Does long-term creatine supplementation impair kidney function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet?
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on kidney function in resistance-trained individuals ingesting a high-protein diet.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly allocated to receive either creatine (20 g/d for 5 d followed by 5 g/d throughout the trial) or placebo for 12 weeks. All of the participants were engaged in resistance training and consumed a high-protein diet (i.e., ? 1.2 g/Kg/d). Subjects were assessed at baseline (Pre) and after 12 weeks (Post). Glomerular filtration rate was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Additionally, blood samples and a 24-h urine collection were obtained for other kidney function assessments.No significant differences were observed for 51Cr-EDTA clearance throughout the trial (Creatine: Pre 101.42?±?13.11, Post 108.78?±?14.41 mL/min/1.73m2; Placebo: Pre 103.29?±?17.64, Post 106.68?±?16.05 mL/min/1.73m2; group x time interaction: F?=?0.21, p?=?0.64). Creatinine clearance, serum and urinary urea, electrolytes, proteinuria, and albuminuria remained virtually unchanged.A 12-week creatine supplementation protocol did not affect kidney function in resistance-trained healthy individuals consuming a high-protein diet; thus reinforcing the safety of this dietary supplement.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01817673.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Estimation of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), is important for appropriate dosing of drugs and adjustment of therapeutic strategies, but challenging due to fluctuations in kidney function, creatinine metabolism and fluid balance. Data on the agreement between estimating and gold standard methods to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in early AKI are lacking. We evaluated the agreement of urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) and three commonly used estimating equations, the Cockcroft Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, in comparison to GFR measured by the infusion clearance of chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA), in critically ill patients with early AKI after complicated cardiac surgery. METHODS: Thirty patients with early AKI were studied in the intensive care unit, 2 to 12 days after complicated cardiac surgery. The infusion clearance for 51Cr-EDTA obtained as a measure of GFR (GFR51Cr-EDTA) was calculated from the formula: GFR (mL/min/1.73m2)=(51Cr-EDTA infusion rate×1.73)/(arterial 51Cr-EDTA×body surface area) and compared with the urinary CrCl and the estimated GFR (eGFR) from the three estimating equations. Urine was collected in two 30-minute periods to measure urine flow and urine creatinine. Urinary CrCl was calculated from the formula: CrCl (mL/min/1.73m2)=(urine volume×urine creatinine×1.73)/(serum creatinine×30 min×body surface area). RESULTS: The within-group error was lower for GFR51Cr-EDTA than the urinary CrCl method, 7.2% versus 55.0%. The between-method bias was 2.6, 11.6, 11.1 and 7.39 ml/min for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. The error was 103%, 68.7%, 67.7% and 68.0% for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated poor precision of the commonly utilized urinary CrCl method for assessment of GFR in critically ill patients with early AKI, suggesting that this should not be used as a reference method when validating new methods for assessing kidney function in this patient population. The commonly used estimating equations perform poorly when estimating GFR, with high biases and unacceptably high errors.
Project description:Vitamin D receptor activators reduce albuminuria, and may improve survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal studies suggest that these pleiotropic effects of vitamin D may be mediated by suppression of renin. However, randomized trials in humans have yet to establish this relationship.In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study, the effect of oral paricalcitol (2 ?g/day) was investigated in 26 patients with non-diabetic, albuminuric stage III-IV CKD. After treatment, plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured. GFR was determined by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Assessment of renal NO dependency was performed by infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Albumin excretion rate (AER) was analyzed in 24-h urine and during 51Cr-EDTA clearance.Paricalcitol did not alter plasma levels of renin, AngII, Aldo, or urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. A modest reduction of borderline significance was observed in AER, and paricalcitol abrogated the albuminuric response to L-NMMA.In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial paricalcitol only marginally decreased AER and did not alter circulating levels of renin, AngII or Aldo. The abrogation of the rise in albumin excretion by paricalcitol during NOS blockade may indicate that favourable modulation of renal NO dependency could be involved in mediating reno-protection and survival benefits in CKD.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01136564.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most studies on obesity surgery have measured renal function using the estimated GFR. However, due to the reduction of muscle mass, and therefore creatinine that accompanies weight loss, such measures can falsely suggest an improvement in renal function. To balance the risks of surgery versus any potential benefits on renal function, we need to be able to determine renal function using valid and reliable methodologies. In this pilot study we aimed to measure renal function in patients with CKD undergoing obesity surgery using the gold standard 51Cr-EDTA GFR clearance methodology which is independent of measures of muscle mass. METHODS:Nine consecutive obese patients with CKD underwent obesity surgery. Their renal function was assessed using 51Cr-EDTA GFR, cystatin C and serum creatinine as well as using eGFR equations including MDRD CKD Epi, Cockcroft Gault and CKD Epi cystatin before and 12?months after surgery. RESULTS:Renal function using the 51Cr-EDTA measured GFR did not change significantly after surgery. Similar results were obtained when Cystatin C, CKD Epi cystatin, CKD Epi cystatin creatinine and adjusted Cockcroft Gault Creatinine clearance methods were used. In contrast there were either trends or significant improvements in renal function measured using the MDRD and CKD Epi equations. CONCLUSIONS:In this pilot study using the gold standard 51Cr-EDTA method we found stabilisation in renal function after obesity surgery. Until further definitive data emerge it is critical to balance the risk and benefits of surgery, especially if renal function may not improve as often as previously suggested. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01507350 . Registered June 2011.
