Epitope mapping of M36, a human antibody domain with potent and broad HIV-1 inhibitory activity.
ABSTRACT: M36 is the first member of a novel class of potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors based on human engineered antibody domains (eAds). It exhibits broad inhibitory activity suggesting that its CD4-induced epitope is highly conserved. Here, we describe fine mapping of its epitope by using several approaches. First, a panel of mimotopes was affinity-selected from a random peptide library and potential m36-binding residues were computationally predicted. Second, homology modeling of m36 and molecular docking of m36 onto gp120 revealed potentially important residues in gp120-m36 interactions. Third, the predicted contact residues were verified by site-directed mutagenesis. Taken together, m36 epitope comprising three discontinuous sites including six key gp120 residues (Site C1: Thr123 and Pro124; Site C3: Glu370 and Ile371; Site C4: Met426 and Trp427) were identified. In the 3D structure of gp120, the sites C1 and C4 are located in the bridging sheet and the site C3 is within the ?15-?3 excursion, which play essential roles for the receptor- and coreceptor-binding and are major targets of neutralizing antibodies. Based on these results we propose a precise localization of the m36 epitope and suggest a mechanism of its broad inhibitory activity which could help in the development of novel HIV-1 therapeutics based on eAds.
Project description:Treatment of complement component C4 with C1(-)s and methylamine induces a series of conformation changes such as to generate functional binding sites. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), Al 121/6, which does not inhibit the haemolytic activity of C4 was found to bind to native C4 and C4d, but not to C4b and methylamine-treated C4, unless these C4 derivatives were denatured. These results suggested that a linear epitope for mAb Al 121/6 in the C4d domain is originally located at the surface of C4 and becomes hidden as a result of conformational changes induced by C1(-)s or methylamine treatment. The hidden linear epitope was exposed again upon further cleavage of C4b into C4c and C4d. Trypsin digestion of C4d and its chemical modification with phthalic anhydride suggested that the epitope is located at the C-terminal 13 kDa region of C4d and that lysine residues are involved in the epitope. There is a single lysine residue at 1259 in the 13 kDa C-terminal side of C4d and the synthetic undecapeptide Leu1254-Asp1264 was found to inhibit the binding of C4 to mAb Al 121/6, suggesting that the epitope for mAb Al 121/6 is involved in the sequence. The N-terminal portion of the peptide is partly overlapping, with a highly hydrophobic amino acid sequence spanning residues Ala1249-Leu-Leu-His-Leu-Leu-Leu1255. The surface hydrophobicity of C4 has been reported to decrease upon treatment with C1(-)s and methylamine. So it appears that the hydrophobic sequence spanning Ala1249-Leu1255 may be hidden, together with the linear epitope, into the inner region of C4 upon treatment with C1s and methylamine.
Project description:The identification of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) able to neutralize a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates is highly important for understanding the immune response of HIV-1 infection and developing vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we isolated a novel human mAb termed Y498 from a phage display antibody library constructed with the PBMC samples of a CRF07_BC-infected Chinese donor whose sera exhibited broadly neutralizing activity. Y498 cross-reacted with diverse Env antigens and neutralized 30% of 70 tested HIV-1 isolates. It efficiently blocked the binding of soluble CD4 to gp120 and competed with the CD4-binding site (CD4bs)-specific mAbs. By combining molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis, the epitope of Y498 was characterized to contain three antigenic sites on gp120, including the CD4 binding loop in C3, the ?23 in C4 and the ?24-?5 in C5, which overlap the binding sites of CD4 and CD4bs-directed mAbs (b12, VRC01, A16). Therefore, Y498 is a novel neutralizing human mAb targeting a conformation-dependent CD4bs-based epitope, and its isolation and characterization could provide helpful information for elucidating human immune response to HIV-1 infection and designing effective vaccines and immunotherapeutics.
