Probing the role of the vancomycin e-ring aryl chloride: selective divergent synthesis and evaluation of alternatively substituted E-ring analogues.
ABSTRACT: The selective functionalization of vancomycin aglycon derivatives through conversion of the E-ring aryl chloride to a reactive boronic acid and its use in the synthesis of a systematic series of vancomycin E-ring analogues are described. The series was used to examine the E-ring chloride impact in binding d-Ala-d-Ala and on antimicrobial activity. In contrast to the reduced activity of the unsubstituted E-ring derivatives, hydrophobic and relatively nonpolar substituents approach or match the chloro-substituted vancomycin and were insensitive to the electronic character of the substituent (e.g., Cl vs CN/OMe), whereas highly polar substituents fail to provide the enhancements. Moreover, the active permethylated vancomycin aglycon derivatives exhibit VanB VRE antimicrobial activity at levels that approach (typically within 2-fold) their activity against sensitive bacteria. The robust borylation reaction also enabled the functionalization of a minimally protected vancomycin aglycon (N-Boc-vancomycin aglycon) and provides a direct method for the preparation of previously inaccessible analogues.
Project description:A vancomycin aglycon analogue that possesses a reduced C-ring and an intact E-ring chloride was prepared and its antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus and binding affinity to model cell wall ligands were established. Comparison of the derivative with a series of vancomycin aglycon analogues that possess and lack the chloro substituents on the aryl C- and E-rings defines the impact and further refines the role the C-ring chloride plays in promoting both target binding affinity and binding selectivity for d-Ala-d-Ala and its impact on antimicrobial activity.
Project description:Full details of studies are disclosed on the total syntheses of binding pocket analogues of vancomycin bearing the peripheral L-vancosaminyl-1,2-D-glucosyl disaccharide that contain changes to a key single atom in the residue-4 amide (residue-4 carbonyl O ? S, NH, H2) designed to directly address the underlying molecular basis of resistance to vancomycin. Also disclosed are studies piloting the late-stage transformations conducted on the synthetically more accessible C-terminus hydroxymethyl aglycon derivatives and full details of the peripheral chlorobiphenyl functionalization of all of the binding-pocket-modified vancomycin analogues designed for dual D-Ala-D-Ala/D-Ala-D-Lac binding. Their collective assessment indicates that combined binding pocket and chlorobiphenyl peripherally modified analogues exhibit a remarkable spectrum of antimicrobial activity (VSSA, MRSA, and VanA and VanB VRE) and impressive potencies against both vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant bacteria (MICs = 0.06-0.005 and 0.5-0.06 ?g/mL for the amidine and methylene analogues, respectively) and likely benefit from two independent and synergistic mechanisms of action, only one of which is dependent on D-Ala-D-Ala/D-Ala-D-Lac binding. Such analogues are likely to display especially durable antibiotic activity that is not prone to rapidly acquired clinical resistance.
Project description:A select series of methyl ether derivatives of vancomcyin aglycon were prepared and examined for antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci faecalis as well as their binding affinity for D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac. The intent of the study was to elucidate the role selected key methyl groups may play in the improvement of the in vitro antimicrobial profile of the tetra methyl ether derivative of vancomycin aglycon against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci faecalis previously reported. In these studies, methodology for selective derivatization of the A-, B-, and D-ring was developed that defines the relative reactivity of the four phenols of vancomycin aglycon, providing a foundation for future efforts for site-directed modification of the vancomycin aglycon core.
