NGEP, a gene encoding a membrane protein detected only in prostate cancer and normal prostate.
ABSTRACT: We identified a gene (NGEP) that is expressed only in prostate cancer and normal prostate. The two NGEP transcripts are 0.9 kb and 3.5 kb in size and are generated by a differential splicing event. The short variant (NGEP-S) is derived from four exons and encodes a 20-kDa intracellular protein. The long form (NGEP-L) is derived from 18 exons and encodes a 95-kDa protein that is predicted to contain seven-membrane-spanning regions. In situ hybridization shows that NGEP mRNA is localized in epithelial cells of normal prostate and prostate cancers. Immunocytochemical analysis of cells transfected with NGEP cDNAs containing a Myc epitope tag at the carboxyl terminus shows that the protein encoded by the short transcript is localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the protein encoded by the long transcript is present on the plasma membrane. Because of its selective expression in prostate cancer and its presence on the cell surface, NGEP-L is a promising target for the antibody-based therapies of prostate cancer.
Project description:To identify target antigens for prostate cancer therapy, we have combined computer-based screening of the human expressed sequence tag database and experimental expression analysis to identify genes that are expressed in normal prostate and prostate cancer but not in essential human tissues. Using this approach, we identified a gene that is expressed specifically in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis. The gene has a 1.5-kb transcript that encodes a protein of 14 kDa. We named this gene PATE (expressed in prostate and testis). In situ hybridization shows that PATE mRNA is expressed in the epithelial cells of prostate cancers and in normal prostate. Transfection of the PATE cDNA with a Myc epitope tag into NIH 3T3 cells and subsequent cell fractionation analysis shows that the PATE protein is localized in the membrane fraction of the cell. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PATE shows that it has structural similarities to a group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, which includes the extracellular domain of the type beta transforming growth factor receptor. Restricted expression of PATE makes it a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.
Project description:We have identified a gene located on chromosomes 21 that is expressed in normal and neoplastic prostate, and in normal testis, ovary, and placenta. We name this gene POTE (expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta). The POTE gene has 11 exons and 10 introns and spans approximately equal 32 kb of chromosome 21q11.2 region. The 1.83-kb mRNA of POTE encodes a protein of 66 kDa. Ten paralogs of the gene have been found dispersed among eight different chromosomes (2, 8, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, and 22) with preservation of ORFs and splice junctions. The synonymous:nonsynonymous ratio indicates that the genes were duplicated rather recently but are diverging at a rate faster than the average for other paralogous genes. In prostate and in testis, at least five different paralogs are expressed. In situ hybridization shows that POTE is expressed in basal and terminal cells of normal prostate epithelium. It is also expressed in some prostate cancers and in the LnCAP prostate cancer cell line. The POTE protein contains seven ankyrin repeats between amino acids 140 and 380. Expression of POTE in prostate cancer and its undetectable expression in normal essential tissues make POTE a candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. The existence of a large number of closely related but rapidly diverging members, their location on multiple chromosomes and their limited expression pattern suggest an important role for the POTE gene family in reproductive processes.
Project description:Diacylglycerol can function as a second messenger, and one mechanism for the attenuation of this signal is its conversion to phosphatidic acid, which is catalyzed by diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). We screened a cDNA library from human skeletal muscle and isolated two DGKzeta cDNAs that differed from the 3.5-kb clone originally identified in endothelial cells. One transcript, which was 3.4 kb long, was shown to be nonfunctional; it had a 77-bp deletion that included the translation initiation site. The other was 4.1 kb long with a unique 5' sequence of 853 bp. We also isolated a genomic clone of DGKzeta and determined its organization and location; it contains 32 exons, spans approximately 50 kb of genomic sequence, and maps to chromosome 11p11.2. The protein encoded by the 4.1-kb transcript contains two cysteine-rich regions, a catalytic domain, and ankyrin repeats like the endothelial form of DGKzeta, as well as a unique N-terminal domain. The coding sequence was shown to be derived from alternative splicing of the DGKzeta gene. In cells transfected with the 4.1-kb clone, we detected a 130-kDa protein with an antibody to DGKzeta and demonstrated that it was localized predominantly in the nucleus. We conclude that alternative splicing generates tissue-specific variants of DGKzeta that share some properties but may have unique ones as well.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE), the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. RESULTS: DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. CONCLUSIONS: DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and most similar to the genus Mardivirus. The UL15 and/or UL15.5 accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm during early times post-infection and then are translocated to the nucleus at late times.
