Screening on perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV): two studies on the validity of an IPV screening instrument in patients in substance abuse treatment.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: About 50% of patients in substance abuse treatment with a partner perpetrated and/or experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. To date, there are no screeners to identify both perpetrators and victims of partner intimate violence in a substance abusing population. We developed a 4 item screening instrument for this purpose, the Jellinek Inventory for assessing Partner Violence (J-IPV). Important strengths of the J-IPV are that it takes only 2 minutes to administer and is easy to use and to score. METHODS: To investigate the validity of the J-IPV, two independent studies were conducted including 98 and 99 participants, respectively. Aim of the second study was to cross-validate findings from the first study. Psychometric properties of the J-IPV were determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio's by comparing J-IPV outcomes to outcomes on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales ('gold standard'). Also, receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-curves were determined to weight sensitivity and specificity as a result of different J-IPV cutoffs, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. RESULTS: Results of the first study demonstrated that the J-IPV possesses good psychometric properties to detect perpetrators and victims of any as well as severe intimate partner violence. Results from the second study replicated findings from the first study. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend administering the J-IPV to patients entering substance abuse treatment. If perpetrators and victims of partner violence are identified, action can be taken to stop IPV perpetration and arrange help for victims, for example by offering perpetrators treatment or by providing safety planning or advocacy interventions to victims.
Project description:Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures.Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N?=?52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed.Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment.Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+.
Project description:To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia.In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis.Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance.IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research on elder abuse has defined it as a multidimensional construct that encompasses a set of different abusive behaviours, victims, perpetrators and settings. The array of possible elder abuse configurations is difficult to capture. This study sought to identify victimization patterns that represent distinct elder abuse configurations based on specific abusive behaviours and on the relationship with the perpetrator; it also sought to determine the association between these latent classes with victims' characteristics. METHOD:Data comes from two elder abuse surveys: a representative sample of community-dwelling adults and a convenience sample of older adults reporting elder abuse to four state and NGOs institutions. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to categorize victimization in the population-based (N = 245) and in the victims' sample (N = 510) using 7 items measuring physical, psychological and financial abuse, and appointed perpetrators. Association tests were conducted to determine differences and similarities of victims' characteristics between the different obtained classes. RESULTS:The LCA procedure identified six different latent classes of victimization experiences in each of the samples, which were statistically and plausibly distinct. In the population-based survey: verbal abuse by others (29%); psychological abuse from children/grandchildren (18%); overlooked by others (18%); stolen by others (15%); verbal Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) (14%) and physical and psychological IPV (6%). In the victims' survey: physical abuse by children/grandchildren (29%); physical IPV (26%); psychological abuse by children/grandchildren (18%); polyvictimization by others (16%); physical abuse by others (6%) and physical and psychological IPV (4%). In the victims survey the 6 groups significantly differ in age, gender, civil status, living arrangements, perceived social support and functional status. CONCLUSIONS:The results support the possibility of the multidimensionality of elder abuse not being accounted by the "classical" abuse typologies. Elder abuse victims seeking help may represent a distinct group from that included in population-based prevalence studies. The appointed perpetrators may be the most meaningful and relevant aspect in distinguishing victimization experiences. Further research is needed to develop tailored interventions to specific elder abuse cases and enhance successful outcomes.
Project description:In this paper, we explore gender norms held by men and women that might contribute to male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ghana. This qualitative research was conducted at the pre-intervention stage of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Our intervention uses community-based action teams to change social norms on gender and violence. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted within communities. We found that male perpetrated IPV is a common phenomenon within the study communities, yet it is complex and experienced differently depending on the context. A woman's non-compliance with gender norms provided context for the male partner to enforce societal conformity through IPV. Also, male partners' misbehavior (e.g. alcohol abuse) may exacerbate IPV. Whereas the former is socially acceptable, the latter may be contested. Victims may challenge/counteract IPV using varying tactics (e.g. threats), which were mainly directed toward male partners' immoral behavior. We conclude that there is a need to assess IPV with key considerations for female agency, as some victims may respond with violence. Moreover, some communities have the tendency to demonstrate more gender-equitable attitudes regarding male perpetration of IPV, as indicated by laws instituted by some traditional leaders to deter perpetrators. These are key learnings that can inform the design and delivery of various interventions that seek to address IPV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Past research has identified links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol misuse and poverty in Sri Lanka. Services that address substance misuse are amongst the few interventions shown to reduce IPV in settings similar to Sri Lanka. This paper describes the protocol for a study examining the impact of a preschool-based capacity building intervention on the prevalence of IPV and substance misuse in parents with children attending preschools, including uptake of available government services. METHODS:The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Government-managed preschools (n = 34) in Galle and Colombo municipalities will be randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 17) or control group (n = 17). Parents with children attending these preschools will be recruited to participate. The study intervention will build the capacity of selected community volunteers (parents) and preschool teachers in the provision of information and support to families affected by IPV and substance misuse. This intervention is directed at improving uptake, access and coordination of existing services. Data will be collected from all parents, and teachers in the intervention group, pre-intervention and 10 months post-intervention. The primary outcome for this study is experience of IPV amongst mothers of preschool-attending children. Secondary outcomes are substance misuse amongst fathers, measured via the locally adapted Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test; and awareness and uptake of services for these issues measured through locally-relevant tools. Demographic information and satisfaction with the intervention will also be assessed. DISCUSSION:By intervening through preschools we aim to support high-risk families early enough to arrest the cycle of violence that results in children themselves becoming victims and perpetrators of such violence. The innovative project design will reach the most vulnerable sections of the community and will provide a sustainable and feasible strategy for scale-up of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered with the Sri Lankan Clinical Trials Registry (2017/038) and has been submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov (U.S National Institutes of Health) under the title "Randomized control trial: preschool-based training and support programs to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) by addressing alcohol and drug misuse in young families in Sri Lanka"; Registration number: NCT03341455 ; Registration date: 14 November 2017.
