Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae carbonic anhydrase is important for environmental and intracellular survival.
ABSTRACT: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the leading causes of noninvasive mucosal infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis, and conjunctivitis. During its life cycle, NTHi is exposed to different CO2 levels, which vary from ?0.04% in ambient air during transmission to a new host to over 5% in the respiratory tract and tissues of the human host during colonization and disease. We used the next-generation sequencing Tn-seq technology to identify genes essential for NTHi adaptation to changes in environmental CO2 levels. It appeared that H. influenzae carbonic anhydrase (HICA), which catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate, is a molecular factor that is conditionally essential for NTHi survival in ambient air. Growth of NTHi ?can strains was restored under 5% CO2-enriched conditions, by supplementation of the growth medium with sodium bicarbonate, or by genetic complementation with the can gene. Finally, we showed that HICA not only is essential for environmental survival but also appeared to be important for intracellular survival in host cells. Hence, HICA is important for NTHi niche adaptation.
Project description:The Haemophilus influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) allosteric site variants V47A and G41A were overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. These variants have k(cat)/K(m) values similar to that of the wild-type enzyme and exhibit a similar dramatic decrease in catalytic activity at pH <8.0. However, both HICA-G41A and -V47A were serendipitously found to bind sulfate ion or bicarbonate ion near pairs of Glu50 and Arg64 residues located on the dimerization interface. In the case of HICA-V47A, bicarbonate ions simultaneously bind to both the dimerization interface and the allosteric sites. For HICA-G41A, two of 12 chains in the asymmetric unit bind bicarbonate ion exclusively at the dimerization interface, while the remaining 10 chains bind bicarbonate ion exclusively at the allosteric site. We propose that the new anion binding site along the dimerization interface of HICA is an "escort" site that represents an intermediate along the ingress and egress route of bicarbonate ion to and from the allosteric binding site, respectively. The structural evidence for sulfate binding at the escort site suggests that the mechanism of sulfate activation of HICA is the result of sulfate ion competing for bicarbonate at the escort site, preventing passage of bicarbonate from the bulk solution to its allosteric site.
Project description:Haemophilus influenzae beta-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) is hypothesized to be an allosteric protein that is regulated by the binding of bicarbonate ion to a non-catalytic (inhibitory) site that controls the ligation of Asp44 to the catalytically essential zinc ion. We report here the X-ray crystallographic structures of two variants (W39F and Y181F) involved in the binding of bicarbonate ion in the non-catalytic site and an active-site variant (D44N) that is incapable of forming a strong zinc ligand. The alteration of Trp39 to Phe increases the apparent K(i) for bicarbonate inhibition by 4.8-fold. While the structures of W39F and Y181F are very similar to the wild-type enzyme, the X-ray crystal structure of the D44N variant reveals that it has adopted an active-site conformation nearly identical to that of non-allosteric beta-carbonic anhydrases. We propose that the structure of the D44N variant is likely to be representative of the active conformation of the enzyme. These results lend additional support to the hypothesis that HICA is an allosteric enzyme that can adopt active and inactive conformations, the latter of which is stabilized by bicarbonate ion binding to a non-catalytic site.
Project description:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is a commensal inhabitant of the human nasopharynx and a causative agent of otitis media and other diseases of the upper and lower human airway. During colonization within the host, NTHI must acquire essential nutrients and evade immune attack. We previously demonstrated that the NTHI Sap transporter, an inner membrane protein complex, mediates resistance to antimicrobial peptides and is required for heme homeostasis. We hypothesized that Sap transporter functions are critical for NTHI interaction with the host epithelium and establishment of colonization. Thus, we cocultured the parent or the sapA mutant on polarized epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface, as a physiological model of NTHI colonization, to determine the contribution of the Sap transporter to bacterium-host cell interactions. Although SapA-deficient NTHI was less adherent to epithelial cells, we observed a significant increase in invasive bacteria compared to the parent strain. Upon internalization, the sapA mutant appeared free in the cytoplasm, whereas the parent strain was primarily found in endosomes, indicating differential subcellular trafficking. Additionally, we observed reduced inflammatory cytokine production by the epithelium in response to the sapA mutant strain compared to the parental strain. Furthermore, chinchilla middle ears challenged with the sapA mutant demonstrated a decrease in disease severity compared to ears challenged with the parental strain. Collectively, our data suggest that NTHI senses host environmental cues via Sap transporter function to mediate interaction with host epithelial cells. Epithelial cell invasion and modulation of host inflammatory cytokine responses may promote NTHI colonization and access to essential nutrients.
