Longitudinal Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Isolates Acquired From Different Sites in an Immune-Compromised Child: A New HSV Thymidine Kinase Mutation Associated With Resistance.
ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus resistance to acyclovir is well described in immune-compromised patients. Management of prolonged infection and recurrences in such patients may be problematic.A patient with neuroblastoma developed likely primary herpes gingivostomatitis shortly after starting a course of chemotherapy, with spread to the eye during treatment with acyclovir. Viral isolates were serially obtained from separate sites after treatment was begun and tested for susceptibility to acyclovir and foscarnet by plaque reduction and plating efficiency assays. The thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase genes from each isolate were sequenced.Initial isolates from a throat swab, an oral lesion, and conjunctiva were resistant to acyclovir within 13 days of treatment. Subsequent isolates while on foscarnet were initially acyclovir-susceptible, but reactivation of an acyclovir-resistant isolate was subsequently documented while on acyclovir suppression. Genotypic analysis identified a previously unreported UL23 mutation in some resistant isolates. None of the amino acid changes identified in UL30 were associated with resistance.Phenotypic and genotypic antiviral resistance of herpes simplex isolates may vary from different compartments and over time in individual immune-compromised hosts, highlighting the importance of obtaining cultures from all sites. Phenotypic resistance testing should be considered for isolates obtained from at-risk patients not responding to first-line therapy. Empiric combination treatment with multiple antivirals could be considered in some situations.
Project description:Foscarnet is widely used for the treatment of acyclovir-resistant herpesvirus infections, and foscarnet-resistant herpesvirus infections are a serious concern in immunocompromised patients. Twenty-seven single-plaque isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) resistant to foscarnet were selected from foscarnet- and acyclovir-sensitive HSV-1 strain TAS by exposure to foscarnet, and the DNA polymerase genes were analyzed. The sensitivities of these mutants to foscarnet, cidofovir, S2242, acyclovir, ganciclovir, and penciclovir were determined. A single amino acid substitution, double amino acid substitutions, and a combination of a single amino acid substitution with a deletion or insertion of amino acid residues in the viral DNA polymerase were demonstrated in 21, 4, and 2 isolates, respectively. Of the 27 isolates, an amino acid substitution of serine for asparagine at amino acid position 724 in the DNA polymerase (724 S-N) was detected in 8 isolates. An amino acid substitution in conserved region II was demonstrated in these eight isolates as well as four other isolates. The mutation in the DNA polymerase responsible for resistance to foscarnet was located between the pre-IV region and conserved region V, especially within conserved region II. All the isolates were sensitive or hypersensitive to cidofovir and ganciclovir. Seven, 5, and 15 of the 27 isolates were also sensitive to S2242, acyclovir, and penciclovir, respectively. Thus, most of the foscarnet-resistant HSV-1 isolates were sensitive or hypersensitive to cidofovir and ganciclovir.
Project description:Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent in the human population, and the infections they produce are lifelong with frequent reactivations throughout life. Both viruses produce uncomfortable and sometimes painful lesions in the orofacial and genital areas, as well as herpetic gingivostomatitis, among other clinical manifestations. At present, the most common treatments against HSVs consist of nucleoside analogs that target the viral polymerases. However, such drugs are poorly effective for treating skin lesions, as they only reduce in 1-2 days the duration of the herpetic lesions. Additionally, viral isolates resistant to these drugs can emerge in immunosuppressed individuals, and second-line drugs for such variants are frequently accompanied by adverse effects requiring medical supervision. Thus, novel or improved therapeutic drugs for treating HSV lesions are needed. Here, we assessed the potential antiviral activity of aqueous extracts obtained from two brown macroalgae, namely Macrocystis pyrifera and Durvillaea antarctica against HSVs. Both extracts showed antiviral activity against acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and HSV-2. Our analyses show that there is a significant antiviral activity associated with proteins in the extract, although other compounds also seem to contribute to inhibiting the replication cycle of these viruses. Evaluation of the algae extracts as topical formulations in an animal model of HSV-1 skin infection significantly reduced the severity of the disease more than acyclovir, as well as the duration of the herpetic lesions, when compared to mock-treated animals, with the D. antarctica extract performing best. Taken together, these findings suggest that these algae extracts may be potential phytotherapeutics against HSVs and may be useful for the treatment and reduction of common herpetic manifestations in humans.