Project description:Low and high blood potassium levels are common and were both associated with poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether such relationships may be altered in CKD patients receiving optimized nephrologist care is unknown.NephroTest is a hospital-based prospective cohort study that enrolled 2078 nondialysis patients (mean age: 59 ± 15 years, 66% men) in CKD stages 1 to 5 who underwent repeated extensive renal tests including plasma potassium (PK) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance. Test reports included a reminder of recommended targets for each abnormal value to guide treatment adjustment. Main outcomes were cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality before end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), and ESKD.At baseline, median mGFR was 38.4 mL/min/1.73m2; prevalence of low PK (<4 mmol/L) was 26.5%, and of high PK (>5 mmol/L) 6.4%; 74.4% of patients used angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). After excluding 137 patients with baseline GFR < 10 mL/min/1.73m2 or lost to follow-up, 459 ESKD events and 236 deaths before ESKD (83 CV deaths) occurred during a median follow-up of 5 years. Compared to patients with PK within [4, 5] mmol/L at baseline, those with low PK had hazard ratios (HRs) [95% CI] for all-cause and CV mortality before ESKD, and for ESKD of 0.82 [0.58-1.16], 1.01 [0.52-1.95], and 1.14 [0.89-1.47], respectively, with corresponding figures for those with high PK of 0.79 [0.48-1.32], 1.5 [0.69-3.3], and 0.92 [0.70-1.21]. Considering time-varying PK did not materially change these findings, except for the HR of ESKD associated with high PK, 1.39 [1.09-1.78]. Among 1190 patients with at least two visits, PK had normalized at the second visit in 39.9 and 54.1% respectively of those with baseline low and high PK. Among those with low PK that normalized, ARB or ACEi use increased between the visits (68.3% vs 81.8%, P < .0001), and among those with high PK that normalized, potassium-binding resin and bicarbonate use increased (13.0% vs 37.0%, P < .001, and 4.4% vs 17.4%, P = 0.01, respectively) without decreased ACEi or ARB use.In these patients under nephrology care, neither low nor high PK was associated with excess mortality.
Project description:RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE:Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are beneficial in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We sought to describe longitudinal trends in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in HFrEF and how ACE-inhibitor therapy influences these changes. STUDY DESIGN:Post hoc analysis of trial data. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS:Symptomatic (Treatment Trial, n=2,423) and asymptomatic (Prevention Trial, n=4,094) patients from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD). EXPOSURE:Enalapril versus placebo. OUTCOMES:Early and long-term eGFR slope (ie, within and after the first 6 weeks) and 4 kidney end points: (1) serum creatinine level increase by?0.3mg/dL, (2)>30% eGFR decline, (3)>40% eGFR decline, and (4) incident eGFR<30mL/min/1.73m2. ANALYTICAL APPROACH:Shared parameter models, multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS:Baseline mean eGFR was lower in the Treatment Trial than in the Prevention Trial, 69.5±19.8 (SD) versus 76.2±18.6mL/min/1.73m2. Following randomization, an early eGFR decline occurred in the enalapril group; however, slopes during the median 3-year follow-up were not statistically different by randomization arm in either the Treatment Trial (-0.84 in enalapril vs-1.36mL/min/1.73m2 per year in placebo; P=0.08) or Prevention Trial (-1.27 in enalapril vs-1.36mL/min/1.73m2 per year in placebo; P=0.7). Random assignment to enalapril treatment increased the risk for all 4 outcomes in the Treatment Trial in the first 6-week period (HRs were 1.48 [95% CI, 1.10-1.99] for creatinine increase by?0.3mg/dL; 1.38 [95% CI, 0.98-1.94] for eGFR decline> 30%; 2.60 [95% CI, 1.30-5.21] for eGFR decline> 40%; and 4.71 [95% CI, 1.78-12.50] for eGFR<30mL/min/1.73m2), but after the first year was not significantly associated with increased risk. A similar albeit less pronounced pattern was observed in the Prevention Trial, with risks present only in the early period. LIMITATIONS:Creatinine results were not blinded, making it possible that ACE-inhibitor/placebo dosing was influenced by creatinine level. CONCLUSION:Kidney function decline is slow in HFrEF. Although random assignment to enalapril treatment results in a statistically increased risk for kidney surrogates, the risk is limited to the early phase and late eGFR slopes and risks are not different by randomly assigned group.