Patient outcomes in simulation-based medical education: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: Evaluating the patient impact of health professions education is a societal priority with many challenges. Researchers would benefit from a summary of topics studied and potential methodological problems. We sought to summarize key information on patient outcomes identified in a comprehensive systematic review of simulation-based instruction.Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, key journals, and bibliographies of previous reviews through May 2011.Original research in any language measuring the direct effects on patients of simulation-based instruction for health professionals, in comparison with no intervention or other instruction.Two reviewers independently abstracted information on learners, topics, study quality including unit of analysis, and validity evidence. We pooled outcomes using random effects.From 10,903 articles screened, we identified 50 studies reporting patient outcomes for at least 3,221 trainees and 16,742 patients. Clinical topics included airway management (14 studies), gastrointestinal endoscopy (12), and central venous catheter insertion (8). There were 31 studies involving postgraduate physicians and seven studies each involving practicing physicians, nurses, and emergency medicine technicians. Fourteen studies (28 %) used an appropriate unit of analysis. Measurement validity was supported in seven studies reporting content evidence, three reporting internal structure, and three reporting relations with other variables. The pooled Hedges' g effect size for 33 comparisons with no intervention was 0.47 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.63); and for nine comparisons with non-simulation instruction, it was 0.36 (95 % CI, -0.06 to 0.78).Focused field in education; high inconsistency (I(2)?>?50 % in most analyses).Simulation-based education was associated with small-moderate patient benefits in comparison with no intervention and non-simulation instruction, although the latter did not reach statistical significance. Unit of analysis errors were common, and validity evidence was infrequently reported.
Project description:Introduction:In recent years, undergraduate and graduate medical education has been rightfully emphasizing education in quality improvement and patient safety (QIPS). However, the best methods for teaching the foundational principles of QIPS and associated skills are unknown. Methods:In collaboration with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Open School, we developed an approachable simulation for teams of health care trainees at any level and any discipline. The simulation is based on the investigation of a case regarding a psychiatric patient admitted to a fictional hospital for medical treatment who has eloped. In teams, participants investigate the incident by collecting data and using basic QI principles to brainstorm and design interventions. Participants are guided through this paper-based simulation by QI facilitators who have working knowledge of basic QI principles and techniques. Results:The simulation has been successfully used with hundreds of medical students and other health professional trainees. While working in teams, participants gained exposure to patient-safety incident reporting and investigation, process mapping, plan-do-study-act cycles, run charts, intervention design, and interactions with hospital administrators. Surveyed participants reported that they had learned QI principles, gained confidence in their ability to do QI work, and increased their likelihood of leading a QI initiative in the future. Discussion:Simulation has become a standard way to teach many clinical topics in undergraduate and graduate medical education, and QIPS should be no exception. This simulation has been shown to be effective in increasing understanding of and interest in QIPS.
Project description:To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics.A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents' assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as "frequent."Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents' preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality.The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Education in regional anaesthesia covers several complex and diverse areas, from theoretical aspects to procedural skills, professional behaviours, simulation, curriculum design and assessment. The objectives of this study were to summarise these topics and to prioritise these topics in order of research importance. DESIGN:Electronic structured Delphi questionnaire over three rounds. SETTING:International. PARTICIPANTS:38 experts in regional anaesthesia education and training, identified through the American Society of Regional Anesthesia Education Special Interest Group research collaboration. RESULTS:82 topics were identified and ranked in order of prioritisation. Topics were categorised into themes of simulation, curriculum, knowledge translation, assessment of skills, research methodology, equipment and motor skills. Thirteen topics were ranked as essential research priority, with four topics each on simulation and curriculum, three topics on knowledge translation, and one topic each on methodology and assessment. CONCLUSIONS:Researchers and educators can use these identified topics to assist in planning and structuring their research and training in regional anaesthesia education.
