Method for enhancing real-world use of a more affected arm in chronic stroke: transfer package of constraint-induced movement therapy.
ABSTRACT: Constraint-induced movement therapy is a set of treatments for rehabilitating motor function after central nervous system damage. We assessed the roles of its 2 main components.A 2 × 2 factorial components analysis with random assignment was conducted. The 2 factors were type of training and presence/absence of a set of techniques to facilitate transfer of therapeutic gains from the laboratory to the life situation (Transfer Package; TP). Participants (N=40) were outpatients ? 1-year after stroke with hemiparesis. The different treatments, which in each case targeted the more affected arm, lasted 3.5 hours/d for 10 weekdays. Spontaneous use of the more affected arm in daily life and maximum motor capacity of that arm in the laboratory were assessed with the Motor Activity Log and the Wolf Motor Function Test, respectively.Use of the TP, regardless of the type of training received, resulted in Motor Activity Log gains that were 2.4 times as large as the gains in its absence (P<0.01). These clinical results parallel previously reported effects of the TP on neuroplastic change. Both the TP and training by shaping enhanced gains on the Wolf Motor Function Test (P<0.05). The Motor Activity Log gains were retained without loss 1 year after treatment. An additional substudy (N=10) showed that a single component of the TP, weekly telephone contact with participants for 1 month after treatment, doubled Motor Activity Log scores at 6-month follow-up.The TP is a method for enhancing both spontaneous use of a more affected arm after chronic stroke and its maximum motor capacity. Shaping enhances the latter.
Project description:To date, the limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of most robotic training devices hinders them from providing functional training following stroke. We developed a 6-DOF exoskeleton ("BONES") that allows movement of the upper limb to assist in rehabilitation. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the impact of training with BONES on function of the affected upper limb, and to assess whether multijoint functional robotic training would translate into greater gains in arm function than single joint robotic training also conducted with BONES.Twenty subjects with mild to moderate chronic stroke participated in this crossover study. Each subject experienced multijoint functional training and single joint training three sessions per week, for four weeks, with the order of presentation randomized. The primary outcome measure was the change in Box and Block Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures were the changes in Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quantitative measures of strength and speed of reaching. These measures were assessed at baseline, after each training period, and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation session.Training with the robotic exoskeleton resulted in significant improvements in the BBT, FMA, WMFT, MAL, shoulder and elbow strength, and reaching speed (p < 0.05); these improvements were sustained at the 3 month follow-up. When comparing the effect of type of training on the gains obtained, no significant difference was noted between multijoint functional and single joint robotic training programs. However, for the BBT, WMFT and MAL, inequality of carryover effects were noted; subsequent analysis on the change in score between the baseline and first period of training again revealed no difference in the gains obtained between the types of training.Training with the 6 DOF arm exoskeleton improved motor function after chronic stroke, challenging the idea that robotic therapy is only useful for impairment reduction. The pilot results presented here also suggest that multijoint functional robotic training is not decisively superior to single joint robotic training. This challenges the idea that functionally-oriented games during training is a key element for improving behavioral outcomes.NCT01050231.
Project description:Robotically facilitated therapeutic activities, performed in virtual environments have emerged as one approach to upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. Body function level improvements have been demonstrated for robotically facilitated training of the arm. A smaller group of studies have demonstrated modest activity level improvements by training the hand or by integrated training of the hand and arm. The purpose of this study was to compare a training program of complex hand and finger tasks without arm movement paired with a separate set of reaching activities performed without hand movement, to training the entire upper extremity simultaneously, utilizing integrated activities.Forty individuals with chronic stroke recruited in the community, participated in a randomized, blinded, controlled trial of two interventions. Subjects were required to have residual hand function for inclusion. The first, hand and arm separate (HAS) training (n=21), included activities controlled by finger movement only, and activities controlled by arm movement only, the second, hand and arm together (HAT) training (n=20) used simulations controlled by a simultaneous use of arm and fingers.No adverse reactions occurred. The entire sample demonstrated mean improvements in Wolf Motor Function Test scores (21%) and Jebsen Test of Hand Function scores (15%), with large effect sizes (partial r2=.81 and r2=.67, respectively). There were no differences in improvement between HAS and HAT training immediately after the study. Subjects in the HAT group retained Wolf Motor Function Test gains better than in the HAS group measured three months after the therapy but the size of this interaction effect was small (partial r2=.17).Short term changes in upper extremity motor function were comparable when training the upper extremity with integrated activities or a balanced program of isolated activities. Further study of the retention period is indicated.NCT01072461.