Project description:Cobalt(II)-substituted Haemophilus influenzae ?-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) has been produced by overexpression in minimal media supplemented with CoCl(2), enabling kinetic, structural, and spectroscopic characterization. Co(II)-substituted HICA (Co-HICA) has comparable catalytic activity to that of wild-type enzyme with k(cat)=82±19 ms(-1) (120% of wild-type). The X-ray crystal structure of Co-HICA was determined to 2.5Å resolution, and is similar to the zinc enzyme. The absorption spectrum of Co-HICA is consistent with four-coordinate geometry. pH-dependent changes in the absorption spectrum of Co-HICA, including an increase in molar absorptivity and a red shift of a 580 nm peak with decreasing pH, correlate with the pH dependence of k(cat)/K(m). The absence of isosbestic points in the pH-dependent absorption spectra suggest that more than two absorbing species are present. The addition of bicarbonate ion at pH 8.0 triggers spectral changes in the metal coordination sphere that mimic that of lowering pH, supporting its hypothesized role as an allosteric inhibitor of HICA. Homogeneously (99±1% Co) and heterogeneously (52±5% Co) substituted Co-HICA have distinctly different colors and absorption spectra, suggesting that the metal ions in the active sites in the allosteric dimer of Co-HICA engage in intersubunit communication.
Project description:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly infects patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), especially early in childhood. Bacteria biofilms are increasingly recognized as contributing to bacterial persistence and disease pathogenesis in CF.This study investigated ability of NTHi to form biofilms and its impact on airway epithelia using in vivo and in vitro analyses.We evaluated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from young patients with CF for evidence of NTHi biofilms. To further investigate the pathogenesis of NTHi in respiratory infections, we developed a novel in vitro coculture model of NTHi biofilm formation on polarized human airway epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface.In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from young, asymptomatic patients with CF, we found morphologic evidence suggestive of NTHi biofilm formation. In addition, 10 clinical NTHi isolates from patients with CF formed biofilms on plastic surfaces. NTHi formed biofilms on the apical surface of cultured airway epithelia. These biofilms exhibited decreased susceptibility to antibiotics and were adherent to epithelial surfaces. Airway epithelial cells remained viable throughout 4 d of coculture, and responded to NTHi with nuclear factor-kappaB signaling, and increased chemokine and cytokine secretion.NTHi formed adherent biofilms on the apical surface airway epithelia with decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, and respiratory cells exhibited inflammatory and host defense responses-evidence of a dynamic host-pathogen interaction. The data presented here have implications both for understanding early CF lung disease pathogenesis and for the treatment of early, asymptomatic colonization of patients with CF with H. influenzae.
Project description:Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates is a crucial step toward appropriate treatment of infectious diseases. The clinical isolate Francisella philomiragia 14IUHPL001, recently isolated from a 63-year-old woman with atypical pneumonia, featured decreased susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics when cultivated in 5% CO2. Quantitative β-lactamase assays demonstrated a significant (P < 0.0001) increase in enzymatic activity between bacteria cultivated in 5% CO2 over those incubated in ambient air. The presence of β-lactamase genes blaTEM and blaSHV was detected in the clinical isolate F. philomiragia 14IUHPL001 by PCR, and the genes were positively identified by nucleotide sequencing. Expression of blaTEM and blaSHV was detected by reverse transcription-PCR during growth at 5% CO2 but not during growth in ambient air. A statistically significant alkaline shift was observed following cultivation of F. philomiragia 14IUHPL001 in both ambient air and 5% CO2, allowing desegregation of the previously reported effects of acidic pH from the currently reported effect of 5% CO2 on blaTEM and blaSHV β-lactamases. To ensure that the observed phenomenon was not unique to F. philomiragia, we evaluated a clinical isolate of blaTEM-carrying Haemophilus influenzae and found parallel induction of blaTEM gene expression and β-lactamase activity at 5% CO2 relative to ambient air. IMPORTANCE β-Lactamase induction and concurrent β-lactam resistance in respiratory tract pathogens as a consequence of growth in a physiologically relevant level of CO2 are of clinical significance, particularly given the ubiquity of TEM and SHV β-lactamase genes in diverse bacterial pathogens. This is the first report of β-lactamase induction by 5% CO2.
