Notch-regulated periphery B cell differentiation involves suppression of E protein function.
ABSTRACT: Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in promoting the generation of marginal zone (MZ) B cells at the expense of follicular (FO) B cells during periphery B cell maturation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesize that Notch favors the generation of MZ B cells by downregulating E protein activity. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of Id2 and ankyrin-repeat SOCS box-containing protein 2 was elevated in MZ B cells and by Notch signaling. Id2 inhibits the DNA binding activity of E proteins, whereas ankyrin-repeat SOCS box-containing protein 2 facilitates E protein ubiquitination. Next, we examined the phenotypes of splenic B cells in mice expressing constitutively active Notch1 and/or two gain-of-function mutants of E proteins that counteract Id2-mediated inhibition or Notch-induced degradation. We found that upregulation of E proteins promoted the formation of FO B cells, whereas it suppressed the maturation of MZ B cells. In contrast, excessive amounts of Notch1 stimulated the differentiation of MZ B cells and inhibited the production of FO B cells. More interestingly, the effects of Notch1 were reversed by gain of E protein function. Furthermore, high levels of Bcl-6 expression in FO B cells was shown to be diminished by Notch signaling and restored by E proteins. In addition, E proteins facilitated and Notch hindered the differentiation of transitional B cells. Taken together, it appears that Notch regulates peripheral B cell differentiation, at least in part, through opposing E protein function.
Project description:Notch receptors and their ligands play important roles in both normal animal development and pathogenesis. We show here that the F-box/WD40 repeat protein SEL-10 negatively regulates Notch receptor activity by targeting the intracellular domain of Notch receptors for ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Blocking of endogenous SEL-10 activity was done by expression of a dominant-negative form containing only the WD40 repeats. In the case of Notch1, this block leads to an increase in Notch signaling stimulated by either an activated form of the Notch1 receptor or Jagged1-induced signaling through Notch1. Expression of dominant-negative SEL-10 leads to stabilization of the intracellular domain of Notch1. The Notch4 intracellular domain bound to SEL-10, but its activity was not increased as a result of dominant-negative SEL-10 expression. SEL-10 bound Notch4 via the WD40 repeats and bound preferentially to a phosphorylated form of Notch4 in cells. We mapped the region of Notch4 essential for SEL-10 binding to the C-terminal region downstream of the ankyrin repeats. When this C-terminal fragment of Notch4 was expressed in cells, it was highly labile but could be stabilized by the expression of dominant-negative SEL-10. Ubiquitination of Notch1 and Notch4 intracellular domains in vitro was dependent on SEL-10. Although SEL-10 interacts with the intracellular domains of both Notch1 and Notch4, these proteins respond differently to interference with SEL-10 function. Thus, SEL-10 functions to promote the ubiquitination of Notch proteins; however, the fates of these proteins may differ.
Project description:Canonical Notch signaling relies on regulated proteolysis of the receptor Notch to generate a nuclear effector that induces the transcription of Notch-responsive genes. In higher organisms, one Notch-responsive gene that is activated in many different cell types encodes the Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein (NRARP), which acts as a negative feedback regulator of Notch responses. Here, we showed that NRARP inhibited the growth of Notch-dependent T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines and bound directly to the core Notch transcriptional activation complex (NTC), requiring both the transcription factor RBPJ and the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), but not Mastermind-like proteins or DNA. The crystal structure of an NRARP-NICD1-RBPJ-DNA complex, determined to 3.75 Å resolution, revealed that the assembly of NRARP-NICD1-RBPJ complexes relied on simultaneous engagement of RBPJ and NICD1, with the three ankyrin repeats of NRARP extending the Notch1 ankyrin repeat stack. Mutations at the NRARP-NICD1 interface disrupted entry of the proteins into NTCs and abrogated feedback inhibition in Notch signaling assays in cultured cells. Forced expression of NRARP reduced the abundance of NICD in cells, suggesting that NRARP may promote the degradation of NICD. These studies establish the structural basis for NTC engagement by NRARP and provide insights into a critical negative feedback mechanism that regulates Notch signaling.
Project description:The spatiotemporal localization and expression of Dll4 are critical for sprouting angiogenesis. However, the related mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that G-protein-coupled receptor-kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a robust endogenous inhibitor of Dll4-Notch1 signaling that specifically controls stalk cell fate. GIT1 is highly expressed in stalk cells but not in tip cells. GIT1 deficiency remarkably enhances Dll4 expression and Notch1 signaling, resulting in impaired retinal sprouting angiogenesis, which can be rescued by treatment with the Notch inhibitor or Dll4 neutralizing antibody. Notch1 regulates Dll4 expression by binding to recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless (RBP-J, a transcriptional regulator of Notch) via a highly conserved ankyrin (ANK) repeat domain. We show that GIT1, which also contains an ANK domain, inhibits the Notch1-Dll4 signaling pathway by competing with Notch1 ANK domain for binding to RBP-J in stalk cells.