Project description:Simulation-based teaching (SIM) is a common method for medical education. SIM exposes residents to uncommon scenarios that require critical, timely actions. SIM may be a valuable training method for critically ill poisoned patients whose diagnosis and treatment depend on key clinical findings. Our objective was to compare medical simulation (SIM) to traditional lecture-based instruction (LEC) for training emergency medicine (EM) residents in the acute management of critically ill poisoned patients. EM residents completed two pre-intervention questionnaires: (1) a 24-item multiple-choice test of four toxicological emergencies and (2) a questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale to rate the residents' comfort level in diagnosing and treating patients with specific toxicological emergencies. After completing the pre-intervention questionnaires, residents were randomized to SIM or LEC instruction. Two toxicologists and three EM physicians presented four toxicology topics to both groups in four 20-min sessions. One group was in the simulation center, and the other in a lecture hall. Each group then repeated the multiple-choice test and questionnaire immediately after instruction and again at 3 months after training. Answers were not discussed. The primary outcome was comparison of immediate mean post-intervention test scores and final scores 3 months later between SIM and LEC groups. Test score outcomes between groups were compared at each time point (pre-test, post-instruction, 3-month follow-up) using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Data were summarized by descriptive statistics. Continuous variables were characterized by means (SD) and tested using t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum. Categorical variables were summarized by frequencies (%) and compared between training groups with chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Thirty-two EM residents completed pre- and post-intervention tests and comfort questionnaires on the study day. Both groups had higher post-intervention mean test scores (p?<?0.001), but the LEC group showed a greater improvement compared to the SIM group (5.6 [2.3] points vs. 3.6 [2.4], p?=?0.02). At the 3-month follow-up, 24 (75 %) tests and questionnaires were completed. There was no improvement in 3-month mean test scores in either group compared to immediate post-test scores. The SIM group had higher final mean test scores than the LEC group (16.6 [3.1] vs. 13.3 [2.2], p?=?0.009). SIM and LEC groups reported similar diagnosis and treatment comfort level scores at baseline and improved equally after instruction. At 3 months, there was no difference between groups in comfort level scores for diagnosis or treatment. Lecture-based teaching was more effective than simulation-based instruction immediately after intervention. At 3 months, the SIM group showed greater retention than the LEC group. Resident comfort levels for diagnosis and treatment were similar regardless of the type of education.
Project description:The author investigated the educational needs of nurses in an American Nurses Credentialing Center Magnet hospital to determine topics of interest, instruction time and delivery preferences, and interest in a research information skills certificate provided by the library.A 9-question survey was distributed to 1,500 nursing staff of the hospital through email.Surveys were completed by 865 respondents, which represented a response rate of 58%. The majority of respondents were registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and paramedics (81%), and day-shift workers (65%). For education topics, nursing staff placed the highest priority on finding health-related mobile apps for professionals and developing evidence-based research skills. For mode of delivery, respondents expressed a preference for unit-based in-service, computer-based tutorials, and hands-on computer training. Most (70%) respondents expressed an interest in participating in a research information skills certificate program.Our survey results reveal an avenue for reinvigorating and updating the library's educational program to match the needs of nursing staff and may offer valuable insight for other libraries seeking to do the same.
Project description:Driving behaviors and fitness to drive have been assessed over time using different tools: standardized neuropsychological, on-road and driving simulation testing. Nowadays, the great variability of topics related to driving simulation has elicited a high number of reviews. The present work aims to perform a scientometric analysis on driving simulation reviews and to propose a selective review of reviews focusing on relevant aspects related to validity and fidelity. A scientometric analysis of driving simulation reviews published from 1988 to 2019 was conducted. Bibliographic data from 298 reviews were extracted from Scopus and WoS. Performance analysis was conducted to investigate most prolific Countries, Journals, Institutes and Authors. A cluster analysis on authors' keywords was performed to identify relevant associations between different research topics. Based on the reviews extracted from cluster analysis, a selective review of reviews was conducted to answer questions regarding validity, fidelity and critical issues. United States and Germany are the first two Countries for number of driving simulation reviews. United States is the leading Country with 5 Institutes in the top-ten. Top Authors wrote from 3 to 7 reviews each and belong to Institutes located in North America and Europe. Cluster analysis identified three clusters and eight keywords. The selective review of reviews showed a substantial agreement for supporting validity of driving simulation with respect to neuropsychological and on-road testing, while for fidelity with respect to real-world driving experience a blurred representation emerged. The most relevant critical issues were the a) lack of a common set of standards, b) phenomenon of simulation sickness, c) need for psychometric properties, lack of studies investigating d) predictive validity with respect to collision rates and e) ecological validity. Driving simulation represents a cross-cutting topic in scientific literature on driving, and there are several evidences for considering it as a valid alternative to neuropsychological and on-road testing. Further research efforts could be aimed at establishing a consensus statement for protocols assessing fitness to drive, in order to (a) use standardized systems, (b) compare systematically driving simulators with regard to their validity and fidelity, and (c) employ shared criteria for conducting studies in a given sub-topic.
