Stabilization of HIF-2? through redox regulation of mTORC2 activation and initiation of mRNA translation.
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor-2? (HIF-2?) has a critical role in renal tumorigenesis. HIF-2? is stabilized in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-deficient renal cell carcinoma through mechanisms that require ongoing mRNA translation. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions in two distinct complexes: Raptor-associated mTORC1 and Rictor-associated mTORC2. Rictor-associated mTORC2 complex has been linked to maintaining HIF-2? protein in the absence of VHL; however, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Although Raptor-associated mTORC1 is a known key upstream regulator of mRNA translation, initiation and elongation, the role of mTORC2 in regulating mRNA translation is not clear. Complex assembly of the mRNA cap protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 (eIF4)E, with activators (eIF4 gamma (eIF4G)) and inhibitors (eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1)) are rate-limiting determinants of mRNA translation. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that reactive oxygen species, mediated by p22(phox)-based Nox oxidases, are enhanced in VHL-deficient cells and have a role in the activation of Akt on S473, a site phosphorylated by the mTORC2 complex. In this study, we examined the role of Rictor-dependent regulation of HIF-2? through eIF4E-dependent mRNA translation and examined the effects of p22(phox)-based Nox oxidases on TORC2 regulation. We demonstrate for the first time that mTORC2 complex stability and activation is redox sensitive, and further defined a novel role for p22(phox)-based Nox oxidases in eIF4E-dependent mRNA translation through mTORC2. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that silencing of p22(phox) reduces HIF-2?-dependent gene targeting in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. The clinical relevance of these studies is demonstrated.
Project description:Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumor in women. The goal of this study was to investigate whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), a major source of superoxide and subsequent oxidative stress, was differentially regulated in myometrium versus leiomyoma. Expression levels of NOXs1-5, dual oxidase (DUOX), DUOX2, NOX organizer (NOXO) 1, NOX activator 1, p47(phox), p67(phox), and p22(phox) were determined in cells treated with hypoxia by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry in tissues. Expression of NOX4 increased in fibroid compared to myometrial tissues and cells. The NOX2, DUOX1, and p67(phox) were higher while p22(phox) was lower in fibroid than that in myometrial cells. Hypoxia increased NOX4, DUOX1, and NOXO1 and decreased p22(phox) in myometrial and reduced DUOX1 in fibroid cells. The NOX1, NOX3, NOX5, and DUOX2 were undetectable. Fibroid cells are characterized by a unique NOX profile, which promotes a severe prooxidant state that may be responsible for their development. Targeting these subunits may be beneficial for future therapeutic interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Enhancing the chemosensitivity in the patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) resistant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is pivotal in achieving their successful therapeutic outcome. We aimed to explore the mechanisms regarding the development of therapeutic resistance to chemotherapy in EGFR-TKI resistant LUAD. Methods: Microarray analysis lead to potential involvement of p22<sup>phox</sup>, which was abundantly expressed in the cell lines harboring EGFR-TKI resistance and chemoresistance, and was known to regulate several important chemoresistance-associated factors such as hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We compared the status of p22<sup>phox</sup> with that of chemoresistance, HIF-1? expression and EMT in LUAD cell lines. We immunolocalized p22<sup>phox</sup> in the specimens of lung cancer patients.<h4>Results</h4>p22<sup>phox</sup> and HIF-1? mRNAs were significantly elevated in the cells harboring EMT and chemoresistance. p22<sup>phox</sup> knockdown enhanced chemosensitivity and reduced the expression of HIF-1? and EMT-associated factors. HIF-1? knockdown enhanced the chemosensitivity, while HIF-1? transfection induced EMT and chemoresistance in these cell lines. All LUAD patients with T790M mutation were associated with abundant p22<sup>phox</sup> immunoreactivity in carcinoma cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The analysis of p22<sup>phox</sup> in lung carcinoma tissues could provide new insights into the selection of chemotherapy for the patients with EGFR-TKI resistant LUAD.
Project description:P22(phox) is a ubiquitous protein encoded by the CYBA gene located on the long arm of chromosome 16 at position 24, containing six exons and spanning 8.5 kb. P22(phox) is a critical component of the superoxide-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs). It is associated with NOX2 to form cytochrome b558 expressed mainly in phagocytes and responsible for the killing of microorganisms when bacterial and fungal infections occur. CYBA mutations lead to one of the autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (AR22(0)CGD) clinically characterized by recurrent and severe infections in early childhood. However, p22(phox) is also the partner of NOX1, NOX3 and NOX4, but not NOX5, which are analogs of NOX2, the first identified member of the NOX family. P22(phox)-NOX complexes have emerged as one of the most relevant sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissues and cells, and are associated with several diseases such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The p22(phox)-deficient mouse strain nmf333 has made it possible to highlight the role of p22(phox) in the control of inner ear balance in association with NOX3. However, the relevance of p22(phox) for NOX3 function remains uncertain because AR22(0)CGD patients do not suffer from vestibular dysfunction. Finally, a large number of genetic variations of CYBA have been reported, among them the C242T polymorphism, which has been extensively studied in association with coronary artery and heart diseases, but conflicting results continue to be reported.
