Genome-Wide Association Study of Genetic Variants in LPS-Stimulated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-? Cytokine Response in a Danish Cohort.
ABSTRACT: Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to find genetic variants that might affect the levels of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? cytokine production.We performed an initial genome-wide association study using Affymetrix Human Mapping 500 K GeneChip® to screen 130 healthy individuals of Danish descent. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-? in 24-hour LPS-stimulated whole blood samples were compared within different genotypes. The 152 most significant SNPs were replicated using Illumina Golden Gate® GeneChip in an independent cohort of 186 Danish individuals. Next, 9 of the most statistical significant SNPs were replicated using PCR-based genotyping in an independent cohort of 400 Danish individuals. All results were analyzed in a combined study among the 716 Danish individuals.Only one marker of the 500 K Gene Chip in the discovery study showed a significant association with LPS-induced IL-1ra cytokine levels after Bonferroni correction (P<10(-7)). However, this SNP was not associated with the IL-1ra cytokine levels in the replication dataset. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance for the five cytokine levels in the combined analysis of all three stages.The associations between the genetic variants and the LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-? cytokine levels were not significant in the meta-analysis. This present study does not support a strong genetic effect of LPS-stimulated cytokine production; however, the potential for type II errors should be considered.
Project description:Activation of inflammatory pathways measured by serum inflammatory markers such as interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is strongly associated with the progression of chronic disease states in older adults. Given that these serum cytokine levels are in part a heritable trait, genetic variation may predict increased serum levels. Using the Cardiovascular Health Study and InCHIANTI cohorts, a genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variants that influence IL-18 and IL-1ra serum levels among older adults. Multiple linear regression models characterized the association between each SNP and log-transformed cytokine values. Tests for multiple independent signals within statistically significant loci were performed using haplotype analysis and regression models conditional on lead SNP in each region. Multiple SNPs were associated with these cytokines with genome-wide significance, including SNPs in the IL-18-BCO gene region of chromosome 2 for IL-18 (top SNP rs2250417, P=1.9×10(-32)) and in the IL-1 gene family region of chromosome 2 for IL-1ra (rs6743376, P=2.3×10(-26)). Haplotype tests and conditional linear regression models showed evidence of multiple independent signals in these regions. Serum IL-18 levels were also associated with a region on chromosome 2 containing the NLRC4 gene (rs12989936, P=2.7×10(-19)). These data characterize multiple robust genetic signals that influence IL-18 and IL-1ra cytokine production. In particular, the signal for serum IL-18 located on chromosome two is novel and potentially important in inflammasome triggered chronic activation of inflammation in older adults. Replication in independent cohorts is an important next step, as well as molecular studies to better understand the role of NLRC4.
Project description:Background:Ureaplasma species have been associated with chorioamnionitis and preterm birth and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal short and long-term morbidity. However, being mostly commensal bacteria, controversy remains on the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma. Discussions are ongoing on the incidence and impact of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal infection. The present study addressed the impact of Ureaplasma isolates on monocyte-driven inflammation. Methods: Cord blood monocytes of term neonates and adult monocytes, either native or LPS-primed, were cultured with Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) serovar 8 (Uu8) and Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (Up3). Using qRT-PCR, cytokine flow cytometry, and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) as well as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. Results: Uu8 and Up3 induced mRNA expression and protein release of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-8 in term neonatal and adult monocytes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Intracellular protein expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-8 in Ureaplasma-stimulated cells paralleled those results. Ureaplasma-induced cytokine levels did not significantly differ from LPS-mediated levels except for lower intracellular IL-1? in adult monocytes (Uu8: p < 0.05). Remarkably, ureaplasmas did not induce IL-12p40 response and promoted lower amounts of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-1ra than LPS, provoking a cytokine imbalance more in favor of pro-inflammation (IL-1?/IL-10, IL-8/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-1ra: p < 0.01, vs. LPS). In contrast to LPS, both isolates induced TLR2 mRNA in neonatal and adult cells (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) and suppressed TLR4 mRNA in adult monocytes (p < 0.05). Upon co-stimulation, Uu8 and Up3 inhibited LPS-induced intracellular IL-1? (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) and IL-8 in adult monocytes (p < 0.01), while LPS-induced neonatal cytokines were maintained or aggravated (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our data demonstrate a considerable pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma isolates in human monocytes. Stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine responses while hardly inducing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, ureaplasmas might push monocyte immune responses toward pro-inflammation. Inhibition of LPS-induced cytokines in adult monocytes in contrast to sustained inflammation in term neonatal monocytes indicates a differential modulation of host immune responses to a second stimulus. Modification of TLR2 and TLR4 expression may shape host susceptibility to inflammation.