Project description:The murine Hmgi-c gene, a member of the Hmgi gene family, contains five exons encompassing >110 kb of genomic DNA at the pygmy locus on mouse chromosome 10. Northern analysis identified a 4.1 kb transcript which contains a 324 bp open reading frame encoding a 12 kDa HMGI-C protein. Further analysis defined both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the Hmgi-c mRNA species as 658 and 2967 bp respectively. The HMGI-C protein has three consecutive AT hook DNA binding domains and an acidic domain, each of which are encoded by individual exons; such an organization is conserved among the HMGI gene family members from insects to mammals. Similar to the HMGI/Y proteins, the HMGI-C protein does not function as a typical transcriptional activator. Developmental studies revealed that the Hmgi-c gene is expressed predominantly during mouse embryogenesis. Since the human homolog is disrupted in a number of tumors, HMGI-C could play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation during mammalian development.
Project description:Combining a computer-based screening strategy and functional genomics, we previously identified MRP9 (ABCC12), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We now show that the gene has two major transcripts of 4.5 and 1.3 kb. In breast cancer, normal breast, and testis, the MRP9 gene transcript is 4.5 kb in size and encodes a 100-kDa protein. The protein is predicted to have 8 instead of 12 membrane-spanning regions. When compared with closely related ABC family members, it lacks transmembrane domains 3, 4, 11, and 12 and the second nucleotide-binding domain. In other tissues including brain, skeletal muscle, and ovary, the transcript size is 1.3 kb. This smaller transcript encodes a nucleotide-binding protein of approximately 25 kDa in size. An in situ hybridization study shows that the 4.5-kb transcript is expressed in the epithelial cells of breast cancer. An antipeptide antibody designed to react with the amino terminus of the protein detects a 100-kDa protein in testis and the membrane fraction of a breast cancer cell line. Because the 4.5-kb RNA is highly expressed in breast cancer and not expressed at detectable levels in essential normal tissues, MRP9 could be a useful target for the immunotherapy of breast cancer. Because of the unusual topology of the two variants of MRP9, we speculate that they may have a different function from other family members.
Project description:The SICAvar gene family, expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, is critical for antigenic variation in Plasmodium knowlesi. When this family was discovered, a prototypic SICAvar gene was characterized and defined by a 10-exon structure. The predicted 205-kDa protein lacked a convincing signal peptide, but included a series of variable cysteine-rich modules, a transmembrane domain encoded by the penultimate exon, and a cytoplasmic domain encoded by the final highly conserved exon. The 205 SICAvar gene and its family with up to 108 possible family members, was identified prior to the sequencing of the P. knowlesi genome. However, in the published P. knowlesi database this gene remains disjointed in five fragments. This study addresses a number of structural and functional questions that are critical for understanding SICAvar gene expression.Database mining, bioinformatics, and traditional genomic and post-genomic experimental methods including proteomic technologies are used here to confirm the genomic context and expressed structure of the prototype 205 SICAvar gene.This study reveals that the 205 SICAvar gene reported previously to have a 10-exon expressed gene structure has, in fact, 12 exons, with an unusually large and repeat-laden intron separating two newly defined upstream exons and the bona fide 5'UTR from the remainder of the gene sequence. The initial exon encodes a PEXEL motif, which may function to localize the SICA protein in the infected erythrocyte membrane. This newly defined start of the 205 SICAvar sequence is positioned on chromosome 5, over 340 kb upstream from the rest of the telomerically positioned SICAvar gene sequence in the published genome assembly. This study, however, verifies the continuity of these sequences, a 9.5 kb transcript, and provides evidence that the 205 SICAvar gene is located centrally on chromosome 5.The prototype 205 SICAvar gene has been redefined to have a 12-exon structure. These data are important because they 1) address questions raised in the P. knowlesi genome database regarding SICAvar gene fragments, numbers and structures, 2) show that this prototype gene encodes a PEXEL motif, 3) emphasize the need for further refinement of the P. knowlesi genome data, and 4) retrospectively, provide evidence for recombination within centrally located SICAvar sequences.