Project description:A total of 302 clinical herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strains, collected over 4 decades from 1973 to 2014, were characterized retrospectively for drug resistance. All HSV-1 isolates were analyzed genotypically for nonsynonymous mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (Pol) genes. The resistance phenotype against acyclovir (ACV) and/or foscarnet (FOS) was examined in the case of novel, unclear, or resistance-related mutations. Twenty-six novel natural polymorphisms could be detected in the TK gene and 69 in the DNA Pol gene. Furthermore, three novel resistance-associated mutations (two in the TK gene and one in the DNA Pol gene) were analyzed, and eight known but hitherto unclear amino acid substitutions (two encoded in TK and six in the DNA Pol gene) could be clarified. Between 1973 and 2014, the distribution of amino acid changes related to the natural gene polymorphisms of TK and DNA Pol remained largely stable. Resistance to ACV was confirmed phenotypically for 16 isolates, and resistance to ACV plus FOS was confirmed for 1 isolate. Acyclovir-resistant strains were observed from the year 1995 onwards, predominantly in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with stem cell transplantation, and the number of ACV-resistant strains increased during the last 2 decades. The data confirm the strong genetic variability among HIV-1 isolates, which is more pronounced in the DNA Pol gene than in the TK gene, and will facilitate considerably the rapid genotypic diagnosis of HSV-1 resistance.
Project description:We examined the impact of two clinically approved anti-herpes drugs, acyclovir and Forscarnet (phosphonoformate), on the exonuclease activity of the herpes simplex virus-1 DNA polymerase, UL30. Acyclovir triphosphate and Foscarnet, along with the closely related phosphonoacetic acid, did not affect exonuclease activity on single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, blocking the polymerase active site due to either binding of Foscarnet or phosphonoacetic acid to the E-DNA complex or polymerization of acyclovir onto the DNA also had a minimal effect on exonuclease activity. The inability of the exonuclease to excise acyclovir from the primer 3'-terminus results from the altered sugar structure directly impeding phosphodiester bond hydrolysis as opposed to inhibiting binding, unwinding of the DNA by the exonuclease, or transfer of the DNA from the polymerase to the exonuclease. Removing the 3'-hydroxyl or the 2'-carbon from the nucleotide at the 3'-terminus of the primer strongly inhibited exonuclease activity, although addition of a 2'-hydroxyl did not affect exonuclease activity. The biological consequences of these results are twofold. First, the ability of acyclovir and Foscarnet to block dNTP polymerization without impacting exonuclease activity raises the possibility that their effects on herpes replication may involve both direct inhibition of dNTP polymerization and exonuclease-mediated destruction of herpes DNA. Second, the ability of the exonuclease to rapidly remove a ribonucleotide at the primer 3'-terminus in combination with the polymerase not efficiently adding dNTPs onto this primer provides a novel mechanism by which the herpes replication machinery can prevent incorporation of ribonucleotides into newly synthesized DNA.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. The secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir-resistant and temperature-sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. We identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature-sensitivity by deep-sequencing analysis.
Project description:DNA polymerases of the Herpesviridae and bacteriophage RB69 belong to the α-like DNA polymerase family. In spite of similarities in structure and function, the RB69 enzyme is relatively resistant to foscarnet, requiring the mutation V478W in helix N to promote the closed conformation of the enzyme to make it susceptible to the antiviral. Here, we generated recombinant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) mutants harboring the revertant in UL30 (W781V) and UL54 (W780V) DNA polymerases, respectively, to further investigate the impact of this tryptophan on antiviral drug susceptibility and viral replicative capacity. The mutation W781V in HSV-1 induced resistance to foscarnet, acyclovir, and ganciclovir (3-, 14-, and 3-fold increases in the 50% effective concentrations [EC50s], respectively). The recombinant HCMV mutant harboring the W780V mutation was slightly resistant to foscarnet (a 1.9-fold increase in the EC50) and susceptible to ganciclovir. Recombinant HSV-1 and HCMV mutants had altered viral replication kinetics. The apparent inhibition constant values of foscarnet against mutant UL30 and UL54 DNA polymerases were 45- and 4.9-fold higher, respectively, than those against their wild-type counterparts. Structural evaluation of the tryptophan position in the UL54 DNA polymerase suggests that the bulkier phenylalanine (fingers domain) and isoleucine (N-terminal domain) could induce a tendency toward the closed conformation greater than that for UL30 and explains the modest effect of the W780V mutation on foscarnet susceptibility. Our results further suggest a role of the tryptophan in helix N in conferring HCMV and especially HSV-1 susceptibility to foscarnet and the possible contribution of other residues localized at the interface between the fingers and N-terminal domains.DNA