Project description:The total synthesis of [?[C(?S)NH]Tpg(4)]vancomycin aglycon (8) and its unique AgOAc-promoted single-step conversion to [?[C(?NH)NH]Tpg(4)]vancomycin aglycon (7), conducted on a fully deprotected substrate, are disclosed. The synthetic approach not only permits access to 7, but it also allows late-stage access to related residue 4 derivatives, alternative access to [?[CH(2)NH]Tpg(4)]vancomycin aglycon (6) from a common late-stage intermediate, and provides authentic residue 4 thioamide and amidine derivatives of the vancomycin aglycon that will facilitate ongoing efforts on their semisynthetic preparation. In addition to early stage residue 4 thioamide introduction, allowing differentiation of one of seven amide bonds central to the vancomycin core structure, the approach relied on two aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions for formation of the 16-membered diaryl ethers in the CD/DE ring systems, an effective macrolactamization for closure of the 12-membered biaryl AB ring system, and the defined order of CD, AB, and DE ring closures. This order of ring closures follows their increasing ease of thermal atropisomer equilibration, permitting the recycling of any newly generated unnatural atropisomer under progressively milder thermal conditions where the atropoisomer stereochemistry already set is not impacted. Full details of the evaluation of 7 and 8 along with several related key synthetic compounds containing the core residue 4 amidine and thioamide modifications are reported. The binding affinity of compounds containing the residue 4 amidine with the model D-Ala-D-Ala ligand 2 was found to be only 2-3 times less than the vancomycin aglycon (5), and this binding affinity is maintained with the model d-Ala-d-Lac ligand 4, representing a nearly 600-fold increase in affinity relative to the vancomycin aglycon. Importantly, the amidines display effective dual, balanced binding affinity for both ligands (K(a)2/4 = 0.9-1.05), and they exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against VanA resistant bacteria ( E. faecalis , VanA VRE) at a level accurately reflecting these binding characteristics (MIC = 0.3-0.6 ?g/mL), charting a rational approach forward in the development of antibiotics for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant bacterial infections. In sharp contrast, 8 and related residue 4 thioamides failed to bind either 2 or 4 to any appreciable extent, do not exhibit antimicrobial activity, and serve to further underscore the remarkable behavior of the residue 4 amidines.
Project description:The synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of vancomycin aglycon analogues bearing alternative residue 1 N-methyl-D-amino acids are described. The analogues were prepared to define whether H-bonding d-amino acids could improve the affinity for the model ligands N,N'-Ac(2)-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (2) and N,N'-Ac(2)-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Lac (3) and improve antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-sensitive or vancomycin-resistant bacteria. Additionally, a series of analogues with appended nucleophiles (hydrazines and amines) on the residue 1 D-amino acids are described that were examined for their ability to react with the C-terminal ester of 3, forming a covalent attachment of L-Lys-D-Ala to the natural product analogues.
Project description:An effective synthesis of [Psi[CH(2)NH]Tpg(4)]vancomycin aglycon (5) is detailed in which the residue 4 amide carbonyl of vancomycin aglycon has been replaced with a methylene. This removal of a single atom was conducted to enhance binding to D-Ala-D-Lac, countering resistance endowed to bacteria that remodel their D-Ala-D-Ala peptidoglycan cell wall precursor by a similar single atom change (ester O for amide NH). Key elements of the approach include a synthesis of the modified vancomycin ABCD ring system featuring a reductive amination coupling of residues 4 and 5 for installation of the deep-seated amide modification, the first of two diaryl ether closures for formation of the modified CD ring system (76%, 2.5-3:1 kinetic atropodiastereoselectivity), a Suzuki coupling for installation of the hindered AB biaryl bond (90%) on which the atropisomer stereochemistry could be thermally adjusted, and a macrolactamization closure of the AB ring system (70%). Subsequent DE ring system introduction enlisted a room-temperature aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction for formation of the remaining diaryl ether (86%, 6-7:1 kinetic atropodiastereoselectivity), completing the carbon skeleton of 5. Consistent with expectations and relative to the vancomycin aglycon, 5 exhibited a 40-fold increase in affinity for D-Ala-D-Lac (K(a) = 5.2 x 10(3) M(-1)) and a 35-fold reduction in affinity for D-Ala-D-Ala (K(a) = 4.8 x 10(3) M(-1)), providing a glycopeptide analogue with balanced, dual binding characteristics. Beautifully, 5 exhibited antimicrobial activity (MIC = 31 microg/mL) against a VanA-resistant organism that remodels its D-Ala-D-Ala cell wall precursor to d-Ala-d-Lac upon glycopeptide antibiotic challenge, displaying a potency that reflects these binding characteristics.
Project description:The emergence of bacteria resistant to vancomycin, often the antibiotic of last resort, poses a major health problem. Vancomycin-resistant bacteria sense a glycopeptide antibiotic challenge and remodel their cell wall precursor peptidoglycan terminus from d-Ala-d-Ala to d-Ala-d-Lac, reducing the binding of vancomycin to its target 1000-fold and accounting for the loss in antimicrobial activity. Here, we report [?[C(?NH)NH]Tpg(4)]vancomycin aglycon designed to exhibit the dual binding to d-Ala-d-Ala and d-Ala-d-Lac needed to reinstate activity against vancomycin-resistant bacteria. Its binding to a model d-Ala-d-Ala ligand was found to be only 2-fold less than vancomycin aglycon and this affinity was maintained with a model d-Ala-d-Lac ligand, representing a 600-fold increase relative to vancomycin aglycon. Accurately reflecting these binding characteristics, it exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant bacteria (MIC = 0.31 ?g/mL, VanA VRE). Thus, a complementary single atom exchange in the vancomycin core structure (O ? NH) to counter the single atom exchange in the cell wall precursors of resistant bacteria (NH ? O) reinstates potent antimicrobial activity and charts a rational path forward for the development of antibiotics for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant bacterial infections.