Project description:Interleukins (ILs) are key mediators of the immune response and inflammatory process. Plasma levels of IL-10, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 are associated with metabolic conditions, show large inter-individual variations, and are under strong genetic control. Therefore, elucidation of the genetic variants that influence levels of these ILs provides useful insights into mechanisms of immune response and pathogenesis of diseases. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IL-10, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 levels in 707 non-diabetic African Americans using 5,396,780 imputed and directly genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index. IL-10 levels showed genome-wide significant associations (p ?< 5 × 10(-8)) with eight SNPs, the most significant of which was rs5743185 in the PMS1 gene (p = 2.30 × 10(-10)). We tested replication of SNPs that showed genome-wide significance in 425 non-diabetic individuals from West Africa, and successfully replicated rs17365948 in the YWHAZ gene (p = 0.02). IL-1Ra levels showed suggestive associations with two SNPs in the ASB3 gene (p = 2.55 × 10(-7)), ten SNPs in the IL-1 gene family (IL1F5, IL1F8, IL1F10, and IL1Ra, p = 1.04 × 10(-6) to 1.75 × 10(-6)), and 23 SNPs near the IL1A gene (p = 1.22 × 10(-6) to 1.63 × 10(-6)). We also successfully replicated rs4251961 (p = 0.009); this SNP was reported to be associated with IL-1Ra levels in a candidate gene study of Europeans. IL-6 levels showed genome-wide significant association with one SNP (RP11-314E23.1; chr6:133397598; p = 8.63 × 10(-9)). To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS on IL-10, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 levels. Follow-up of these findings may provide valuable insight into the pathobiology of IL actions and dysregulations in inflammation and human diseases.
Project description:Similar to IL-1? and IL-33, IL-1 family member IL-37b translocates to the nucleus and is associated with suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. Here we demonstrate an extracellular function of the IL-37 precursor and a processed form. Recombinant IL-37 precursor reduced LPS-induced IL-6 by 50% (P < 0.001) in highly inflammatory human blood-derived M1 differentiated macrophages derived from selective subjects but not M2 macrophages. In contrast, a neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-37 increased LPS-induced IL-6, TNF? and IL-1? (P < 0.01). The suppression by IL-37 was consistently observed at low picomolar but not nanomolar concentrations. Whereas LPS induced a 12-fold increase in TNF? mRNA, IL-37 pretreatment decreased the expression to only 3-fold over background (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, LPS-induced p38 and pERK were reduced by IL-37. Recombinant IL-37 bound to the immobilized ligand binding ?-chain of the IL-18 receptor as well as to the decoy receptor IL-1R8. In M1 macrophages, LPS increased the surface expression of IL-1R8. Compared with human blood monocytes, resting M1 cells express more surface IL-1R8 as well as total IL-1R8; there was a 16-fold increase in IL-1R8 mRNA levels when pretreated with IL-37. IL-37 reduced LPS-induced TNF? and IL-6 by 50-55% in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, but not in dendritic cells derived from IL-1R8-deficient mice. In mice subjected to systemic LPS-induced inflammation, pretreatment with IL-37 reduced circulating and organ cytokine levels. Thus, in addition to a nuclear function, IL-37 acts as an extracellular cytokine by binding to the IL-18 receptor but using the IL-1R8 for its anti-inflammatory properties.
Project description:We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1? (IL-1?) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against the neonatal LPS exposure-induced inflammatory responses, hippocampal injury, and long-lasting learning deficits in adult rats. LPS (1 mg/kg) or LPS plus IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intracerebrally to Sprague-Dawley male rat pups at postnatal day 5 (P5). Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21, P49, and P70, while neuropathological studies were conducted on P71. Our results showed that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in rats at both developmental and adult ages, as demonstrated by a significantly impaired performance in the passive avoidance task (P21, P49, and P70), reduced hippocampal volume, and reduced number of Nissl+ cells in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus of P71 rat brain. Those neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations by LPS exposure were associated with a sustained inflammatory response in the P71 rat hippocampus, indicated by increased number of activated microglia as well as elevated levels of IL-1?. Neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced long-lasting learning deficits, hippocampal injury, and sustained inflammatory responses in P71 rats. Our study demonstrates that neonatal LPS exposure leads to a persistent injury to the hippocampus, resulting in long-lasting learning disabilities related to chronic inflammation in rats, and these effects can be attenuated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist.
Project description:The inflammatory process implicates homeostasis disruption and increased production of inflammatory mediators. Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) is an essential protein recruited after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-1? stimulation, a process that converges in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation, as well as a transcription of several genes of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The inhibition of MyD88 has shown efficacy by decrease inflammatory response, and has demonstrated potential application as a therapeutic target in chronic diseases. In this study, we investigate the effect of MyD88 dimerisation inhibitor ST2825 on cytokine production from rhIL-1? and LPS-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood donors (HBD). ST2825 significantly downregulates the production of IFN-?, IL-6, IL-12, IL-2, IL-15, IL-7, VEGF, IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-9 (p < 0.05) in LPS-stimulated PBMC. Moreover, ST2825 had a relatively low impact on IL-1? signalling pathway inhibition, showing that only a few specific cytokines, such as IFN-? and IL-1Ra, are inhibited in rhIL-1?-stimulated PBMC (p < 0.01). In conclusion, MyD88 dimerisation inhibitor ST2825 showed high efficacy by inhibiting pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-stimulated PBMC. Moreover, although rhIL-1? induced a sustained cytokine production (p < 0.05), ST2825 did not show a significant effect in the secretion of neither pro- nor anti-inflammatory cytokines in rhIL-1?-stimulated PBMC.
