The 2'-Trifluoromethyl Analogue of Indomethacin Is a Potent and Selective COX-2 Inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: Indomethacin is a potent, time-dependent, nonselective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2). Deletion of the 2'-methyl group of indomethacin produces a weak, reversible COX inhibitor, leading us to explore functionality at that position. Here, we report that substitution of the 2'-methyl group of indomethacin with trifluoromethyl produces CF3-indomethacin, a tight-binding inhibitor with kinetic properties similar to those of indomethacin and unexpected COX-2 selectivity (IC50 mCOX-2 = 267 nM; IC50 oCOX-1 > 100 ?M). Studies with site-directed mutants reveal that COX-2 selectivity results from insertion of the CF3 group into a small hydrophobic pocket formed by Ala-527, Val-349, Ser-530, and Leu-531 and projection of the methoxy group toward a side pocket bordered by Val-523. CF3-indomethacin inhibited COX-2 activity in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and exhibited in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model with similar potency to that of indomethacin.
Project description:In order to develop new selective COX-2 inhibitors, a new series of 2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one derivatives possessing a methylsulfonyl pharmacophore group at the para position of the C-4 phenyl ring were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity. In vitro COX-1/COX-2 isozyme inhibition structure-activity studies identified 3-(benzyloxy)-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-4H-chromen-4-one (5d) as a potent COX-2 inhibitor (IC50 = 0.07 ?M) with a high COX-2 selectivity index (SI = 287.1) comparable to the reference drug celecoxib (COX-2 IC50 = 0.06 ?M; COX-2 SI = 405). A molecular modeling study where 3-(benzyloxy)-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-4H-chromen-4-one (5d) was docked into the active site of COX-2 showed that the p-MeSO2 substituent on the C-4 phenyl ring was well-oriented in the vicinity of the COX-2 secondary pocket (Arg(513), Val(523), and His(90)) and the carbonyl group of the chromene ring could interact with Ser(530). The structure-activity data acquired indicated that the nature and size of the substituent on the C-3 chromene scaffold are important for COX-2 inhibitory activity. Our results also indicated that the chromene moiety constitutes a suitable template to design new COX-2 inhibitors.
Project description:The cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) are the therapeutic targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Neutralization of the carboxylic acid moiety of the NSAID indomethacin to an ester or amide functionality confers COX-2 selectivity, but the molecular basis for this selectivity has not been completely revealed through mutagenesis studies and/or X-ray crystallographic attempts. We expressed and assayed a number of divergent secondary shell COX-2 active site mutants and found that a COX-2 to COX-1 change at position 472 (Leu in COX-2, Met in COX-1) reduced the potency of enzyme inhibition by a series of COX-2-selective indomethacin amides and esters. In contrast, the potencies of indomethacin, arylacetic acid, propionic acid, and COX-2-selective diarylheterocycle inhibitors were either unaffected or only mildly affected by this mutation. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed identical equilibrium enzyme structures around residue 472; however, calculations indicated that the L472M mutation impacted local low-frequency dynamical COX constriction site motions by stabilizing the active site entrance and slowing constriction site dynamics. Kinetic analysis of inhibitor binding is consistent with the computational findings.
Project description:Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors has been explored as a means to increase the selectivity and potency of cytotoxicity. Most efforts in this area have exploited the molecular recognition of proteins highly expressed on the surface of cancer cells followed by internalization. A related approach that has received less attention is the targeting of intracellular proteins by ligands conjugated to anticancer drugs. An attractive target for this approach is the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is highly expressed in a range of malignant tumors. Herein, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of chemotherapeutic agents targeted to COX-2 by conjugation to indomethacin. Detailed characterization of compound 12, a conjugate of indomethacin with podophyllotoxin, revealed highly potent and selective COX-2 inhibition in vitro and in intact cells. Kinetics and X-ray crystallographic studies demonstrated that compound 12 is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor that likely binds to COX-2's allosteric site with its indomethacin moiety in a conformation similar to that of indomethacin. Compound 12 exhibited cytotoxicity in cell culture similar to that of podophyllotoxin with no evidence of COX-2-dependent selectivity. However, in vivo, compound 12 accumulated selectively in and more effectively inhibited the growth of a COX-2-expressing xenograft compared to a xenograft that did not express COX-2. Compound 12, which we have named chemocoxib A, provides proof-of-concept for the in vivo targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to COX-2 but suggests that COX-2-dependent selectivity may not be evident in cell culture-based assays.
Project description:Carbaboranes are increasingly studied as pharmacophores, particularly as replacements for aromatic systems. However, especially ortho-carbaborane is prone to degradation of the cluster, which hampers biological application. This study demonstrates that deboronation of the cluster may not only lead to a more active analogue, but can also improve the solubility and stability of a carbaborane-containing inhibitor. Notably, introduction of a nido-dicarbaborate cluster into the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin results in remarkably increased inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2 relative to the respective phenyl analogue. The first crystal structure of a carbaborane-containing inhibitor bound to COX-2 further reveals a novel binding mode for the inhibitor that is strikingly different from that of indomethacin. These results indicate that nido-dicarbaborate is a promising pharmacophore that exhibits properties which are also highly beneficial for its introduction into other inhibitor classes.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase (Cox) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and, as such, is the target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Two isoforms exist, being expressed constitutively (Cox-1), or inducibly in response to inflammatory mediators (Cox-2). Currently available NSAIDs inhibit both isoforms somewhat equipotently but selective Cox-2 inhibition may eliminate unwanted side effects. We have characterized the kinetic mechanisms of the interactions of purified recombinant human cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (hCox-1, hCox-2) with the selective Cox-2 inhibitor N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulphonamide (NS-398) and some classical non-selective NSAIDs. NS-398, flurbiprofen, meclofenamic acid and indomethacin are time-dependent, irreversible inhibitors of hCox-2. The inhibition is consistent with a two-step process, involving an initial rapid equilibrium binding of enzyme and inhibitor, characterized by Ki, followed by the slow formation of a tightly bound enzyme-inhibitor complex, characterized by a first-order rate constant kon. NS-398 is a time-independent inhibitor of hCox-1, consistent with the formation of a reversible enzyme-inhibitor complex. Flurbiprofen, meclofenamic acid and indomethacin are also time-dependent inhibitors of hCox-1 and hence show little selectivity for one isoform over the other. Flufenamic acid is time independent towards both isoforms and is also non-selective. The high degree of selectivity of NS-398 towards Cox-2 results therefore from the difference in the nature of the time-dependency of inhibition of the two isoforms.