polymerases of the Herpesviridae and bacteriophage RB69 belong to the α-like DNA polymerase family. However, the RB69 DNA polymerase is relatively resistant to the broad-spectrum antiviral agent foscarnet. The mutation V478W in helix N of the fingers domain caused the enzyme to adopt a closed conformation and to become susceptible to the antiviral. We generated recombinant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) mutants harboring the revertant in UL30 (W781V) and UL54 (W780V) DNA polymerases, respectively, to further investigate the impact of this tryptophan on antiviral drug susceptibility. The W781V mutation in HSV-1 induced resistance to foscarnet, whereas the W780V mutation in HCMV slightly decreased drug susceptibility. This study suggests that the different profiles of susceptibility to foscarnet of the HSV-1 and HCMV mutants could be related to subtle conformational changes resulting from the interaction between residues specific to each enzyme that are located at the interface between the fingers and the N-terminal domains.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) resistance to antiviral drugs has been described primarily in immunocompromised patients. We report an apparently immunocompetent, human immunodeficiency virus-negative male patient who has experienced repeated HSV-2 genital outbreaks despite receiving antiviral prophylaxis with several different drugs. Several of the HSV-2 genital isolates from this patient have been confirmed as resistant to acyclovir and penciclovir. Antiviral resistance occurred in the setting of long-term prednisone treatment and intermittent acyclovir prophylaxis at suboptimal doses and persisted despite the cessation of oral steroid treatment. The patient's genital herpes outbreaks were not controlled by high-dose prophylaxis with acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. Cessation of antiviral prophylaxis resulted in reversion of this patient's HSV-2 isolates to acyclovir and penciclovir sensitivity, although resistant virus reappeared when antiviral prophylaxis was resumed. Transmission of a sensitive HSV-2 strain from this patient to a female sex partner was observed. These observations confirm previous reports that resistance to acyclovir may develop during prophylactic therapy in an otherwise well, immunocompetent patient. These findings support the conclusion that both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant HSV-2 strains established latency in this patient and that both strains are capable of frequent reactivation.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of herpes simplex virus (HSV) resistance to antiviral drugs interfering with viral DNA synthesis reported so far rely on the presence of mutations within UL23 (thymidine kinase [TK]) and UL30 (DNA polymerase) genes. The interpretation of genotypic antiviral resistance assay results requires the clear distinction between resistance mutations and natural interstrain sequence variations. The objectives of this work were to describe extensively the natural polymorphism of UL23 TK and UL30 DNA polymerase among HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains and the amino acid changes potentially associated with HSV resistance to antivirals. The sequence analysis of the full-length UL23 and UL30 genes was performed. Ninety-four drug-sensitive clinical isolates (43 HSV-1 and 51 HSV-2) and 3 laboratory strains (KOS, gHSV-2, and MS2) were studied for natural polymorphism, and 25 clinical isolates exhibiting phenotypic traits of resistance to antivirals were analyzed for drug resistance mutations. Our results showed that TK and DNA polymerase are highly conserved among HSV strains, with a weaker variability for HSV-2 strains. This study provided a precise map of the natural polymorphism of both viral enzymes among HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates, with the identification of 15 and 51 polymorphisms never previously described for TK and DNA polymerase, respectively, which will facilitate the interpretation of genotypic antiviral-resistant testing. Moreover, the genotypic characterization of 25 drug-resistant HSV isolates revealed 8 new amino acid changes located in TK and potentially accounting for acyclovir (ACV) resistance.
Project description:We investigated thymidine kinase (tk) mutants isolated during multiple episodes of recurrent bilateral acyclovir resistant herpes simplex keratitis in an immunocompetent patient. From one eye, we found a single guanine insertion, previously shown to greatly reduce TK expression, and from the other, a previously unidentified substitution, which genetic experiments confirmed confers drug resistance. The substitution, although distant from substrate binding sites, reduced thymidine phosphorylation 10-20-fold, and acyclovir phosphorylation >100-fold. This phenotype should permit reactivation from latency to cause recurrent disease. The results may have implications for the prevalence and prevention of acyclovir resistance in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.
Project description:We report an immunocompetent woman with multisystem organ failure following herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) hepatitis. After she initially responded to intravenous acyclovir, she was switched to oral valacyclovir. She developed respiratory failure and opportunistic infections and died. Autopsy confirmed disseminated HSV infection, and lung tissue grew acyclovir-resistant HSV-2.