Ruxolitinib as potential targeted therapy for patients with JAK2 rearrangements.
ABSTRACT: JAK2 fusion genes are rare but recurrent abnormalities associated with diverse, clinically heterogeneous hematologic malignancies. Here we assess the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib as therapy for patients with JAK2-rearrangement associated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Ruxolitinib-treated Ba/F3 cells transformed to IL3 independence by ETV6-JAK2 showed reduced proliferation and survival (IC(50) = 370 nM) compared with KG1A or Ba/F3 cells transformed by BCR-ABL1, SPBN1-FLT3 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 (IC(50) > 10 ?M for all). Inhibition was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ETV6-JAK2, ERK, STAT5 and AKT. Primary cell growth from 2 patients with JAK2 rearrangement and one patient with JAK2 amplification was assessed in methylcellulose assays. Reduced colony growth was seen for all patients in ruxolitinib-treated cultures compared with healthy controls (n=7). Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed reduced growth of JAK2-rearrangement positive colonies compared to JAK2-rearrangement negative colonies. Our data, therefore, provide evidence that ruxolitinib is a promising therapy for treatment of patients with JAK2 fusion genes.
Project description:Current JAK2 inhibitors used for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) treatment are not specific enough to selectively suppress aberrant JAK2 signalling and preserve physiological JAK2 signalling. We tested whether combining a JAK2 inhibitor with a series of serine threonine kinase inhibitors, targeting nine signalling pathways and already used in clinical trials, synergized in inhibiting growth of haematopoietic cells expressing mutant and wild-type forms of JAK2 (V617F) or thrombopoietin receptor (W515L). Out of 15 kinase inhibitors, the ZSTK474 phosphatydylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor molecule showed strong synergic inhibition by Chou and Talalay analysis with JAK2 and JAK2/JAK1 inhibitors. Other pan-class I, but not gamma or delta specific PI3K inhibitors, also synergized with JAK2 inhibitors. Synergy was not observed in Bcr-Abl transformed cells. The best JAK2/JAK1 and PI3K inhibitor combination pair (ruxolitinib and GDC0941) reduces spleen weight in nude mice inoculated with Ba/F3 cells expressing TpoR and JAK2 V617F. It also exerted strong inhibitory effects on erythropoietin-independent erythroid colonies from MPN patients and JAK2 V617F knock-in mice, where at certain doses, a preferential inhibition of JAK2 V617F mutated progenitors was detected. Our data support the use of a combination of JAK2 and pan-class I PI3K inhibitors in the treatment of MPNs.
Project description:The recurrent gain-of-function JAK2V617F mutation confers growth factor-independent proliferation for hematopoietic cells and is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The lack of complete response in most patients treated with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib indicates the need for identifying novel therapeutic strategies. Metformin is a biguanide that exerts selective antineoplastic activity in hematological malignancies. In the present study, we investigate and compare effects of metformin and ruxolitinib alone and in combination on cell signaling and cellular functions in JAK2V617F-positive cells. In JAK2V617F-expressing cell lines, metformin treatment significantly reduced cell viability, cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and cellular oxygen consumption and delayed cell cycle progression. Metformin reduced cyclin D1 expression and RB, STAT3, STAT5, ERK1/2 and p70S6K phosphorylation. Metformin plus ruxolitinib demonstrated more intense reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis compared to monotherapy. Notably, metformin reduced Ba/F3 JAK2V617F tumor burden and splenomegaly in Jak2V617F knock-in-induced MPN mice and spontaneous erythroid colony formation in primary cells from polycythemia vera patients. In conclusion, metformin exerts multitarget antileukemia activity in MPN: downregulation of JAK2/STAT signaling and mitochondrial activity. Our exploratory study establishes novel molecular mechanisms of metformin and ruxolitinib action and provides insights for development of alternative/complementary therapeutic strategies for MPN.