Project description:A next-generation total synthesis of vancomycin aglycon is detailed that was achieved in 17 steps (longest linear sequence, LLS) from the constituent amino acid subunits with kinetically controlled diastereoselective introduction of all three elements of atropisomerism. In addition to new syntheses of three of the seven amino acid subunits, highlights of the approach include a ligand-controlled atroposelective one-pot Miyaura borylation-Suzuki coupling sequence for introduction of the AB biaryl axis of chirality (>20:1 dr), an essentially instantaneous and scalable macrolactamization of the AB ring system nearly free of competitive epimerization (>30:1 dr), and two room-temperature atroposelective intramolecular S<sub>N</sub>Ar cyclizations for sequential CD (8:1 dr) and DE ring closures (14:1 dr) that benefit from both preorganization by the preformed AB ring system and subtle substituent effects. Combined with a protecting group free two-step enzymatic glycosylation of vancomycin aglycon, this provides a 19-step total synthesis of vancomycin. The approach paves the way for large-scale synthetic preparation of pocket-modified vancomycin analogues that directly address the underlying mechanism of resistance to vancomycin.
Project description:Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic produced by <i>Amycolaptopsis orientalis</i> used to treat serious infections by Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Vancomycin inhibits cell wall biosynthesis by targeting lipid II, which is the membrane-bound peptidoglycan precursor. The heptapeptide aglycon structure of vancomycin binds to the d-Ala-d-Ala of the pentapeptide stem structure in lipid II. The third residue of vancomycin aglycon is asparagine, which is not directly involved in the dipeptide binding. Nonetheless, asparagine plays a crucial role in substrate recognition, as the vancomycin analogue with asparagine substituted by aspartic acid (V<sub>D</sub>) shows a reduction in antibacterial activities. To characterize the function of asparagine, binding of vancomycin and its aspartic-acid-substituted analogue V<sub>D</sub> to l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala and l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Lac was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. Binding interactions were analyzed using root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), two-dimensional (2D) contour plots, hydrogen bond analysis, and free energy calculations of the complexes. The analysis shows that the aspartate substitution introduced a negative charge to the binding cleft of V<sub>D</sub>, which altered the aglycon conformation that minimized the repulsive lone pair interaction in the binding of a depsipeptide. Our findings provide new insight for the development of novel glycopeptide antibiotics against the emerging vancomycin-resistant pathogens by chemical modification at the third residue in vancomycin to improve its binding affinity to the d-Ala-d-Lac-terminated peptidoglycan in lipid II found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin-resistant <i>S. aureus</i>.
Project description:This paper describes the chemical synthesis, X-ray crystallographic structure, and antibiotic activity assay of lactam analogues of teixobactin and explores ring-expanded analogues of teixobactin with ?<sup>3</sup>-homo amino acids. Lactam analogues of teixobactin containing all four stereoisomers of aza-threonine at position 8 were synthesized on a solid support from commercially available stereoisomeric threonine derivatives. The threonine stereoisomers are converted to the diastereomeric aza-threonines by mesylation, azide displacement, and reduction during the synthesis. d-Aza-Thr<sub>8</sub>,Arg<sub>10</sub>-teixobactin exhibits 2-8-fold greater antibiotic activity than the corresponding macrolactone Arg<sub>10</sub>-teixobactin. Azateixobactin analogues containing other stereoisomers of aza-threonine are inactive. A dramatic 16-128-fold increase in the activity of teixobactin and teixobactin analogues is observed with the inclusion of 0.002% of the mild detergent polysorbate 80 in the MIC assay. The X-ray crystallographic structure of <i>N</i>-Me-d-Gln<sub>4</sub>,d-aza-Thr<sub>8</sub>,Arg<sub>10</sub>-teixobactin reveals an amphipathic hydrogen-bonded antiparallel ?-sheet dimer that binds chloride anions. In the binding site, the macrolactam amide NH groups of residues 8, 10, and 11, as well as the extra amide NH group of the lactam ring, hydrogen bond to the chloride anion. The teixobactin pharmacophore tolerates ring expansion of the 13-membered ring to 14-,15-, and 16-membered rings containing ?<sup>3</sup>-homo amino acids with retention of partial or full antibiotic activity.