Project description:To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial of a home-based virtual reality system for rehabilitation of the arm following stroke.Two group feasibility randomised controlled trial of intervention versus usual care.Patients' homes.Patients aged 18 or over, with residual arm dysfunction following stroke and no longer receiving any other intensive rehabilitation.Eight weeks' use of a low cost home-based virtual reality system employing infra-red capture to translate the position of the hand into game play or usual care.The primary objective was to collect information on the feasibility of a trial, including recruitment, collection of outcome measures and staff support required. Patients were assessed at three time points using the Wolf Motor Function Test, Nine-Hole Peg Test, Motor Activity Log and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living.Over 15 months only 47 people were referred to the team. Twenty seven were randomised and 18 (67%) of those completed final outcome measures. Sample size calculation based on data from the Wolf Motor Function Test indicated a requirement for 38 per group. There was a significantly greater change from baseline in the intervention group on midpoint Wolf Grip strength and two subscales of the final Motor Activity Log. Training in the use of the equipment took a median of 230 minutes per patient.To achieve the required sample size, a definitive home-based trial would require additional strategies to boost recruitment rates and adequate resources for patient support.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) is one of few treatments for upper extremity (UE) hemiparesis that has been shown to result in motor recovery and improved quality of life in chronic stroke. However, the extent to which treatment-induced improvements in motor function versus daily use of the more affected arm independently contribute to improved quality of life remains largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to identify whether motor function or daily use of a hemiparetic arm has a greater influence on quality of life after CI therapy. METHODS:Two cohorts of participants with chronic stroke received either in-person CI therapy (n = 29) or video-game home-based CI therapy (n = 16). The two cohorts were combined and the motor-related outcomes (Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test, Motor Activity Log [MAL]) and quality of life (Stroke-Specific Quality of Life) were jointly modeled to assess the associations between outcomes. RESULTS:The only outcome associated with improved quality of life was the MAL. Improvements in quality of life were not restricted to motor domains, but generalized to psychosocial domains as well. CONCLUSIONS:Results suggest that improved arm use during everyday activities is integral to maximizing quality of life gains during motor rehabilitation for chronic post-stroke UE hemiparesis. In contrast, gains in motor function were not associated with increases in quality of life. These findings further support the need to implement techniques into clinical practice that promote arm use during daily life if improving quality of life is a main goal of treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Numbers: NCT01725919 and NCT03005457.
Project description:Although the effects of robot-assisted arm training after stroke are promising, the relative effects of unilateral (URT) vs. bilateral (BRT) robot-assisted arm training remain uncertain. This study compared the effects of URT vs. BRT on upper extremity (UE) control, trunk compensation, and function in patients with chronic stroke.This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The intervention was implemented at 4 hospitals. Fifty-three patients with stroke were randomly assigned to URT, BRT, or control treatment (CT). Each group received UE training for 90 to 105 min/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. The kinematic variables for arm motor control and trunk compensation included normalized movement time, normalized movement units, and the arm-trunk contribution slope in unilateral and bilateral tasks. Motor function and daily function were measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and ABILHAND Questionnaire.The BRT and CT groups elicited significantly larger slope values (i.e., less trunk compensation) at the start of bilateral reaching than the URT group. URT led to significantly better effects on WMFT-Time than BRT. Differences in arm control kinematics and performance on the MAL and ABILHAND among the 3 groups were not significant.BRT and URT resulted in differential improvements in specific UE/trunk performance in patients with stroke. BRT elicited larger benefits than URT on reducing compensatory trunk movements at the beginning of reaching. In contrast, URT produced better improvements in UE temporal efficiency. These relative effects on movement kinematics, however, did not translate into differential benefits in daily functions.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00917605.
Project description:Introduction: Robot-assisted therapy for upper extremity (UE) impairments post-stroke has yielded modest gains in motor capacity and little evidence of improved UE performance during activities of daily living. A paradigm shift that embodies principles of motor learning and exercise dependent neuroplasticity may improve robot therapy outcomes by incorporating active problem solving, salience of trained tasks, and strategies to facilitate the transfer of acquired motor skills to use of the paretic arm and hand during everyday activities. Objective: To pilot and test the feasibility of a novel therapy protocol, the Active Learning Program for Stroke (ALPS), designed to complement repetitive, robot-assisted therapy for the paretic UE. Key ALPS ingredients included training in the use of cognitive strategies (e.g., STOP, THINK, DO, CHECK) and a goal-directed home action plan (HAP) to facilitate UE self-management and skill transfer. Methods: Ten participants with moderate impairments in UE function >6 months after stroke received eighteen 1-h treatment sessions 2-3/x week over 6-8 weeks. In addition to ALPS training, individuals were randomly assigned to either robot-assisted therapy (RT) or robot therapy and task-oriented training (RT-TOT) to trial whether the inclusion of TOT reinforced participants' understanding and implementation of ALPS strategies. Results: Statistically significant group differences were found for the upper limb subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE) at discharge and one-month follow-up favoring the RT group. Analyses to examine overall effects of the ALPS protocol in addition to RT and RT-TOT showed significant and moderate to large effects on the FMA-UE, Motor Activity Log, Wolf Motor Function Test, and hand portion of the Stroke Impact Scale. Conclusion: The ALPS protocol was the first to extend cognitive strategy training to robot-assisted therapy. The intervention in this development of concept pilot trial was feasible and well-tolerated, with good potential to optimize paretic UE performance following robot-assisted therapy.