Project description:Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression.
Project description:Interventions for ending intimate partner violence (IPV) have not usually provided integrated approaches. Legal and social policies have the duty to protect, assist and empower women and to bring offenders to justice. Men have mainly been considered in their role as perpetrators to be subjected to judicial measures, while child witnesses of violence have not been viewed as a direct target for services. Currently, there is a need for an integrated and holistic theoretical and operational model to understand IPV as gender-based violence and to intervene with the goal of ending the fragmentation of existing measures. The EU project ViDaCS-Violent Dads in Child Shoes-which worked towards the deconstruction and reconstruction of violence's effects on child witnesses, has given us the opportunity to collect the opinions of social workers and child witnesses regarding violence. Therefore, the article describes measures to deal with IPV, proposing functional connections among different services and specific preventative initiatives. Subsequently, this study will examine intimate partner violence and provide special consideration to interventions at the individual, relational, organizational and community levels. The final goal will be to present a short set of guidelines that take into account the four levels considered by operationalizing the aforementioned ecological principles.
Project description:Workplace interventions represent important opportunities to increase awareness of and adherence to disease prevention and health promotion initiatives. However, research on workplace interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) has not been systematically evaluated. This systematic review summarizes existing studies evaluating workplace interventions for IPV. PubMed, PsycINFO, Business Source Complete, Web of Science, and Social Services Abstracts were systematically searched for English-language studies published before November 2017. Six studies evaluating five interventions were included. Only one study used a randomized design, and only two studies measured whether outcomes were sustained over time. None of the interventions addressed perpetrators of IPV. Interventions focused on recognizing signs of abuse, responding to victims, and providing referrals to community-based resources. Methodological rigor of included studies varied, but all reported at least one intervention-related benefit. Findings included improved awareness of IPV, increased provision of information to victims, and greater willingness to intervene if an employee may be experiencing IPV. Although sparse, available evidence suggests there are potential benefits of workplace interventions for IPV. It is important for future interventions to focus on primary and secondary prevention of IPV and address perpetration, and for investigators to use rigorous study designs and measure whether effects are sustained.
Project description:Smaller groups of victims of violence, abuse, neglect or exploitation - such as male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), victims of elder abuse, victims of abuse by carers, victims of parent abuse, victims of human trafficking, girls and boys below 18 years engaging in sex work, victims of sexual exploitation by gangs or groups and victims of honour based violence (such as forced marriages and female genital mutilation) - are often in contact with the health care system without being identified as such and frequently do not receive appropriate treatment. To address this problem, two things need to happen: 1) that ALL groups of victims of violence, abuse, neglect or exploitation are explicitly listed in policies and protocols, and 2) that both the similarities as well as the differences between the groups with regard to identification, support and referral - described in this article - are explained, so that health providers are appropriately supported in this important function.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a social problem in Bangladesh with adverse effects on maternal healthcare. This study analyzed the sociodemographic factors responsible for intimate partner violence and its overall association with reproductive healthcare-specifically miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions (MSA)-using Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2007, which contains the latest available intimate partner violence data till date, with the hypothesis that intimate partner violence is associated with miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions. The generalized linear regression model was fitted to 3,920 women adjusting survey weights and cluster/strata variations. The study concluded that 1 out of every 4 women who reported experiencing intimate partner violence also reported having one or more of miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions. The results revealed that intimate partner violence and miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions were significantly associated with the age of the women, residence, age of the women at their first birth, sex of household head and the household's financial condition. Furthermore, the odds of having one or more miscarriages, stillbirths and abortions was increased by 35% for women who were victims to intimate partner violence, establishing a significant association between miscarriages, stillbirths and abortions and intimate partner violence. There appeared to be a need to address the issue in both paradigms, particularly for the poor rural women in Bangladeshi patriarchal society. These findings demand a combined intervention effort in the vulnerable cohorts, especially if Bangladesh intends to attain the goals 3.1 and 5.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) by 2030.