Low resolution structural studies indicate that the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis has an elongated shape which allows its interaction with both N- and M-domains of Hsp90.
ABSTRACT: The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins' interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90.
Project description:Aha1 is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and it stimulates the ATPase activity of HSP90 to promote the folding of its client proteins. By employing ascorbate peroxidase (APEX)-based proximity labeling and proteomic analysis, we identified over 30 proteins exhibiting diminished abundances in the proximity proteome of HSP90 in HEK293T cells upon genetic depletion of Aha1. Dicer1 is a top-ranked protein, and we confirmed its interactions with HSP90 and Aha1 by immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis. Genetic depletion of Aha1 and pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 both led to reduced levels of Dicer1 protein. Additionally, HSP90 and Aha1 bind preferentially to newly translated Dicer1. Reconstitution of Aha1-depleted cells with wild-type Aha1 substantially rescued Dicer1 protein level, and a lower level of restoration was observed for complementation with the HSP90-binding-defective Aha1-E67K, whereas an Aha1 mutant lacking the first 20 amino acids-which abolishes its chaperone activity-failed to rescue Dicer1 protein level. Moreover, knockdown of Aha1 and inhibition of HSP90 led to diminished levels of mature microRNAs (miRNAs), but not their corresponding primary miRNAs. Together, we uncovered a novel mechanism of HSP90 and Aha1 in regulating the miRNA pathway through promoting the folding of Dicer1 protein, and we also demonstrated that Aha1 modulates this process by acting as an autonomous chaperone and a co-chaperone for HSP90.
Project description:The activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1, Aha1, has been shown to participate in the Hsp90 chaperone cycle by stimulating the low intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsp90. To elucidate the structural basis for ATPase stimulation of human Hsp90 by human Aha1, we have developed novel mass spectrometry approaches that demonstrate that the N- and C-terminal domains of Aha1 cooperatively bind across the dimer interface of Hsp90 to modulate the ATP hydrolysis cycle and client activity in vivo. Mutations in both the N- and C-terminal domains of Aha1 impair its ability to bind Hsp90 and stimulate its ATPase activity in vitro and impair in vivo the ability of the Hsp90 system to modulate the folding and trafficking of wild-type and variant (DeltaF508) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) responsible for the inherited disease cystic fibrosis (CF). We now propose a general model for the role of Aha1 in the Hsp90 ATPase cycle in proteostasis whereby Aha1 regulates the dwell time of Hsp90 with client. We suggest that Aha1 activity integrates chaperone function with client folding energetics by modulating ATPase sensitive N-terminal dimer structural transitions, thereby protecting transient folding intermediates in vivo that could contribute to protein misfolding systems disorders such as CF when destabilized.
Project description:Hsp90 is an essential chaperone that requires large allosteric changes to determine its ATPase activity and client binding. The co-chaperone Aha1, which is the major ATPase stimulator in eukaryotes, is important for regulation of Hsp90's allosteric timing. Little is known, however, about the structure of the Hsp90/Aha1 complex. Here, we characterize the solution structure of unmodified human Hsp90/Aha1 complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the 214-kDa complex forms by a two-step binding mechanism and adopts multiple conformations in the absence of nucleotide. Aha1 induces structural changes near Hsp90's nucleotide-binding site, providing a basis for its ATPase-enhancing activity. Our data reveal important aspects of this pivotal chaperone/co-chaperone interaction and emphasize the relevance of characterizing dynamic chaperone structures in solution.
Project description:The eukaryotic Hsp90 chaperone machinery comprises many co-chaperones and regulates the conformation of hundreds of cytosolic client proteins. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Hsp90 machinery has become an attractive therapeutic target for diseases such as cancer. The compounds used so far to target this machinery affect the entire Hsp90 system. However, it would be desirable to achieve a more selective targeting of Hsp90-co-chaperone complexes. To test this concept, in this-proof-of-principle study, we screened for modulators of the interaction between Hsp90 and its co-chaperone Aha1, which accelerates the ATPase activity of Hsp90. A FRET-based assay that monitored Aha1 binding to Hsp90 enabled identification of several chemical compounds modulating the effect of Aha1 on Hsp90 activity. We found that one of these inhibitors can abrogate the Aha1-induced ATPase stimulation of Hsp90 without significantly affecting Hsp90 ATPase activity in the absence of Aha1. NMR spectroscopy revealed that this inhibitory compound binds the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 close to its ATP-binding site and overlapping with a transient Aha1-interaction site. We also noted that this inhibitor does not dissociate the Aha1-Hsp90 complex but prevents the specific interaction with the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 required for catalysis. In consequence, the inhibitor affected the activation and processing of Hsp90-Aha1-dependent client proteins in vivo We conclude that it is possible to abrogate a specific co-chaperone function of Hsp90 without inhibiting the entire Hsp90 machinery. This concept may also hold true for other co-chaperones of Hsp90.
Project description:Many critical protein kinases rely on the Hsp90 chaperone machinery for stability and function. After initially forming a ternary complex with kinase client and the cochaperone p50(Cdc37), Hsp90 proceeds through a cycle of conformational changes facilitated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Progression through the chaperone cycle requires release of p50(Cdc37) and recruitment of the ATPase activating cochaperone AHA1, but the molecular regulation of this complex process at the cellular level is poorly understood. We demonstrate that a series of tyrosine phosphorylation events, involving both p50(Cdc37) and Hsp90, are minimally sufficient to provide directionality to the chaperone cycle. p50(Cdc37) phosphorylation on Y4 and Y298 disrupts client-p50(Cdc37) association, while Hsp90 phosphorylation on Y197 dissociates p50(Cdc37) from Hsp90. Hsp90 phosphorylation on Y313 promotes recruitment of AHA1, which stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, furthering the chaperoning process. Finally, at completion of the chaperone cycle, Hsp90 Y627 phosphorylation induces dissociation of the client and remaining cochaperones.
