A novel method for overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in megakaryocyte and platelet microparticles achieves transcellular signaling.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Microparticles are submicrometer vesicles that contain RNA and protein derived from their parent cells. Platelet and megakaryocyte microparticles represent 80% of circulating microparticles, and their numbers are elevated in diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. The ability of microparticles to transport protein, lipid and RNA to target cells, as a means of transcellular communication, remains poorly understood. Determining the influence that microparticles have on circulating cells is essential for understanding their role in health and in disease. OBJECTIVES:To develop a novel approach to modify the composition of platelet microparticles, and understand how such changes impact their transcellular communication. METHODS:This novel model utilizes a lentiviral technology to alter the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) content of megakaryoblastic cell lines and primary megakaryocytes, and also the protein composition of generated platelets and microparticles. The subsequent microparticles were isolated and added to target cells for assessment of uptake and resultant signaling events. RESULTS:We successfully engineered microparticles to contain green fluorescent protein and elevated levels of PPAR?. We found that these altered microparticles could be internalized by the monocytic cell line THP-1 and primary human microvascular endothelial cells. Importantly, microparticle-delivered PPAR? was shown to increase the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is a known PPAR? target gene in THP-1 cells. CONCLUSION:This proof-of-concept modification of megakaryocyte, platelet and microparticle composition and subsequent change in target cell physiology is an important new tool to address transcellular communication of microparticles.
Project description:Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?). In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPAR? reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPAR? microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPAR? microparticles also changed monocyte mRNA levels of several genes including those under PPAR? control. Overall, the delivery of PPAR? from microparticles to human monocytes influenced gene expression, decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased monocyte adherence. These results support the concept that the composition of blood microparticles has a profound impact on the function of cells with which they interact, and likely plays a role in vascular inflammation.
Project description:Identify the key small RNAs in megakaryocytic microparticles (MkMPs) in MkMP-induced megakaryocytic differentiation Overall design: Examination of small RNA profile of human megakaryocyte, platelet, megakaryocytic microparticle, and megakaryocyte-derived platelet-like particles via small RNA-Seqencing
Project description:Platelet microparticles are a normal constituent of circulating blood. Several studies have demonstrated positive correlations between thrombotic states and platelet microparticle levels. Yet little is known about the processes by which platelet microparticles are generated in vivo. We now characterize microparticles derived directly from megakaryocytes. Video microscopy of live mouse megakaryocytes demonstrated that microparticles form as submicron beads along the lengths of slender, unbranched micropodia. These microparticles are CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. Megakaryocyte microparticle generation is resistant to inhibition of microtubule assembly, which is critical to platelet formation, and augmented by inhibition of actin polymerization. To determine whether circulating microparticles are derived primarily from activated platelets or megakaryocytes, we identified markers that distinguish between these 2 populations. CD62P and LAMP-1 were found only on mouse microparticles from activated platelets. In contrast, full-length filamin A was found in megakaryocyte-derived microparticles, but not microparticles from activated platelets. Circulating microparticles isolated from mice were CD62P(-), LAMP-1(-) and expressed full-length filamin A, indicating a megakaryocytic origin. Similarly, circulating microparticles isolated from healthy volunteers were CD62P(-) and expressed full-length filamin A. Cultured human megakaryocytes elaborated microparticles that were CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. These results indicate that direct production by megakaryocytes represents a physiologic means to generate circulating platelet microparticles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glomerular endothelium dysfunction, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of early diabetic nephropathy, might be caused by circulating metabolic abnormalities. Platelet microparticles, extracellular vesicles released from activated platelets, have recently emerged as a novel regulator of vascular dysfunction. METHODS:We studied the effects