Project description:Oxicams are widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but little is known about the molecular basis of the interaction with their target enzymes, the cyclooxygenases (COX). Isoxicam is a nonselective inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 whereas meloxicam displays some selectivity for COX-2. Here we report crystal complexes of COX-2 with isoxicam and meloxicam at 2.0 and 2.45 angstroms, respectively, and a crystal complex of COX-1 with meloxicam at 2.4 angstroms. These structures reveal that the oxicams bind to the active site of COX-2 using a binding pose not seen with other NSAIDs through two highly coordinated water molecules. The 4-hydroxyl group on the thiazine ring partners with Ser-530 via hydrogen bonding, and the heteroatom of the carboxamide ring of the oxicam scaffold interacts with Tyr-385 and Ser-530 through a highly coordinated water molecule. The nitrogen atom of the thiazine and the oxygen atom of the carboxamide bind to Arg-120 and Tyr-355 via another highly ordered water molecule. The rotation of Leu-531 in the structure opens a novel binding pocket, which is not utilized for the binding of other NSAIDs. In addition, a detailed study of meloxicam·COX-2 interactions revealed that mutation of Val-434 to Ile significantly reduces inhibition by meloxicam due to subtle changes around Phe-518, giving rise to the preferential inhibition of COX-2 over COX-1.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2. The inhibitory activity of rapid, reversible COX inhibitors (ibuprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, and lumiracoxib) demonstrated a significant increase in potency and time dependence of inhibition against double tryptophan murine COX-2 mutants at the 89/90 and 89/119 positions. In contrast, the slow, time-dependent COX inhibitors (diclofenac, indomethacin, and flurbiprofen) were unaffected by those mutations. Further mutagenesis studies suggested that mutation at position 89 was principally responsible for the changes in inhibitory potency of rapid, reversible inhibitors, whereas mutation at position 90 may exert some effect on the potency of COX-2-selective diarylheterocycle inhibitors; no effect was observed with mutation at position 119. Several crystal structures with or without NSAIDs indicated that placement of a bulky residue at position 89 caused a closure of a gap at the lobby, and alteration of histidine to tryptophan at position 90 changed the electrostatic profile of the side pocket of COX-2. Thus, these two residues, especially Val-89 at the lobby region, are crucial for the entrance and exit of some NSAIDs from the COX active site.
Project description:In addition to its known actions as a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibitor, we hypothesized that indomethacin can act as an allosteric modulator of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) because of its shared structural features with the known allosteric modulators of CB1R. Indomethacin enhanced the binding of [3H]CP55940 to hCB1R and enhanced AEA-dependent [35S]GTP?S binding to hCB1R in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes. Indomethacin (1 ?M) also enhanced CP55940-dependent ?arrestin1 recruitment, cAMP inhibition, ERK1/2 and PLC?3 phosphorylation in HEK293A cells expressing hCB1R, but not in cells expressing hCB2R. Finally, indomethacin enhanced the magnitude and duration of CP55940-induced hypolocomotion, immobility, hypothermia, and anti-nociception in C57BL/6J mice. Together, these data support the hypothesis that indomethacin acted as a positive allosteric modulator of hCB1R. The identification of structural and functional features shared amongst allosteric modulators of CB1R may lead to the development of novel compounds designed for greater CB1R or COX selectivity and compounds designed to modulate both the prostaglandin and endocannabinoid systems.
Project description:A new series of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole analogs containing a methyl sulfonyl COX-2 pharmacophore was synthesized and evaluated for their COX-2 inhibitory activity. According to in-vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition data, all compounds (6a-g) were selective inhibitors of COX-2 isoenzyme with IC50 values in the highly potent 0.08-0.16 µM range. These results indicated that both potency and selectivity of COX-2 inhibitory activity were affected by the type and size of amine on C-5 of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole ring. Our data identified N,N-dimethyl-1-(6-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-5-yl)methanamine (6a) as a potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor (IC50 COX-1 >100 µM; IC50 COX-2 = 0.08 µM; selectivity index = 313.7). Our results indicated that both potency and selectivity of COX-2 inhibitory activity were affected by the type and size of amine on C-5 of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole ring.
Project description:A new group of 5,5-diarylhydantoin derivatives bearing a methylsulfonyl COX-2 pharmacophore at the para position of the C-5 phenyl ring were designed and synthesized as selective COX-2 inhibitors. In vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition structure-activity relationships identified 5-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-5-phenyl-hydantoin (4) as a highly potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor (COX-2 IC(50) = 0.077 ?M; selectivity index > 1298). It was more selective than the reference drug celecoxib (COX-2 IC(50) = 0.060 ?M; selectivity index = 405). A molecular modeling study where 4 was docked in the binding site of COX-2 indicated that the p-MeSO(2) COX-2 pharmacophore group on the C-5 phenyl ring is oriented in the vicinity of the COX-2 secondary pocket. The results of this study showed that the type of substituent on the N-3 hydantoin ring substituent is important for COX-2 inhibitory activity.