Project description:The integral membrane protein p22(phox) forms a heterodimeric enzyme complex with NADPH oxidases (Noxs) and is required for their catalytic activity. Nox4, a Nox linked to cardiovascular disease, angiogenesis, and insulin signaling, is unique in its ability to produce hydrogen peroxide constitutively. To date, p22(phox) constitutes the only identified regulatory component for Nox4 function. To delineate structural elements in p22(phox) essential for formation and localization of the Nox4-p22(phox) complex and its enzymatic function, truncation and point mutagenesis was used. Human lung carcinoma cells served as a heterologous expression system, since this cell type is p22(phox)-deficient and promotes cell surface expression of the Nox4-p22(phox) heterodimer. Expression of p22(phox) truncation mutants indicates that the dual tryptophan motif contained in the N-terminal amino acids 6-11 is essential, whereas the C terminus (amino acids 130-195) is dispensable for Nox4 activity. Introduction of charged residues in domains predicted to be extracellular by topology modeling was mostly tolerated, whereas the exchange of amino acids in predicted membrane-spanning domains caused loss of function or showed distinct differences in p22(phox) interaction with various Noxs. For example, the substitution of tyrosine 121 with histidine in p22(phox), which abolished Nox2 and Nox3 function in vivo, preserved Nox4 activity when expressed in lung cancer cells. Many of the examined p22(phox) mutations inhibiting Nox1 to -3 maturation did not alter Nox4-p22(phox) association, further accenting the differences between Noxs. These studies highlight the distinct interaction of the key regulatory p22(phox) subunit with Nox4, a feature which could provide the basis for selective inhibitor development.
Project description:The family of NADPH oxidase (NOX) genes produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) pivotal for both cell signalling and host defense. To investigate whether NOX and NOX accessory gene expression might be a factor common to specific human tumour types, this study measured the expression levels of NOX genes 1-5, dual oxidase 1 and 2, as well as those of NOX accessory genes NoxO1, NoxA1, p47(phox), p67(phox) and p22(phox) in human cancer cell lines and in tumour and adjacent normal tissue pairs by quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. The results demonstrate tumour-specific patterns of NOX gene expression that will inform further studies of the role of NOX activity in tumour cell invasion, growth factor response and proliferative potential.
Project description:Superoxide (O(2) (.-)) may function as a second messenger or regulator of signal transduction when produced at low concentrations in the proper locations within cells. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether human corneal stromal (HCS) fibroblasts are capable of producing O(2) (.-) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, a family of protein complexes believed to be responsible for the localized and limited production of O(2) (.-) with regulatory activity.HCS cells, grown as primary and low-passage cultures of fibroblasts, were used as the sources of RNA for reverse transcriptase PCR, with primers specific for mRNAs encoding the proteins that comprise NADPH oxidases. Small interfering (si)RNAs were used to knockdown specific NOX mRNAs. Proteins composing the NADPH oxidase complexes were identified using western blots. The production of O(2) (.-) by whole cells and cell-free preparations was assessed by measurement of NADPH-dependent superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction.Whole cells and cell-free extracts of corneal stromal fibroblasts produced O(2) (.-) in an NADPH-dependent manner. These fibroblasts constitutively produced mRNAs encoding eight proteins known to comprise NADPH oxidase complexes. mRNAs encoding NOX1, NOX4, NOX5, p22 phox, p47 phox, p67 phox, and p40 phox as well as Rac were expressed. Treatment of HCS fibroblasts with siRNA pools specific for each of these three NOXs significantly reduced the steady state levels of the respective mRNAs. Western blots confirmed the existence of all the proteins required for O(2) (.-) production. Rac 1, a regulator of the activity of some forms of NADPH complexes was present in membranous cell fractions containing the oxidase proteins.HCS fibroblasts produced O(2) (.-) in a NADPH-dependent manner via at least three isoforms of NADPH oxidase. These cells expressed NOX1, NOX4, NOX5, p22 phox, p47 phox, p67 phox, and p40 phox as well as Rac. SiRNAs directed against each of the three putative isoforms of NOX significantly reduced the steady state levels of the appropriate NOX mRNA pools, thus confirming the existence of the three isoforms. The O(2) (.-) produced by the NADPH oxidases in HCS fibroblasts is a potential contributor to signal transduction pathways and a regulator of gene expression as well as a potential participant in processes that occur during inflammation.