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) causes vasodilation, presumably by enzymatic conversion to nitric oxide (NO). Several enzymes with nitrite reducing capabilities have been discovered in vitro, but their relative importance in vivo has not been investigated. We aimed to examine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure, fractional sodium excretion (FENa), free water clearance (CH2O) and GFR, after pre-inhibition of xanthine oxidase, carbonic anhydrase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. The latter as an approach to upregulate endothelial NO synthase activity. METHODS:In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 16 healthy subjects were treated, in a randomized order, with placebo, allopurinol 150 mg twice daily (TD), enalapril 5 mg TD, or acetazolamide 250 mg TD. After 4 days of treatment and standardized diet, the subjects were examined at our lab. During intravenous infusion of 240 ?g NaNO2/kg/hour for 2 h, we measured changes in brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate (P-cGMP), plasma and urine osmolality, GFR by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, FENa and urinary excretion rate of cGMP (U-cGMP) and nitrite and nitrate (U-NOx). Subjects were supine and orally water-loaded throughout the examination day. RESULTS:Irrespective of pretreatment, we observed an increase in FENa, heart rate, U-NOx, and a decrease in CH2O and brachial systolic BP during NaNO2 infusion. P-cGMP and U-cGMP did not change during infusion. We observed a consistent trend towards a reduction in central systolic BP, which was only significant after allopurinol. CONCLUSION:This study showed a robust BP lowering, natriuretic and anti-aquaretic effect of intravenous NaNO2 regardless of preceding enzyme inhibition. None of the three enzyme inhibitors used convincingly modified the pharmacological effects of NaNO2. The steady cGMP indicates little or no conversion of nitrite to NO. Thus the effect of NaNO2 may not be mediated by NO generation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:EU Clinical Trials Register, 2013-003404-39 . Registered December 3 2013.
Project description:Renal handling of sodium and water is abnormal in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal activity of the aquaporin-2 water channels (AQP2), the sodium-potassium-2chloride transporter (NKCC2) and/or the epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) contribute to this phenomenon.23 patients with CKD and 24 healthy controls at baseline and after 3% saline infusion were compared. The following measurements were performed: urinary concentrations of AQP2 (u-AQP2), NKCC2 (u-NKCC2), ENaC (u-ENaC?), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, free water clearance (CH2O), urinary output (UO), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), plasma concentrations of AVP, renin (PRC), Angiotensin II (ANG II), Aldosterone (Aldo) and body fluid volumes.At baseline, GFR was 34 ml/min in CKD patients and 89 ml/ml in controls. There were no significant differences in u-AQP2, u-NKCC2 or u-ENaC?, but FENa, p-Aldo and p-AVP were higher in CKD patients than controls. In response to hypertonic saline, patients with CKD had an attenuated decrease in CH2O and UO. A greater increase in U-AQP2 was observed in CKD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, u-NKCC2 increased in CKD patients, whereas u-NKCC2 decreased in controls. Body fluid volumes did not significantly differ.In response to hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 increased, suggesting an increased sodium reabsorption via NKCC2 in patients with CKD. U-AQP2 increased more in CKD patients, despite an attenuated decrease in CH2O. Thus, though high levels of p-AVP and p-Aldo, the kidneys can only partly compensate and counteract acute volume expansion due to a defective tubular response.Clinical trial no: NCT01623661. Date of trial registration: 18.06.2012.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) can lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although one of the proposed mechanisms is heightened platelet activation, effects of MDD and its treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on platelet function in patients with CKD remain unclear. METHODS:In a pre-specified analysis, changes from baseline to 12?weeks in whole blood platelet aggregation (WBPA) and plasma levels of E-selectin and P-selectin on treatment with sertraline vs. placebo were investigated in 175 patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <?60?ml/min/1.73m2) and MDD (MDD+/CKD+) in a randomized, double-blind trial. Correlations between severity of depressive symptoms and platelet function were also analyzed. In order to investigate whether differences in platelet function were due to presence of CKD or MDD, we compared a subgroup of 49 MDD+/CKD+ patients with eGFR <?30?ml/min/1.73m2 to 43 non-depressed CKD controls (28 CKD with eGFR <?30?ml/min/1.73m2 [MDD-/CKD+] and 15 individuals with eGFR ?90?ml/min/1.73m2 [MDD-/CKD-]. RESULTS:In MDD+/CKD+ individuals, there were no significant correlations between severity of depressive symptoms and platelet function, and no significant changes in platelet function after 12?weeks of treatment with sertraline vs. placebo. There were no significant differences in platelet function among MDD+/CKD+ patients and controls without MDD except in WBPA to 10??M ADP (P?=?0.03). WBPA to ADP was lower in the MDD-/CKD- group (8.0?? [5.0??, 11.0??]) as compared to the MDD-/CKD+ group (12.5?? [8.0??, 14.5??]), P?=?0.01, and the MDD+/CKD+ group (11.0?? [8.0??, 15.0??]), P?