Project description:Complex conformational dynamics are essential for function of the dimeric molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), including transient, ATP-biased N-domain dimerization that is necessary to attain ATPase competence. The intrinsic, but weak, ATP hydrolyzing activity of human Hsp90 is markedly enhanced by the co-chaperone Aha1. However, the cellular concentration of Aha1 is substoichiometric relative to Hsp90. Here we report that initial recruitment of this cochaperone to Hsp90 is markedly enhanced by phosphorylation of a highly conserved tyrosine (Y313 in Hsp90?) in the Hsp90 middle domain. Importantly, phosphomimetic mutation of Y313 promotes formation of a transient complex in which both N- and C-domains of Aha1 bind to distinct surfaces of the middle domains of opposing Hsp90 protomers prior to ATP-directed N-domain dimerization. Thus, Y313 represents a phosphorylation-sensitive conformational switch, engaged early after client loading, that affects both local and long-range conformational dynamics to facilitate initial recruitment of Aha1 to Hsp90.
Project description:Hsp90 and its co-chaperones are essential for the medically important parasite Leishmania donovani, facilitating life cycle control and intracellular survival. Activity of Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones of the Aha1 and P23 families. In this paper, we studied the expression of L. donovani Aha1 in two life cycle stages, its interaction with Hsp90 and the phenotype of Aha1 null mutants during the insect stage and inside infected macrophages. This study provides a detailed in vitro analysis of the function of Aha1 in Leishmania parasites and the first instance of a reverse genetic analysis of Aha1 in a protozoan parasite. While Aha1 is non-essential under standard growth conditions and at elevated temperature, Aha1 protects against ethanol stress. However, both overexpression and lack of Aha1 affected parasite growth in the presence of the Hsp90 inhibitors radicicol (RAD) and geldanamycin (GA). Under RAD pressure, P23 and Aha1 act in an antagonistic way. By contrast, expression levels of both co-chaperones have similar effects under GA treatment, indicating different inhibition mechanisms by the two compounds. Aha1 is also secreted in virulence-enhancing exosomes. This may explain why the loss of Aha1 reduces the infectivity of L. donovani in ex vivo mouse macrophages, indicating a role during the intracellular mammalian stage.
Project description:Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone essential for the activation and assembly of many key eukaryotic signalling and regulatory proteins. Hsp90 is assisted and regulated by co-chaperones that participate in an ordered series of dynamic multiprotein complexes, linked to Hsp90s conformationally coupled ATPase cycle. The co-chaperones Aha1 and Hch1 bind to Hsp90 and stimulate its ATPase activity. Biochemical analysis shows that this activity is dependent on the N-terminal domain of Aha1, which interacts with the central segment of Hsp90. The structural basis for this interaction is revealed by the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (1-153) of Aha1 (equivalent to the whole of Hch1) in complex with the middle segment of Hsp90 (273-530). Structural analysis and mutagenesis show that binding of N-Aha1 promotes a conformational switch in the middle-segment catalytic loop (370-390) of Hsp90 that releases the catalytic Arg 380 and enables its interaction with ATP in the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the chaperone.
Project description:The ATP-dependent molecular chaperone Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) is essential for the maturation of hormone receptors and protein kinases. During the process of client protein activation, Hsp90 co-operates with cofactors/co-chaperones of unique sequence, e.g. Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), p23 or p50, and with cofactors containing TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, e.g. Hop, immunophilins or cyclophilins. Although the binding sites for these different types of cofactors are distributed along the three domains of Hsp90, sterical overlap and competition for binding sites restrict the combinations of cofactors that can bind to Hsp90 at the same time. The recently discovered cofactor Aha1 associates with the middle domain of Hsp90, but its relationship to other cofactors of the molecular chaperone is poorly understood. Therefore we analysed whether complexes of Aha1, p23, p50, Hop and a cyclophilin with Hsp90 are disrupted by the other four cofactors by gel permeation chromatography using purified proteins. It turned out that Aha1 competes with the early cofactors Hop and p50, but can bind to Hsp90 in the presence of cyclophilins, suggesting that Aha1 acts as a late cofactor of Hsp90. In contrast with p50, which can bind to Hop, Aha1 does not interact directly with any of the other four cofactors. In vivo studies in yeast and in mammalian cells revealed that Aha1 is not specific for kinase activation, but also contributes to maturation of hormone receptors, proposing a general role for this cofactor in the activation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins.
Project description:The ability of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) to hydrolyze ATP is essential for its chaperone function. The co-chaperone Aha1 stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, tailoring the chaperone function to specific "client" proteins. The intracellular signaling mechanisms directly regulating Aha1 association with Hsp90 remain unknown. Here, we show that c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Y223 in human Aha1 (hAha1), promoting its interaction with Hsp90. This, consequently, results in an increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, enhances Hsp90 interaction with kinase clients, and compromises the chaperoning of non-kinase clients such as glucocorticoid receptor and CFTR. Suggesting a regulatory paradigm, we also find that Y223 phosphorylation leads to ubiquitination and degradation of hAha1 in the proteasome. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of c-Abl prevents hAha1 interaction with Hsp90, thereby hypersensitizing cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors both in vitro and ex vivo.