Project description:The native-like, soluble SOSIP.664 trimer based on the BG505 clade A env gene of HIV-1 is immunogenic in various animal species, of which the most studied are rabbits and rhesus macaques. The trimer induces autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) consistently but at a wide range of titers and with incompletely determined specificities. A precise delineation of immunogenic neutralization epitopes on native-like trimers could help strategies to extend the NAb response to heterologous HIV-1 strains. One autologous NAb epitope on the BG505 Env trimer is known to involve residues lining a hole in the glycan shield that is blocked by adding a glycan at either residue 241 or 289. This glycan-hole epitope accounts for the NAb response of most trimer-immunized rabbits but not for that of a substantial subset. Here, we have used a large panel of mutant BG505 Env-pseudotyped viruses to define additional sites. A frequently immunogenic epitope in rabbits is blocked by adding a glycan at residue 465 near the junction of the gp120 V5 loop and ?24 strand and is influenced by amino-acid changes in the structurally nearby C3 region. We name this new site the "C3/465 epitope". Of note is that the C3 region was under selection pressure in the infected infant from whom the BG505 virus was isolated. A third NAb epitope is located in the V1 region of gp120, although it is rarely immunogenic. In macaques, NAb responses induced by BG505 SOSIP trimers are more often directed at the C3/465 epitope than the 241/289-glycan hole.
Project description:Crystal structures of divalent metal-dependent pyruvate aldolase, HpaI, in complex with substrate and cleavage products were determined to 1.8-2.0 Å resolution. The enzyme·substrate complex with 4-hydroxy-2-ketoheptane-1,7-dioate indicates that water molecule W2 bound to the divalent metal ion initiates C3-C4 bond cleavage. The binding mode of the aldehyde donor delineated a solvent-filled capacious binding locus lined with predominantly hydrophobic residues. The absence of direct interactions with the aldehyde aliphatic carbons accounts for the broad specificity and lack of stereospecific control by the enzyme. Enzymatic complex structures formed with keto acceptors, pyruvate, and 2-ketobutyrate revealed bidentate interaction with the divalent metal ion by C1-carboxyl and C2-carbonyl oxygens and water molecule W4 that is within close contact of the C3 carbon. Arg(70) assumes a multivalent role through its guanidinium moiety interacting with all active site enzymatic species: C2 oxygen in substrate, pyruvate, and ketobutyrate; substrate C4 hydroxyl; aldehyde C1 oxygen; and W4. The multiple interactions made by Arg(70) stabilize the negatively charged C4 oxygen following proton abstraction, the aldehyde alignment in aldol condensation, and the pyruvate enolate upon aldol cleavage as well as support proton exchange at C3. This role is corroborated by loss of aldol cleavage ability and pyruvate C3 proton exchange activity and by a 730-fold increase in the dissociation constant toward the pyruvate enolate analog oxalate in the R70A mutant. Based on the crystal structures, a mechanism is proposed involving the two enzyme-bound water molecules, W2 and W4, in acid/base catalysis that facilitates reversible aldol cleavage. The same reaction mechanism promotes decarboxylation of oxaloacetate.
Project description:The crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) complexed with fructose 6-phosphate, AMP, and Mg2+ has been solved by the molecular replacement method and refined at 2.5-A resolution to a R factor of 0.215, with root-mean-square deviations of 0.013 A and 3.5 degrees for bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. No solvent molecules have been included in the refinement. This structure shows large quaternary and tertiary conformational changes from the structures of the unligated enzyme or its fructose 2,6-bisphosphate complex, but the secondary structures remain essentially the same. Dimer C3-C4 of the enzyme-fructose 6-phosphate-AMP-Mg2+ complex twists about 19 degrees relative to the same dimer of the enzyme-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate complex if their C1-C2 dimers are superimposed on one another. Nevertheless, many interfacial interactions between dimers of C1-C2 and C3-C4 are conserved after quaternary structure changes occur. Residues of the AMP domain (residues 6-200) show large migrations of C alpha atoms relative to barely significant positional changes of the FBP domain (residues 201-335).
Project description:Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C2), propane (C3), and butane (C4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV, Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C1-C4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C1-C4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75°C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C1-C4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C2-C4 alkanes. Maximum C1-C4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55°C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C4, C2, and C1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C2-C4alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.