Project description:Aberrant activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) caused by somatic mutation of JAK2 (JAK2V617F) or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPLW515L) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), suggesting that inhibition of aberrant JAK2 activation would have a therapeutic benefit. Our novel JAK2 inhibitor, NS-018, was highly active against JAK2 with a 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of <1?n, and had 30-50-fold greater selectivity for JAK2 over other JAK-family kinases, such as JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2. In addition to JAK2, NS-018 inhibited Src-family kinases. NS-018 showed potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines expressing a constitutively activated JAK2 (the JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations or the TEL-JAK2 fusion gene; IC(50)=11-120?n), but showed only minimal cytotoxicity against most other hematopoietic cell lines without a constitutively activated JAK2. Furthermore, NS-018 preferentially suppressed in vitro erythropoietin-independent endogenous colony formation from polycythemia vera patients. NS-018 also markedly reduced splenomegaly and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with Ba/F3 cells harboring JAK2V617F. In addition, NS-018 significantly reduced leukocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis, improved nutritional status, and prolonged survival in JAK2V617F transgenic mice. These results suggest that NS-018 will be a promising candidate for the treatment of MPNs.
Project description:We determined the activity of hsp90 inhibitor, and/or Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), against JAK2-V617F-expressing cultured mouse (Ba/F3-JAK2-V617F) and human (HEL92.1.7 and UKE-1) or primary human CD34(+) myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) cells.Following exposure to the hsp90 inhibitor AUY922 and/or JAK2-TKI TG101209, the levels of JAK2-V617F, its downstream signaling proteins, as well as apoptosis were determined.Treatment with AUY922 induced proteasomal degradation and depletion of JAK2-V617F as well as attenuated the signaling proteins downstream of JAK2-V617F, that is, phospho (p)-STAT5, p-AKT, and p-ERK1/2. AUY922 treatment also induced apoptosis of HEL92.1.7, UKE-1, and Ba/F3-hJAK2-V617F cells. Combined treatment with AUY922 and TG101209 caused greater depletion of the signaling proteins than either agent alone and synergistically induced apoptosis of HEL92.1.7 and UKE-1 cells. Cotreatment with AUY922 and TG101209 also induced significantly more apoptosis of human CD34(+) MPN than normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. As compared with the sensitive controls, JAK2-TKI-resistant HEL/TGR and UKE-1/TGR cells exhibited significantly higher IC(50) values for JAK2-TKI (P < 0.001), which was associated with higher expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT5, p-AKT, and Bcl-xL, but reduced levels of BIM. Unlike the sensitive controls, HEL/TGR and UKE/TGR cells were collaterally sensitive to the hsp90 inhibitors AUY922 and 17-AAG, accompanied by marked reduction in p-JAK2, p-STAT5, p-AKT, and Bcl-xL, with concomitant induction of BIM.Findings presented here show that cotreatment with hsp90 inhibitor and JAK2-TKI exerts synergistic activity against cultured and primary MPN cells. In addition, treatment with hsp90 inhibitor may overcome resistance to JAK2-TKI in human MPN cells.
Project description:Constitutive JAK2 activation in hematopoietic cells by the JAK2V617F mutation recapitulates myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) phenotypes in mice, establishing JAK2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy. Although most polycythemia vera patients carry the JAK2V617F mutation, half of those with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis do not, suggesting alternative mechanisms for constitutive JAK-STAT signaling in MPNs. Most patients with primary myelofibrosis have elevated levels of JAK-dependent proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin-6) consistent with our observation of JAK1 hyperactivation. Accordingly, we evaluated the effectiveness of selective JAK1/2 inhibition in experimental models relevant to MPNs and report on the effects of INCB018424, the first potent, selective, oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor to enter the clinic. INCB018424 inhibited interleukin-6 signaling (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 281nM), and proliferation of JAK2V617F(+) Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 127nM). In primary cultures, INCB018424 preferentially suppressed erythroid progenitor colony formation from JAK2V617F(+) polycythemia vera patients (IC(50) = 67nM) versus healthy donors (IC(50) > 400nM). In a mouse model of JAK2V617F(+) MPN, oral INCB018424 markedly reduced splenomegaly and circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, and preferentially eliminated neoplastic cells, resulting in significantly prolonged survival without myelosuppressive or immunosuppressive effects. Preliminary clinical results support these preclinical data and establish INCB018424 as a promising oral agent for the treatment of MPNs.