Project description:Bacterial ?-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes catalysing reversible hydration of CO2. They maintain the intracellular balance of CO2/bicarbonate required for biosynthetic reactions and represent a new group of antimicrobial drug targets. Genome sequence analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic human pathogen causing life threatening infections, identified three genes, PAO102, PA2053 and PA4676, encoding putative ?-CAs that share 28-45?% amino acid sequence identity and belong to clades A and B. The genes are conserved among all sequenced pseudomonads. The CAs were cloned, heterologously expressed and purified. Metal and enzymic analyses confirmed that the proteins contain Zn(2+) and catalyse hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate. PAO102 (psCA1) was 19-26-fold more active, and together with PA2053 (psCA2) showed CA activity at both pH 7.5 and 8.3, whereas PA4676 (psCA3) was active only at pH 8.3. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested that psCA2 and psCA3 undergo pH-dependent structural changes. Taken together, the data suggest that psCA1 may belong to type I and psCA3 to type II ?-CAs. Immunoblot analysis showed that all three CAs are expressed in PAO1 cells when grown in ambient air and at 5?% CO2; psCA1 appeared more abundant under both conditions. Growth studies of transposon mutants showed that the disruption of psCA1 impaired PAO1 growth in ambient air and caused a minor defect at high CO2. Thus, psCA1 contributes to the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to low CO2 conditions and will be further studied for its role in virulence and as a potential antimicrobial drug target in this organism.
Project description:Rationale:Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx and upper airways that can cause opportunistic infections of the airway mucosa including bronchopulmonary infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is clear that opportunistic infections contribute significantly to inflammatory exacerbations of COPD; however, there remains much to be learned regarding specific host and microbial determinants of persistence and/or clearance in this context. Methods:In this study, we used a recently described ferret model for COPD, in which animals undergo chronic long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, to define host-pathogen interactions during COPD-related NTHi infections. Results:NTHi bacteria colonised the lungs of smoke-exposed animals to a greater extent than controls, and elicited acute host inflammation and neutrophilic influx and activation, along with a significant increase in airway resistance and a decrease in inspiratory capacity consistent with inflammatory exacerbation; notably, these findings were not observed in air-exposed control animals. NTHi bacteria persisted within multicellular biofilm communities within the airway lumen, as evidenced by immunofluorescent detection of bacterial aggregates encased within a sialylated matrix as is typical of NTHi biofilms and differential bacterial gene expression consistent with the biofilm mode of growth. Conclusions:Based on these results, we conclude that acute infection with NTHi initiates inflammatory exacerbation of COPD disease. The data also support the widely held hypothesis that NTHi bacteria persist within multicellular biofilm communities in the lungs of patients with COPD.
Project description:Signaling mechanisms used by Haemophilus influenzae to adapt to conditions it encounters during stages of infection and pathogenesis are not well understood. The ArcAB two-component signal transduction system controls gene expression in response to respiratory conditions of growth and contributes to resistance to bactericidal effects of serum and to bloodstream infection by H. influenzae. We show that ArcA of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) activates expression of a glycosyltransferase gene, lic2B. Structural comparison of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of a lic2B mutant to that of the wild-type strain NT127 revealed that lic2B is required for addition of a galactose residue to the LOS outer core. The lic2B gene was crucial for optimal survival of NTHI in a mouse model of bacteremia and for evasion of serum complement. The results demonstrate that ArcA, which controls cellular metabolism in response to environmental reduction and oxidation (redox) conditions, also coordinately controls genes that are critical for immune evasion, providing evidence that NTHI integrates redox signals to regulate specific countermeasures against host defense.
Project description:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of acute and recurrent mucosal infections. One uncharacterized NTHi toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, NTHI1912-1913, is a host inhibition of growth (higBA) homologue. We hypothesized that this locus, which we designated toxAvapA, contributed to NTHi survival during infection. We deleted toxAvapA and determined that growth of the mutant in defined media was not different from the parent strain. We tested the mutant for persistence during long-term in vitro co-culture with primary human respiratory tissues, which revealed that the ?toxAvapA mutant was attenuated for survival. We then performed challenge studies using the chinchilla model of otitis media and determined that mutant survival was also reduced in vivo. Following purification, the toxin exhibited ribonuclease activity on RNA in vitro, while the antitoxin did not. A microarray comparison of the transcriptome revealed that the tryptophan biosynthetic regulon was significantly repressed in the mutant compared to the parent strain. HPLC studies of conditioned medium confirmed that there was no significant difference in the concentration of tryptophan remaining in the supernatant, indicating that the uptake of tryptophan by the mutant was not affected. We conclude that the role of the NTHi toxAvapA TA module in persistence following stress is multifactorial and includes effects on essential metabolic pathways.