of platelet microparticles on glomerular endothelial injury in early diabetic nephropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and primary rat glomerular endothelial cells. Isolated platelet microparticles were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Plasma platelet microparticles were significantly increased in diabetic rats, an effect inhibited in aspirin-treated animals. In cultured glomerular endothelial cells, platelet microparticles induced production of reactive oxygen species, decreased nitric oxide levels, inhibited activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and SOD, increased permeability of the glomerular endothelium barrier, and reduced thickness of the endothelial surface layer. Conversely, inhibition of platelet microparticles in vivo by aspirin improved glomerular endothelial injury. Further analysis showed that platelet microparticles activated the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in glomerular endothelial cells; inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway by rapamycin or raptor siRNA significantly protected against microparticle-induced glomerular endothelial injury in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, platelet microparticle-derived chemokine ligand 7 (CXCL7) contributed to glomerular endothelial injury, and antagonizing CXCL7 using CXCL7-neutralizing antibody or blocking CXCL7 receptors with a competitive inhibitor of CXCR1 and CXCR2 dramatically attenuated such injury. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate a pathogenic role of platelet microparticles in glomerular endothelium dysfunction, and suggest a potential therapeutic target, CXCL7, for treatment of early diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Interest in extracellular vesicle biology has exploded in the past decade, since these microstructures seem endowed with multiple roles, from blood coagulation to inter-cellular communication in pathophysiology. In order for microparticle research to evolve as a preclinical and clinical tool, accurate quantification of microparticle levels is a fundamental requirement, but their size and the complexity of sample fluids present major technical challenges. Flow cytometry is commonly used, but suffers from low sensitivity and accuracy. Use of Amnis ImageStream(X) Mk II imaging flow cytometer afforded accurate analysis of calibration beads ranging from 1 ?m to 20 nm; and microparticles, which could be observed and quantified in whole blood, platelet-rich and platelet-free plasma and in leukocyte supernatants. Another advantage was the minimal sample preparation and volume required. Use of this high throughput analyzer allowed simultaneous phenotypic definition of the parent cells and offspring microparticles along with real time microparticle generation kinetics. With the current paucity of reliable techniques for the analysis of microparticles, we propose that the ImageStream(X) could be used effectively to advance this scientific field.
Project description:Cells of the vascular system release spherical vesicles, called microparticles, in the size range of 0.1-1 ?m induced by a variety of stress factors resulting in variable concentrations between health and disease. Furthermore, microparticles have intercellular communication/signaling properties and interfere with inflammation and coagulation pathways. Today's most used analytical technology for microparticle characterization, flow cytometry, is lacking sensitivity and specificity, which might have led to the publication of contradicting results in the past.We propose the use of nano-liquid chromatography two-stage mass spectrometry as a nonbiased tool for quantitative MP proteome analysis.For this, we developed an improved microparticle isolation protocol and quantified the microparticle protein composition of twelve healthy volunteers with a label-free, data-dependent and independent proteomics approach on a quadrupole orbitrap instrument.Using aliquots of 250 ?l platelet-free plasma from one individual donor, we achieved excellent reproducibility with an interassay coefficient of variation of 2.7 ± 1.7% (mean ± 1 standard deviation) on individual peptide intensities across 27 acquisitions performed over a period of 3.5 months. We show that the microparticle proteome between twelve healthy volunteers were remarkably similar, and that it is clearly distinguishable from whole cell and platelet lysates. We propose the use of the proteome profile shown in this work as a quality criterion for microparticle purity in proteomics studies. Furthermore, one freeze thaw cycle damaged the microparticle integrity, articulated by a loss of cytoplasm proteins, encompassing a specific set of proteins involved in regulating dynamic structures of the cytoskeleton, and thrombin activation leading to MP clotting. On the other hand, plasma membrane protein composition was unaffected. Finally, we show that multiplexed data-independent acquisition can be used for relative quantification of target proteins using Skyline software. Mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD003935) and panoramaweb.org (https://panoramaweb.org/labkey/N1OHMk.url).