Project description:The p41 DNA-binding protein of human herpesvirus 6 is an apparent processivity factor important for viral DNA replication. The p41 promoter was characterized to understand how this processivity factor is regulated. A single transcription start site and a functional TATA box are located 48 and 74 bp, respectively, upstream of the start codon. A reporter construct containing 1,027 bp of the sequence upstream of the p41 start codon was inactive in uninfected T cells but functioned as a strong promoter in human herpesvirus 6-infected cells. Mutational analysis identified a 21-bp element (the EA site) which is located at -73 to -52 bp relative to the transcription start site and is essential for promoter activity. The ability of the EA site to stimulate transcription optimally appears to be strictly dependent upon its distance from the p41 basal promoter. The EA site contains three overlapping sequences, a CAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor recognition site and two repeat elements. Mobility shift assays using the EA site identified four binding activities (C1 to C4). C1 and C2 are present in both uninfected and infected cells and do not contain C/EBP factors. In infected cells, point mutation of the EA site abrogates C1 and C2 binding activities and destroys transcriptional activity of the p41 promoter. C3 and C4 are present in uninfected cells only and were found to contain C/EBP factors. These findings indicate that in infected cells, transcriptional stimulation of the p41 promoter by the EA site requires C1 and C2 binding activities. These results further suggest that transcriptional activity may also depend upon the elimination of C3 and C4 binding activities.
Project description:The antibody access to some conserved structures on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is sterically restricted. We have hypothesized that the smallest independently folded antibody fragments (domains) could exhibit exceptionally potent and broadly cross-reactive neutralizing activity by targeting hidden conserved epitopes that are not accessible by larger antibodies. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a large (size 2.5 x 10(10)), highly diversified library of human antibody variable domains (domain antibodies) and used it for selection of binders to conserved Env structures by panning sequentially against Envs from different isolates. The highest affinity binder, m36, neutralized all tested HIV-1 isolates from clades A- D with an activity on average higher than that of C34, a peptide similar to the fusion inhibitor T20, which is in clinical use, and that of m9, which exhibits a neutralizing activity superior to known potent cross-reactive antibodies. Large-size fusion proteins of m36 exhibited diminished neutralizing activity but preincubation of virions with soluble CD4 restored it, suggesting that m36 epitope is sterically restricted and induced by CD4 (CD4i). M36 bound to gp120-CD4 complexes better than to gp120 alone and competed with CD4i antibodies. M36 is the only reported representative of a promising class of potent, broadly cross-reactive HIV-1 inhibitors based on human domain antibodies. It has potential for prevention and therapy and as an agent for exploration of the closely guarded conserved Env structures with implications for design of small molecule inhibitors and elucidation of mechanisms of virus entry and evasion of immune responses.
Project description:Previous studies showed that the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1 is able to crosslink membrane IgM on normal human B cells and to induce their activation in a V(H)3 immunoglobulin gene-family-specific manner. Because this V(H) gene family is the largest in the human repertoire, this superantigen (SAg) property is thought to have deleterious consequences for the host, including a progressive decline of B cells with progression of the HIV-1-induced disease. Here, we have identified the sequence motifs on gp120 involved in SAg binding to normal Igs. We show that this SAg-binding activity is present in gp120s from highly divergent isolates of HIV-1 belonging to clades derived from various geographical origins, and that carbohydrate residues are not essential for its expression. The SAg-binding site is formed by protein sequences from two regions of the gp120 molecule. The core motif is a discontinuous epitope spanning the V4 variable domain and the amino-terminal region flanking the C4 constant domain. The most critical residues appear to be Leu395-Asp397 and Ile425-Gln427. Residues from the C2 constant domain (positions 252-272) also seem to play an accessory role in SAg binding of gp120 to normal human Igs. These findings are important in the design of a successful gp120-based vaccine against HIV-1.
Project description:A subset of the neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies recognize epitopes on the envelope protein gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus. These epitopes are exposed during conformational changes when gp120 binds to its primary receptor CD4. Based on chemical modification of lysine and arginine residues followed by mass spectrometric analysis, we determined the epitope on gp120 recognized by the human monoclonal antibody 559/64-D, which was previously found to be specific for the CD4 binding domain. Twenty-four lysine and arginine residues in recombinant full-length glycosylated gp120 were characterized; the relative reactivities of two lysine residues and five arginine residues were affected by the binding of 559/64-D. The data show that the epitope is discontinuous and is located in the proximity of the CD4-binding site. Additionally, the reactivities of a residue that is located in the secondary receptor binding region and several residues distant from the CD4 binding site were also altered by Ab binding. These data suggest that binding of 559/64-D induced conformational changes which result in altered surface exposure of specific amino acids distant from the CD4-binding site. Consequently, binding of 559/64-D to gp120 affects not only the CD4-binding site, which is recognized as the epitope, but appears to have a global effect on surface exposed residues of the full-length glycosylated gp120.