Project description:Background:Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is effective in improving motor outcomes after stroke. However, its existing protocols are resource-intensive and difficult to implement. The aim of this study is to design an easier CIMT protocol using number of repetitions of shaping practice. Method:The study design was randomized controlled trial. Participants within 4 weeks after stroke were recruited at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital. They were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, and D. Group A received 3 hours of traditional therapy. Groups B, C, and D received modified CIMT consisting of 3 hours of shaping practice per session, 300 repetitions of shaping practice in 3 sessions, and 600 repetitions of shaping practice in 3 sessions per day, respectively, and constraint for 90% of the waking hours. All treatment protocols were administered 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was measured using upper limb Fugl-Meyer assessment, while the secondary outcome was measured using motor activity log, Wolf Motor Function Test, and upper limb self-efficacy test at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after intervention. Result:There were 48 participants 4 weeks after intervention. The result showed that there was no significant difference between groups at baseline (p > 0.05). Within-group improvements attained minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in modified CIMT and 300 repetitions and 600 repetitions groups. Conclusion:Number of repetitions of shaping practice significantly improved motor function, real-world arm use, and upper limb self-efficacy after stroke. Therefore, it seems to be a simple alternative for the use of number of hours. Trial Registration:This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: PACTR201610001828172) (date of registration: 21/10/2016).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to determine whether somatosensory stimulation affects outcomes of motor training for moderate-to-severe upper limb hemiparesis less than 12 mos before stroke. DESIGN:Fifty-five adults participated in 18 intervention sessions pairing 2 hours of active (n = 33) or sham (n = 22) somatosensory stimulation with 4 hours of intensive task-oriented motor training. Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and Stroke Impact Scale were administered at baseline, postintervention, and 1- and 4-mo follow-up. RESULTS:Statistically significant between-groups differences favored the active condition on Wolf Motor Function Test at post (P = 0.04) and Action Research Arm Test at post (P = 0.02), 1 mo (P = 0.01), and 4 mos (P = 0.01) but favored the sham condition on Stroke Impact Scale at 1 mo (P = 0.03). There were no significant between-groups differences on Fugl-Meyer Assessment. CONCLUSIONS:Somatosensory stimulation can improve objective outcomes of motor training for moderate-to-severe hemiparesis less than 12 mos after stroke, although it needs to be determined whether the magnitude of between-groups differences in this study is clinically relevant. Future studies should investigate the intervention's impact on disability and functional recovery for this population as well as neurophysiological mechanisms underlying intervention effects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This feasibility study is intended to assess the acceptability of home-based task-specific reach-to-grasp (RTG) training for people with stroke, and to gather data to inform recruitment, retention, and sample size for a definitive randomized controlled trial.<h4>Methods/design</h4>This is to be a randomized controlled feasibility trial recruiting 50 individuals with upper-limb motor impairment after stroke. Participants will be recruited after discharge from hospital and up to 12 months post-stroke from hospital stroke services and community therapy-provider services. Participants will be assessed at baseline, and then electronically randomized and allocated to group by minimization, based on the time post-stroke and extent of upper-limb impairment. The intervention group will receive 14 training sessions, each 1 hour long, with a physiotherapist over 6 weeks and will be encouraged to practice independently for 1 hour/day to give a total of 56 hours of training time per participant. Participants allocated to the control group will receive arm therapy in accordance with usual care. Participants will be measured at 7 weeks post-randomization, and followed-up at 3 and 6 months post-randomization. Primary outcome measures for assessment of arm function are the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Secondary measures are the Motor Activity Log, Stroke Impact Scale, Carer Strain Index, and health and social care resource use. All assessments will be conducted by a trained assessor blinded to treatment allocation. Recruitment, adherence, withdrawals, adverse events (AEs), and completeness of data will be recorded and reported.<h4>Discussion</h4>This study will determine the acceptability of the intervention, the characteristics of the population recruited, recruitment and retention rates, descriptive statistics of outcomes, and incidence of AEs. It will provide the information needed for planning a definitive trial to test home-based RTG training.<h4>Trial registration isrctn</h4>ISRCTN56716589.
Project description:The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA) robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n = 13 each). Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS) and Barthel index (BI). The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p = 0.002) and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p = 0.025) after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.292). There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02729649.