Project description:Overexpression of Rictor has been demonstrated to result in increased mechanistic target of rapamycin C2 (mTORC2) nucleation and activity leading to tumor growth and increased invasive characteristics in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the mechanisms regulating Rictor expression in these tumors is not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that Rictor is regulated at the level of mRNA translation via heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1)-induced HuR activity. HuR is shown to directly bind the 3' untranslated region of the Rictor transcript and enhance translational efficiency. Moreover, we demonstrate that mTORC2/AKT signaling activates HSF1 resulting in a feed-forward cascade in which continued mTORC2 activity is able to drive Rictor expression. RNAi-mediated blockade of AKT, HSF1 or HuR is sufficient to downregulate Rictor and inhibit GBM growth and invasive characteristics in vitro and suppress xenograft growth in mice. Modulation of AKT or HSF1 activity via the ectopic expression of mutant alleles support the ability of AKT to activate HSF1 and demonstrate continued HSF1/HuR/Rictor signaling in the context of AKT knockdown. We further show that constitutive overexpression of HuR is able to maintain Rictor expression under conditions of AKT or HSF1 loss. The expression of these components is also examined in patient GBM samples and correlative associations between the relative expression of these factors support the presence of these signaling relationships in GBM. These data support a role for a feed-forward loop mechanism by which mTORC2 activity stimulates Rictor translational efficiency via an AKT/HSF1/HuR signaling cascade resulting in enhanced mTORC2 activity in these tumors.
Project description:Age-related hearing (ARHL) loss affects a large part of the human population with a major impact on our aging societies. Yet, underlying mechanisms are not understood, and no validated therapy or prevention exists. NADPH oxidases (NOX), are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea and might therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of ARHL. Here we investigate ARHL in a mouse model. Wild type mice showed early loss of hearing and cochlear integrity, while animals deficient in the NOX subunit p22<sup>phox</sup> remained unaffected up to six months. Genes of the excitatory pathway were down-regulated in p22<sup>phox</sup>-deficient auditory neurons. Our results demonstrate that NOX activity leads to upregulation of genes of the excitatory pathway, to excitotoxic cochlear damage, and ultimately to ARHL. In the absence of functional NOXs, aging mice conserve hearing and cochlear morphology. Our study offers new insights into pathomechanisms and future therapeutic targets of ARHL.
Project description:This study aimed to determine if 50 days of canola oil intake in the absence or presence of salt loading affects: (1) antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, (2) aortic mRNA of NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits and superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms and (3) endothelial function in SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats were fed a diet containing 10 wt/wt% soybean oil or 10 wt/wt% canola oil, and given tap water or water containing 1% NaCl for 50 days. Without salt, canola oil significantly increased RBC SOD, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, aortic p22 (phox) , NOX2 and CuZn-SOD mRNA, and decreased RBC glutathione peroxidase activity. With salt, canola oil reduced RBC SOD and catalase activity, LDL-C, and p22 (phox) mRNA compared with canola oil alone, whereas plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced and RBC MDA and LDL-C were higher. With salt, the canola oil group had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilating responses to ACh and contractile responses to norepinephrine compared with the canola oil group without salt and to the WKY rats. These results indicate that ingestion of canola oil increases O2 (-) generation, and that canola oil ingestion in combination with salt leads to endothelial dysfunction in the SHRSP model.
Project description:Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Although overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested to play a major role in its carcinogenicity, the mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced ROS production remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX), one of the major sources of cellular ROS, in Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. We found that short-term exposure to Cr(VI) (2?M) resulted in a rapid increase in ROS generation in Beas-2B cells, and concomitantly increased NOX activity and expression of NOX members (NOX1-3 and NOX5) and subunits (p22(phox), p47(phox), p40(phox), and p67(phox)). Cr(VI) also induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and membrane translocation of p47(phox) and p67(phox), further confirming NOX activation. Knockdown of p47(phox) with a short hairpin RNA attenuated the ROS production induced by Cr(VI). Chronic exposure (up to 3 months) to low doses of Cr(VI) (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5?M) also promoted ROS generation and the expression of NOX subunits, such as p47(phox) and p67(phox), but inhibited the expression of main antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Chronic Cr(VI) exposure resulted in transformation of Beas-2B cells, increasing cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth in soft agar, and forming aggressive tumors in nude mice. Stable knockdown of p47(phox) or overexpression of SOD1, SOD2, or catalase (CAT) eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Our results suggest that NOX plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced ROS generation and carcinogenesis.