk triacylglycerols (TAG) synthesis. Methods:Porcine mammary epithelial cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of palmitate (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 ?M). The effect of palmitate on cell viability was tested via MTT assay. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured through Oil Red O staining, and TAG levels were quantified by enzymatic colorimetric methods. Expression of genes and proteins involved in milk fat biosynthesis were assayed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Results:Incubation with palmitate promoted cellular lipid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, as reflected by the increased TAG content and enhanced formation of cytosolic lipid droplets. The increased lipid synthesis by palmitate was probably attributable to the upregulated mRNA expression of genes associated with milk fat biosynthesis, including long-chain fatty acid uptake (LPL, CD36), intracellular activation and transport (ACSL3, FABP3), TAG synthesis (GPAM, AGPAT6, DGAT1), lipid droplet formation (PLIN2), and regulation of transcription (PPAR?). Western blot analysis of CD36 and DGAT1 proteins confirmed the increased lipid synthesis with increasing incubation of palmitate. However, the genes involved in fatty acid de novo synthesis (ACACA, FASN), fatty acid desaturation (SCD), and regulation of transcription (SREBP1, INSIG1) were inversely affected by incubation with increasing concentrations of palmitate. Western blot analysis of ACACA protein confirmed this decrease associated with increasing levels of palmitate. Conclusions:Results from this study suggest that palmitate stimulated the cytosolic TAG accumulation in pMECs, probably by promoting lipogenic genes and proteins that are involved in lipid synthesis. However, addition of palmitate decreased the fatty acid de novo synthesis in pMECs.