Project description:Bcl-3 is an atypical member of the family of I?B proteins. Unlike the classic members, Bcl-3 functions as a nuclear transcriptional cofactor that may, depending on context, promote or suppress genes via association with p50/NF-?B1 or p52/NF-?B2 homodimers. Bcl-3 is also an oncogene, because it is a partner in recurrent translocations in B cell tumors, resulting in deregulated expression. Bcl-3 functions, however, remain poorly understood. We have investigated the role of Bcl-3 in B cells and discovered a previously unknown involvement in the splenic development of these cells. Loss of Bcl-3 in B cells resulted in significantly more marginal zone (MZ) and fewer follicular (FO) B cells. Conversely, transgenic expression of Bcl-3 in B cells generated fewer MZ and more FO B cells. Both Bcl-3(-/-) FO and MZ B cells were more responsive to LPS stimulation compared with their wild-type counterparts, including increased proliferation. By contrast, Bcl-3(-/-) FO B cells were more prone to apoptosis upon BCR stimulation, also limiting their expansion. The data reveal Bcl-3 as a regulator of B cell fate determination, restricting the MZ path and favoring the FO pathway, at least in part, via increased signal-specific survival of the latter, a finding of relevance to its tumorigenic activity.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms by which Notch receptors induce diverse biological responses are not fully understood. We recently cloned a mammalian homologue of the Mastermind gene of Drosophila melanogaster, MAML1 (Mastermind-like-1 molecule) and determined that it functions as a transcriptional coactivator for Notch receptors. In this report, we characterize two additional genes in this Mastermind-like gene family: MAML2 and MAML3. The three MAML genes are widely expressed in adult tissues but exhibit distinct expression patterns in mouse early spinal cord development. All MAML proteins localize to nuclear bodies, share a conserved basic domain in their N termini that binds to the ankyrin repeat domain of Notch, and contain a transcriptional activation domain in their C termini. Moreover, as determined by using coimmunoprecipitation assays, each MAML protein was found to be capable of forming a multiprotein complex with the intracellular domain of each Notch receptor (ICN1 to -4) and CSL in vivo. However, MAML3 bound less efficiently to the ankyrin repeat domain of Notch1. Also, in U20S cells, whereas MAML1 and MAML2 functioned efficiently as coactivators with each of the Notch receptors to transactivate a Notch target HES1 promoter construct, MAML3 functioned more efficiently with ICN4 than with other forms of ICN. Similarly, MAML1 and MAML2 amplified Notch ligand (both Jagged2 and Delta1)-induced transcription of the HES-1 gene, whereas MAML3 displayed little effect. Thus, MAML proteins may modify Notch signaling in different cell types based on their own expression levels and differential activities and thereby contribute to the diversity of the biological effects resulting from Notch activation.
Project description:Splenic transitional B-cells (T1 and T2) are selected to avoid self-reactivity and to safeguard against autoimmunity, then differentiate into mature follicular (FO-I and FO-II) and marginal zone (MZ) subsets. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq of the five B-cell subsets revealed T1 cell signature genes included RAG suggesting a potential for receptor revision. T1 to T2 B-cell differentiation was marked by a switch from Myb to Myc, increased expression of the PI3K adapter DAP10 and MHC class II. FO-II may be an intermediate in FO-I differentiation and may also become MZ B-cells as suggested by principle component analysis. MZ B-cells possessed the most distinct transcriptome including down-regulation of CD45 phosphatase-associated protein (CD45-AP/PTPRC-AP), as well as upregulation of IL-9R and innate molecules TLR3, TLR7, and bactericidal Perforin-2 (MPEG1). Among the endosomal TLRs, stimulation via TLR3 further enhanced Perforin-2 expression exclusively in MZ B-cells. Using gene-deleted and overexpressing transgenic mice we show that IL-9/IL-9R interaction resulted in rapid activation of STAT1, 3, and 5, primarily in MZ B-cells. Importantly, CD45-AP mutant mice had reduced transitional and increased mature MZ and FO B-cells, suggesting that it prevents premature entry of transitional B-cells to the mature B-cell pool or their survival and proliferation. Together, these findings suggest, developmental plasticity among splenic B-cell subsets, potential for receptor revision in peripheral tolerance whereas enhanced metabolism coincides with T2 to mature B-cell differentiation. Further, unique core transcriptional signatures in MZ B-cells may control their innate features.