Project description:Introduction:Unified critical care training within residency education is a necessity. We created a simulation-based curriculum designed to educate residents on core topics and procedural skills, which crossed all adult disciplines caring for critically ill patients. Methods:Residents from seven adult disciplines participated in this annual program during intern year. Learners were grouped into mixed discipline cohorts. Each cohort attended three distinct 4-hour simulation-based sessions, each consisting of four scenarios followed by postevent debriefing. The curriculum included 12 total clinical scenarios. Scenarios covered a broad array of complex critical care topics facing all adult specialties and reinforced important system-specific initiatives. Assessments evaluated clinical performance metrics, self-reported confidence in curricular topics, procedural and communication skills, resident satisfaction, and interdisciplinary attitudes. Results:Quantitative and qualitative data analyzed in three published works over the past 9 years of curricular programming has demonstrated highly satisfied learners along with improved: clinical performance; self-reported confidence in clinical topics, procedural, and communication skills; and interdisciplinary collegiality. Discussion:Purposeful focus on curricular development that integrates basic, clinical, and procedural content, while promoting the development of interdisciplinary relationships and the practice of critical thinking skills, is vital for successful education and patient care. This curriculum was well received by interns, covered difficult to obtain GME milestones, and provided an opportunity for interdisciplinary education. In an era of limited time for devoted bedside teaching and variable training exposures to certain disease processes, the development and implementation of this curriculum has filled a void within our system for unified resident education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to compare the effect of virtual and traditional education on theoretical knowledge and reporting skills of dental students in radiographic interpretation of bony lesions of the jaw. METHODS:This experimental study evaluated 39 dental students who had not received any instruction regarding radiographic interpretation of bony lesions of the jaw. They were randomly divided into two groups of virtual (n = 20) and traditional education (n = 19) and matched in terms of their grade point average (GPA). The virtual group received a virtual learning package while the traditional group received traditional classroom instruction for 6 one-hour sessions. Similar contents were taught to both groups by the same mentor. All students participated in a theoretical test with multiple-choice questions and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Similar exams were also held 2 months later to assess knowledge retention. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS:The mean scores of theoretical test (P < 0.05) and OSCE (P > 0.05) in the virtual education group (16.60 ± 0.91 and 15.13 ± 0.78) were higher than those in the traditional education group (14.89 ± 0.99 and 14.71 ± 0.92). In both methods of instruction, the mean scores of theoretical test and OSCE at 2 months were lower than the scores acquired immediately after instruction but this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Type of education had a significant effect on the theoretical test score (P < 0.001) but had no significant effect on the clinical score (P = 0.072). CONCLUSIONS:Virtual learning was superior to traditional lecture-based method for enhancement of knowledge acquisition in radiographic interpretation of bony lesions of the jaw. However, to improve our students' reporting skills, we need to revise our virtual educational program so that the students have more opportunities to engage in reporting skills.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of education about sleep and sleep disorders in pediatric residency programs and to identify barriers to providing such education. METHODS: Surveys were completed by directors of 152 pediatric residency programs across 10 countries (Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States-Canada, and Vietnam). RESULTS: Overall, the average amount of time spent on sleep education is 4.4 hours (median = 2.0 hours), with 23% responding that their pediatric residency program provides no sleep education. Almost all programs (94.8%) offer less than 10 hours of instruction. The predominant topics covered include sleep-related development, as well as normal sleep, sleep-related breathing disorders, parasomnias, and behavioral insomnia of childhood. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that there is still a need for more efforts to include sleep-related education in all pediatric residency programs, as well as coverage of the breadth of sleep-related topics. Such education would be consistent with the increased recognition of the importance of sleep and under-diagnosis of sleep disorders in children and adolescents.
Project description:Background:A scoping review was conducted in order to map and determine the gaps in literature on the impact of simulation as an educational approach to improve mental health care outcomes. As it became apparent that no literature existed on this topic, the study aimed to examine the educational impact of simulation on mental health education. Methods:An established five-stage scoping methodology was used: (1) identification of the research question, (2) identification of relevant studies, (3) study selection, (4) charting the data and (5) collation, summarising and reporting of results. CINAHL, ProQuest, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases were searched. These databases were deemed to represent a majority of the literature while accommodating for the particular search strategy used for this review. Websites that provide grey literature were also searched for articles of relevance. Results:A total of 48 articles were included in this review, with a considerable portion of studies conducted in the USA and UK. Others were conducted in an array of locations including Australia, Canada, Iran and Taiwan. Of the included articles, seven groups of simulation methods (including standardised patients, virtual reality and manikins as patients) were evident, with standardised patients being most prominent. Conclusions:Literature is lacking to evidence the benefit of simulation on mental health patient outcomes. However, the available literature suggests a variety of simulation-based education, and training methods are currently being used within mental healthcare education. The findings do suggest some methods of simulation, such as the use of standardised patients, are more commonly used in education and have been deemed as effective to assist in mental health education. As no article specifically examining the mental health outcomes of patients treated by health professionals taught by simulation was identified, the educational outcomes outlined in this paper may be used to inform further research, incorporating mental health patient outcomes.