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can cause hepatic failure after liver surgery or transplantation. IRI causes oxidative stress, which injures sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), leading to recruitment and activation of Kupffer cells, platelets and microcirculatory impairment. We investigated whether injured SECs and other cell types release microparticles during post-ischemic reperfusion, and whether such microparticles have pro-inflammatory, platelet-activating and pro-injurious effects that could contribute to IRI pathogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>C57BL6 mice underwent 60 min of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 15 min-24 hrs of reperfusion. We collected blood and liver samples, isolated circulating microparticles, and determined protein and lipid content. To establish mechanism for microparticle production, we subjected murine primary hepatocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Because microparticles express everted phosphatidylserine residues that are the target of annexin V, we analyzed the effects of an annexin V-homodimer (Diannexin or ASP8597) on post-ischemia microparticle production and function.<h4>Results</h4>Microparticles were detected in the circulation 15-30 min after post-ischemic reperfusion, and contained markers of SECs, platelets, natural killer T cells, and CD8+ cells; 4 hrs later, they contained markers of macrophages. Microparticles contained F2-isoprostanes, indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Injection of mice with TNF-? increased microparticle formation, whereas Diannexin substantially reduced microparticle release and prevented IRI. Hypoxia-re-oxygenation generated microparticles from primary hepatocytes by processes that involved oxidative stress. Exposing cultured hepatocytes to preparations of microparticles isolated from the circulation during IRI caused injury involving mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Microparticles also activated platelets and induced neutrophil migration in vitro. The inflammatory properties of microparticles involved activation of NF-?B and JNK, increased expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. All these processes were blocked by coating microparticles with Diannexin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Following hepatic IRI, microparticles circulate and can be taken up by hepatocytes, where they activate signaling pathways that mediate inflammation and hepatocyte injury. Diannexin prevents microparticle formation and subsequent inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:For many pathological states, microparticles are supposed to be one of the causes of hypercoagulation. Although there are some indirect data about microparticles participation in coagulation activation and propagation, the integral hemostasis test Thrombodynamics allows to measure micropaticles participation in these two coagulation phases directly. Demonstrates microparticles participation in coagulation activation by influence on the appearance of coagulation centres in the plasma volume and the rate of clot growth from the surface with immobilized tissue factor.Methods: Microparticles were obtained from platelets and erythrocytes by stimulation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (SFLLRN) and calcium ionophore (A23187), respectively, from monocytes, endothelial HUVEC culture and monocytic THP cell culture by stimulation with lipopolysaccharides. Microparticles were counted by flow cytometry and titrated in microparticle-depleted normal plasma in the Thrombodynamics test. RESULTS:Monocyte microparticles induced the appearance of clotting centres through the TF pathway at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than platelet and erythrocyte microparticles, which activated plasma by the contact pathway. For endothelial microparticles, both activation pathways were essential, and their activity was intermediate. Monocyte microparticles induced plasma clotting by the appearance of hundreds of clots with an extremely slow growth rate, while erythrocyte microparticles induced the appearance of a few clots with a growth rate similar to that from surface covered with high-density tissue factor. Patterns of clotting induced by platelet and endothelial microparticles were intermediate. Platelet, erythrocyte and endothelial microparticles impacts on the rate of clot growth from the surface with tissue factor did not differ significantly within the 0-200·103/ul range of microparticles concentrations. However, at concentrations greater than 500·103/ul, erythrocyte microparticles increased the stationary clot growth rate to significantly higher levels than do platelet microparticles or artificial phospholipid vesicles consisting of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine. CONCLUSION:Microparticles of different origins demonstrated qualitatively different characteristics related to coagulation activation and propagation.
Project description:Despite the importance of circulating microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis, there is limited evidence for potential causative effects of naturally produced cell-derived microparticles on fibrin clot formation and its properties. We studied the significance of blood microparticles for fibrin formation, structure, and susceptibility to fibrinolysis by removing them from platelet-free plasma using filtration. Clots made in platelet-free and microparticle-depleted plasma samples from the same healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. Microparticles accelerate fibrin polymerisation and support formation of more compact clots that resist internal and external fibrinolysis. These variations correlate with faster thrombin generation, suggesting thrombin-mediated kinetic effects of microparticles on fibrin formation, structure, and properties. In addition, clots formed in the presence of microparticles, unlike clots from the microparticle-depleted plasma, contain 0.1-0.5-?m size granular and CD61-positive material on fibres, suggesting that platelet-derived microparticles attach to fibrin. Therefore, the blood of healthy individuals contains functional microparticles at the levels that have a procoagulant potential. They affect the structure and stability of fibrin clots indirectly through acceleration of thrombin generation and through direct physical incorporation into the fibrin network. Both mechanisms underlie a potential role of microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis as modulators of fibrin formation, structure, and resistance to fibrinolysis.
Project description:Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke.Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls.Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions.Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions associate with deeper vessel injury affecting vascular smooth muscle cells.