Project description:This study was designed to investigate whether the pattern of hypothalamic and splenic cytokine expression induced by peripheral administration of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is affected by prior exposure to LPS derived from another bacterial strain. Injection of LPS from Salmonella enteritidis (LPS(2)) alone resulted in increased hypothalamic gene expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-1ra and IL-10. However, pre-exposure to LPS derived from Escherichia coli (LPS(1)) 3 weeks before, significantly attenuated hypothalamic IL-1ra, IL-6 and IL-10 expression. IL-1beta expression also tended to be lower. This pattern contrasted with the robust cytokine expression in the spleen of LPS(2)-treated rats previously exposed to LPS(1), since pre-treatment with endotoxin resulted in a significantly greater response of IL-1beta and IL-1ra to LPS(2). Expression of TNFalpha and IL-10 also tended to be higher. Pre-treatment with LPS(1) did not significantly affect the marked increase in corticosterone and adrenaline blood levels induced by LPS(2). Thus, while endotoxin pre-exposure seemed not to induce a "tolerant" state in the periphery as judged by the immune and endocrine parameters evaluated upon re-stimulation, expression of four of the six cytokines measured was decreased in the hypothalamus. This is the first demonstration that endotoxin priming can differentially affect cytokine expression in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues when a host is confronted with a second, acute, pro-inflammatory stimulus. These results may provide new evidence for the involvement of cytokine pathways in the central nervous system in modulating peripheral inflammation and mediating cognitive and behavioural alterations during inflammatory diseases.
Project description:IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that, in phagocytes, negatively targets cytokine expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional checkpoints also represent the specific target of a recently discovered, evolutionary conserved class of small silencing RNAs known as "microRNAs" (miRNAs), which display the peculiar function of negatively regulating mRNA processing, stability, and translation. In this study, we report that activation of primary human monocytes up-regulates the expression of miR-187 both in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, we identify miR-187 as an IL-10-dependent miRNA playing a role in IL-10-mediated suppression of TNF-?, IL-6, and the p40 subunit of IL-12 (IL-12p40) produced by primary human monocytes following activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Ectopic expression of miR-187 consistently and selectively reduces TNF?, IL-6, and IL-12p40 produced by LPS-activated monocytes. Conversely, the production of LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12p40 is increased significantly when miR-187 expression is silenced. Our data demonstrate that miR-187 directly targets TNF-? mRNA stability and translation and indirectly decreases IL-6 and IL-12p40 expression via down-modulation of I?B?, a master regulator of the transcription of these latter two cytokines. These results uncover an miRNA-mediated pathway controlling cytokine expression and demonstrate a central role of miR-187 in the physiological regulation of IL-10-driven anti-inflammatory responses.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? is implicated in the development of insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction, whereas higher circulating levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1?, has been suggested to improve glycemia and ?-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the protective role of IL-1RA, this study aimed to identify genetic determinants of circulating IL-1RA concentration and to investigate their associations with immunological and metabolic variables related to cardiometabolic risk. In the analysis of seven discovery and four replication cohort studies, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were independently associated with circulating IL-1RA concentration (rs4251961 at the IL1RN locus [n = 13,955, P = 2.76 × 10(-21)] and rs6759676, closest gene locus IL1F10 [n = 13,994, P = 1.73 × 10(-17)]). The proportion of the variance in IL-1RA explained by both SNPs combined was 2.0%. IL-1RA-raising alleles of both SNPs were associated with lower circulating C-reactive protein concentration. The IL-1RA-raising allele of rs6759676 was also associated with lower fasting insulin levels and lower HOMA insulin resistance. In conclusion, we show that circulating IL-1RA levels are predicted by two independent SNPs at the IL1RN and IL1F10 loci and that genetically raised IL-1RA may be protective against the development of insulin resistance.
Project description:Activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4) are key cAMP-hydrolyzing enzymes, and PDE4 inhibitors are considered as immunosuppressors to various inflammatory responses. We demonstrate here that PDE4 inhibitors enhance the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) secretion in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages, and this response was regulated at the transcriptional level rather than an increased IL-1Ra mRNA stability. Studies with PDE4-deficient macrophages revealed that the IL-1Ra upregulation elicited by LPS alone is PKA-independent, whereas the rolipram-enhanced response was mediated by inhibition of only PDE4B, one of the three PDE4 isoforms expressed in macrophages, and it requires PKA but not Epac activity. However, both pathways activate CREB to induce IL-1Ra expression. PDE4B ablation also promoted STAT3 phosphorylation (Tyr705) to LPS stimulation, but this STAT3 activation is not entirely responsible for the IL-1Ra upregulation in PDE4B-deficient macrophages. In a model of LPS-induced sepsis, only PDE4B-deficient mice displayed an increased circulating IL-1Ra, suggesting a protective role of PDE4B inactivation in vivo. These findings demonstrate that PDE4B negatively modulates anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in innate immune cells, and selectively targeting PDE4B should retain the therapeutic benefits of nonselective PDE4 inhibitors.