Project description:Antibodies against type II collagen (CII) are essential for development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), but how and where the B-cell response to CII is initiated is not fully known. We show here that naive DBA/1 mice display naturally reactive IgM and IgG anti-CII producing B cells prior to immunization. The CII-reactive B cells were observed in the spleen and recognized as marginal zone (MZ) B cells. After CII immunization, CII-specific B cells expanded rapidly in the spleen, in contrast to the lymph nodes, with the initial response derived from MZ B cells and later by follicular (FO) B cells. This was evident despite that the MZ B cells were subject to stringent tolerance mechanisms by having a greater Fc gamma receptor IIb expression than the FO B cells. Further, the MZ B cells migrated to the FO areas upon immunization, possibly providing antigen and activating FO T cells and subsequently FO B cells. Thus, around CIA onset increased numbers of IgG anti-CII producing FO B cells was seen in the spleen, which was dominated by IgG2a- and IgG2b-positive cells. These data demonstrate that CII-reactive MZ B cells are present before and expand after CII immunization, suggesting an initiating role of MZ B cells in the development of CIA.
Project description:The functional interchangeability of mammalian Notch receptors (Notch1-4) in normal and pathophysiologic contexts such as cancer is unsettled. We used complementary in vivo, cell-based and structural analyses to compare the abilities of activated Notch1-4 to support T cell development, induce T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL), and maintain T-ALL cell growth and survival.We find that the activated intracellular domains of Notch1-4 (ICN1-4) all support T cell development in mice and thymic organ culture. However, unlike ICN1-3, ICN4 fails to induce T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) and is unable to rescue the growth of Notch1-dependent T-ALL cell lines. The ICN4 phenotype is mimicked by weak gain-of-function forms of Notch1, suggesting that it stems from a failure to transactivate one or more critical target genes above a necessary threshold. Experiments with chimeric receptors demonstrate that the Notch ankyrin repeat domains differ in their leukemogenic potential, and that this difference correlates with activation of Myc, a direct Notch target that has an important role in Notch-associated T-ALL.We conclude that the leukemogenic potentials of Notch receptors vary, and that this functional difference stems in part from divergence among the highly conserved ankyrin repeats, which influence the transactivation of specific target genes involved in leukemogenesis.
Project description:The pathogenic connection of type I IFN and its role in regulating the migration response of Ag delivery by B cells into lymphoid follicles in an autoimmune condition has not been well-identified. Here, we show that there was a significantly larger population of marginal zone precursor (MZ-P) B cells, defined as being IgM(hi)CD1d(hi)CD21(hi)CD23(hi) in the spleens of autoimmune BXD2 mice compared with B6 mice. MZ-P B cells were highly proliferative compared with marginal zone (MZ) and follicular (FO) B cells. The intrafollicular accumulation of MZ-P B cells in proximity to germinal centers (GCs) in BXD2 mice facilitated rapid Ag delivery to the GC area, whereas Ag-carrying MZ B cells, residing predominantly in the periphery, had a lower ability to carry Ag into the GCs. IFN-alpha, generated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, induced the expression of CD69 and suppressed the sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced chemotactic response, promoting FO-oriented Ag transport by MZ-P B cells. Knockout of type I IFN receptor in BXD2 (BXD2-Ifnalphar(-/-)) mice substantially diffused the intrafollicular MZ-P B cell conglomeration and shifted their location to the FO-MZ border near the marginal sinus, making Ag delivery to the FO interior less efficient. The development of spontaneous GCs was decreased in BXD2-Ifnalphar(-/-) mice. Together, our results suggest that the MZ-P B cells are major Ag-delivery B cells and that the FO entry of these B cells is highly regulated by type I IFN-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the marginal sinus in the spleens of autoimmune BXD2 mice.
Project description:Transcriptional control of marginal zone (MZ) and follicular (FO) B cell development remains incompletely understood. The transcription factor, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)8, is known to play important roles in the differentiation of early B cells. In this article, we demonstrate that IRF8 is also required for normal development of MZ and FO B cells. Mice with a conventional knockout of Irf8 (IRF8(-/-)) or a point mutation in the IRF association domain of IRF8 had increased numbers of MZ B cells. To determine the B cell-intrinsic effects of IRF8 deficiency, we generated mice with a conditional allele of Irf8 crossed with CD19-Cre mice (designated IRF8-conditional knockout [CKO]). These mice had enlarged MZ and increased numbers of MZ and FO B cells compared with controls. The FO B cells of CKO mice exhibited reduced expression of CD23 and moderately increased expression of CD21. Gene-expression profiling showed that increased B cell production in IRF8-CKO mice was associated with changes in expression of genes involved in regulation of transcription, signaling, and inflammation. Functional studies showed that IRF8-CKO mice generated normal Ab responses to T-independent and T-dependent Ags. Thus, IRF8 controls the expansion and maturation of MZ and FO B cells but has little effect on B cell function.