Project description:Gene expression profiles in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector, treated or not with imatinib (Glivec) Overall design: Ba/F3 cells expressing FIP1L1-PDGFRA or ETV6-PDGFRB were cultured in the presence or absence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction followed by hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. In a control condition Ba/F3 cells were cultured in the presence of IL3 in the absence or in the presence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction. 4 hours treatment with imatinib in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector
Project description:Gene expression profiles in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector, treated or not with imatinib (Glivec) Ba/F3 cells expressing FIP1L1-PDGFRA or ETV6-PDGFRB were cultured in the presence or absence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction followed by hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. In a control condition Ba/F3 cells were cultured in the presence of IL3 in the absence or in the presence of imatinib for 4 hours before RNA extraction. 4 hours treatment with imatinib in Ba/F3 cells expressing ETV6-PDGFRB, FIP1L1-PDGFRA or a control vector
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of transformed Ba/F3 cells by myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated JAK2 V617F mutant comparing control Ba/F3 cells expressing wild type JAK2. Two-condition experiment, WT cells vs. VF cells. One replicate per array.
Project description:Owing to the prevalence of the JAK2V617F mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), its constitutive activity, and ability to recapitulate the MPN phenotype in mouse models, JAK2V617F kinase is an attractive therapeutic target. We report the discovery and initial characterization of the orally bioavailable imidazopyridazine, LY2784544, a potent, selective and ATP-competitive inhibitor of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) tyrosine kinase. LY2784544 was discovered and characterized using a JAK2-inhibition screening assay in tandem with biochemical and cell-based assays. LY2784544 in vitro selectivity for JAK2 was found to be equal or superior to known JAK2 inhibitors. Further studies showed that LY2784544 effectively inhibited JAK2V617F-driven signaling and cell proliferation in Ba/F3 cells (IC50=20 and 55 nM, respectively). In comparison, LY2784544 was much less potent at inhibiting interleukin-3-stimulated wild-type JAK2-mediated signaling and cell proliferation (IC50=1183 and 1309 nM, respectively). In vivo, LY2784544 effectively inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation in Ba/F3-JAK2V617F-GFP (green fluorescent protein) ascitic tumor cells (TED50=12.7 mg/kg) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) Ba/F3-JAK2V617F-GFP tumor burden in the JAK2V617F-induced MPN model (TED50=13.7 mg/kg, twice daily). In contrast, LY2784544 showed no effect on erythroid progenitors, reticulocytes or platelets. These data suggest that LY2784544 has potential for development as a targeted agent against JAK2V617F and may have properties that allow suppression of JAK2V617F-induced MPN pathogenesis while minimizing effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Project description:New therapies for Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) patients are urgently needed. The genetic landscape of Ph-like ALL is characterized by a diverse array of kinase-activating alterations (including rearrangements, sequence mutations, and copy number alterations), suggesting that patients with Ph-like ALL are candidates for targeted therapy, similar to BCR-ABL1 ALL. We sought to investigate the functional role and targetability of the spectrum of kinase-activating alterations identified in Ph-like ALL. We demonstrate cytokine-independent growth and activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathways in Ba/F3 cells by all alterations tested. The development of murine Arf-/- pre-B ALL expressing RCSD1-ABL2 or SSBP2-CSF1R was accelerated with the presence of IK6, a dominant negative isoform of Ikaros common in Ph-like ALL, providing evidence that these fusions are leukemogenic. In vitro screening using a panel of tyrosine kinase inhibitors against 14 different kinase alterations identified the ABL1-inhibitor, dasatinib, as a potent inhibitor of ABL-class fusions (ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, PDGFRB), whereas the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, was most effective against JAK-STAT-activating alterations (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, IL7R, IL2RB), but not TYK2. Evaluation of dasatinib or ruxolitinib against patient-derived xenograft models demonstrated superior antileukemic efficacy when combined with dexamethasone compared with either agent alone. These data provide the foundation for rationally designed clinical trials that assess the efficacy of targeted therapy in patients with Ph-like ALL.