<?0.01. CONCLUSIONS:Heightened ADP-induced platelet aggregability was observed in CKD patients compared to controls with normal kidney function, regardless of presence of comorbid MDD, and treatment with sertraline did not affect platelet function. These findings suggest that increased platelet activation may not be a major contributory underlying mechanism by which depression may lead to worse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD. Future studies should include positive MDD controls without CKD to confirm our findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier numbers: CAST Study: NCT00946998 (Recruitment Status: Completed. First Posted: July 27, 2009. Results First Posted: January 30, 2018). WiCKDonASA Study: NCT01768637 (Recruitment Status: Completed. First Posted: January 15, 2013. Results First Posted: April 19, 2019).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy, kidney graft survival has failed to improve during the last decades. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying delayed graft function, which is associated with poor long-term graft survival. Due to organ shortage, the proportion of grafts from expanded criteria donors (ECDs) is ever growing. These grafts may particularly benefit from IRI prevention. In preclinical models, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have been shown to efficiently prevent IRI. This study aims to assess the effect of MRA administration in the early phase of kidney transplantation (KT) among recipients of ECD grafts on mid-term graft function. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients on hemodialysis and undergoing a single or a dual KT from an ECD will be eligible for inclusion. We plan to randomize 132 patients. Included patients will be randomized (1:1) to receive either eplerenone 25 mg every 12 h during 4 days (the first dose being administered just prior to KT) or placebo. The primary outcome is graft function at 3 months, assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR, in mL/min/1.73m2) measured using iohexol clearance. Secondary outcomes include (1) proportion of patients with either dialysis dependency or a GFR?<?30 mL/min/1.73m2 at 3 months, (2) proportion of patients with immediate, slow, or delayed graft function, (3) proteinuria at 3 months, (4) occurrence of hyperkalemia during the first week following KT, (5) length of hospital stay for the KT, and (6) occurrence of biopsy-proven acute rejection in the first 3 months following KT. Estimated GFR, graft, and patient survival will also be collected at 1, 3, and 10 years via the national database of organ recipients. DISCUSSION:Improvement of ECD grafts is a public health priority, since better ECD outcomes could eventually limit organ shortage. MRA administration in the early phase of KT may prevent IRI and subsequently improve mid-term graft function. The trial will also assess the safety of MRA administration in this population, primarily the absence of threatening hyperkalemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02490904 . Registered on 1 July 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mannitol is currently used as a renal protective agent to mitigate the effects of renal ischemia during nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This routine practice lacks rigorous methodological study. OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect on renal function outcomes after surgery of mannitol infusion prior to renal ischemia during NSS. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS:This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial included 199 patients with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45ml/min/1.73m2 scheduled for NSS; the trial was conducted between July 2012 and July 2015. INTERVENTION:Patients undergoing NSS were randomized to receive mannitol (12.5g) or placebo intravenously within 30min prior to renal vascular clamping. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:The primary outcome was the difference in eGFR (renal function) between the two groups at 6 mo following surgery assessed with an analysis of covariance model using preoperative eGFR, treatment group, and surgical approach as covariates. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:At baseline, the median age of the patients was 58 yr, and the median eGFR was 88ml/min/1.73m2. Comparing placebo with mannitol infusion, the adjusted difference of 0.2 eGFR units at 6 mo was not significant (p=0.9), with the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (-3.1 to 3.5) excluding a clinically relevant effect of mannitol. Limitations include evaluation of a single mannitol dose and patients all had excellent preoperative renal function. CONCLUSIONS:Intraoperative 12.5g mannitol infusion during NSS has no demonstrable clinical benefit when compared with standardized fluid hydration in patients with normal preoperative renal function, and its use in this setting is not warranted. PATIENT SUMMARY:In this randomized trial, patients with normal kidney function who received mannitol during surgery to remove part of their kidney had no better kidney function 6 mo after surgery than those who did not receive mannitol. We conclude that this routine practice should be discontinued.