Project description:The human ZC3H14 gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved Cys(3)His zinc finger protein that binds specifically to polyadenosine RNA and is thus postulated to modulate post-transcriptional gene expression. Expressed sequence tag (EST) data predicts multiple splice variants of both human and mouse ZC3H14. Analysis of ZC3H14 expression in both human cell lines and mouse tissues confirms the presence of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts. Although all of these transcripts encode protein isoforms that contain the conserved C-terminal zinc finger domain, suggesting that they could all bind to polyadenosine RNA, they differ in other functionally important domains. Most of the alternative transcripts encode closely related proteins (termed isoforms 1, 2, 3, and 3 short) that differ primarily in the inclusion of three small exons, 9, 10, and 11, resulting in predicted protein isoforms ranging from 82 to 64 kDa. Each of these closely related isoforms contains predicted classical nuclear localization signals (cNLS) within exons 7 and 11. Consistent with the presence of these putative nuclear targeting signals, these ZC3H14 isoforms are all localized to the nucleus. In contrast, an additional transcript encodes a smaller protein (34 kDa) with an alternative first exon (isoform 4). Consistent with the absence of the predicted cNLS motifs located in exons 7 and 11, ZC3H14 isoform 4 is localized to the cytoplasm. Both EST data and experimental data suggest that this variant is enriched in testes and brain. Using an antibody that detects endogenous ZC3H14 isoforms 1-3 reveals localization of these isoforms to nuclear speckles. These speckles co-localize with the splicing factor, SC35, suggesting a role for nuclear ZC3H14 in mRNA processing. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiple transcripts encoding several ZC3H14 isoforms exist in vivo. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic ZC3H14 isoforms could have distinct effects on gene expression mediated by the common Cys(3)His zinc finger polyadenosine RNA binding domain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neurologic and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Recently the MLIV gene, MCOLN1, has been identified as a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse homologue, Mcoln1, and report a novel splice variant that is not seen in humans. RESULTS:The human and mouse genes display a high degree of synteny. Mcoln1 shows 91% amino acid and 86% nucleotide identity to MCOLN1. Also, Mcoln1 maps to chromosome 8 and contains an open reading frame of 580 amino acids, with a transcript length of approximately 2 kb encoded by 14 exons, similar to its human counterpart. The transcript that results from murine specific alternative splicing encodes a 611 amino acid protein that differs at the c-terminus. CONCLUSIONS:Mcoln1 is highly similar to MCOLN1, especially in the transmembrane domains and ion pore region. Also, the late endosomal/lysosomal targeting signal is conserved, supporting the hypothesis that the protein is localized to these vesicle membranes. To date, there are very few reports describing species-specific splice variants. While identification of Mcoln1 is crucial to the development of mouse models for MLIV, the fact that there are two transcripts in mice suggests an additional or alternate function of the gene that may complicate phenotypic assessment.
Project description:The translocation (6;9) is associated with a specific subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, it was found that breakpoints on chromosome 9 are clustered in one of the introns of a large gene named Cain (can). cDNA probes derived from the 3' part of can detect an aberrant, leukemia-specific 5.5-kb transcript in bone marrow cells from t(6;9) AML patients. cDNA cloning of this mRNA revealed that it is a fusion of sequences encoded on chromosome 6 and 3' can. A novel gene on chromosome 6 which was named dek was isolated. In dek the t(6;9) breakpoints also occur in one intron. As a result the dek-can fusion gene, present in t(6;9) AML, encodes an invariable dek-can transcript. Sequence analysis of the dek-can cDNA showed that dek and can are merged without disruption of the original open reading frames and therefore the fusion mRNA encodes a chimeric DEK-CAN protein of 165 kDa. The predicted DEK and CAN proteins have molecular masses of 43 and 220 kDa, respectively. Sequence comparison with the EMBL data base failed to show consistent homology with any known protein sequences.