The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures.Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N?=?52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed.Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment.Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+.
Project description:To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia.In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis.Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance.IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>About 50% of patients in substance abuse treatment with a partner perpetrated and/or experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. To date, there are no screeners to identify both perpetrators and victims of partner intimate violence in a substance abusing population. We developed a 4 item screening instrument for this purpose, the Jellinek Inventory for assessing Partner Violence (J-IPV). Important strengths of the J-IPV are that it takes only 2 minutes to administer and is easy to use and to score.<h4>Methods</h4>To investigate the validity of the J-IPV, two independent studies were conducted including 98 and 99 participants, respectively. Aim of the second study was to cross-validate findings from the first study. Psychometric properties of the J-IPV were determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio's by comparing J-IPV outcomes to outcomes on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales ('gold standard'). Also, receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-curves were determined to weight sensitivity and specificity as a result of different J-IPV cutoffs, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated.<h4>Results</h4>Results of the first study demonstrated that the J-IPV possesses good psychometric properties to detect perpetrators and victims of any as well as severe intimate partner violence. Results from the second study replicated findings from the first study.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We recommend administering the J-IPV to patients entering substance abuse treatment. If perpetrators and victims of partner violence are identified, action can be taken to stop IPV perpetration and arrange help for victims, for example by offering perpetrators treatment or by providing safety planning or advocacy interventions to victims.
Project description:HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (? = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (? = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (? = 0.0005; p < 0.001) and parental violence (? = -0.0002; p = 0.012). Among men, IPV perpetration fully mediated sexual abuse (? = -0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.
Project description:We compared the gene expression profile in the dorsolateral prefrontal area of subjects who committed suicide with and without substance use disorder (SUD), to the transcriptome of subjects with and without SUD who died due to a cause other than suicide. Overall design: 66 samples were collected, considering the following groups: 23 suicide completers with comorbid SUD (Suicidal SUD+ group), 20 suicide completers without SUD (Suicidal SUD- group), 9 subjects with SUD whose cause of death was not suicide (Non-suicidal SUD+ group), and 14 non-suicide subjects without SUD (Non-suicidal SUD- group)
Project description:Evidence-based interventions are essential in the prevention of violence against women (VAW). An understanding of risk factors for male perpetration of VAW using population-based research is crucial for developing such interventions. This study is a baseline assessment of a two-arm unmatched cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT), set up to assess the impact of a Rural Response System (RRS) intervention for preventing violence against women and girls in Ghana. This study aims at assessing past year prevalence and risk factors for sexual or physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among men.The population-based survey involved 2126 men aged 18 and above living in selected communities in 4 districts in the central region of Ghana. Logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for sexual or physical IPV perpetration. All models adjusted for age of respondent and took into account the study design.Half of the men had perpetrated at least one form of violence against their intimate partners in their lifetime while 41% had perpetrated sexual or physical IPV. Majority (93%) of the men had been in relationships in the 12 months preceding the survey, and of these, 23% had perpetrated sexual or physical IPV. Childhood factors associated with sexual or physical IPV included witnessing abuse of mother (aOR:1.40(1.06-1.86)), and neglect (aOR:1.81(1.30-2.50)). Other major risk factors for IPV perpetration were: having multiple partners (aOR:1.76(1.36-2.26)), (involvement in transactional sex (aOR:1.76(1.36-2.26)), substance use (aOR:1.74(1.25-2.43)) and gender inequitable attitudes (aOR:0.94(0.91-0.97)).Childhood violence experience and witnessing, risky behaviour (multiple partners, transactional sex, substance use) and gender inequitable attitudes are major risk factors for sexual or physical IPV perpetration. Perpetration of sexual or physical IPV tend to co-occur with non-partner violence and emotional IPV perpetration. Interventions targeting these factors are critical in reducing IPV.
Project description:In this paper, we explore gender norms held by men and women that might contribute to male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ghana. This qualitative research was conducted at the pre-intervention stage of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Our intervention uses community-based action teams to change social norms on gender and violence. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted within communities. We found that male perpetrated IPV is a common phenomenon within the study communities, yet it is complex and experienced differently depending on the context. A woman's non-compliance with gender norms provided context for the male partner to enforce societal conformity through IPV. Also, male partners' misbehavior (e.g. alcohol abuse) may exacerbate IPV. Whereas the former is socially acceptable, the latter may be contested. Victims may challenge/counteract IPV using varying tactics (e.g. threats), which were mainly directed toward male partners' immoral behavior. We conclude that there is a need to assess IPV with key considerations for female agency, as some victims may respond with violence. Moreover, some communities have the tendency to demonstrate more gender-equitable attitudes regarding male perpetration of IPV, as indicated by laws instituted by some traditional leaders to deter perpetrators. These are key learnings that can inform the design and delivery of various interventions that seek to address IPV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is an effective and acceptable treatment for depression, especially when it includes guidance, but its treatment adherence has not yet been systematically studied. We conducted a meta-analysis, comparing the adherence to guided iCBT with the adherence to individual face-to-face CBT.<h4>Methods</h4>Studies were selected from a database of trials that investigate treatment for adult depression (see www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org), updated to January 2013. We identified 24 studies describing 26 treatment conditions (14 face-to-face CBT, 12 guided iCBT), by means of these inclusion criteria: targeting depressed adults, no comorbid somatic disorder or substance abuse, community recruitment, published in the year 2000 or later. The main outcome measure was the percentage of completed sessions. We also coded the percentage of treatment completers (separately coding for 100% or at least 80% of treatment completed).<h4>Results</h4>We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial that met our inclusion criteria. Face-to-face CBT treatments ranged from 12 to 28 sessions, guided iCBT interventions consisted of 5 to 9 sessions. Participants in face-to-face CBT completed on average 83.9% of their treatment, which did not differ significantly from participants in guided iCBT (80.8%, P ?=? .59). The percentage of completers (total intervention) was significantly higher in face-to-face CBT (84.7%) than in guided iCBT (65.1%, P < .001), as was the percentage of completers of 80% or more of the intervention (face-to-face CBT: 85.2%, guided iCBT: 67.5%, P ?=? .003). Non-completers of face-to-face CBT completed on average 24.5% of their treatment, while non-completers of guided iCBT completed on average 42.1% of their treatment.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial. Adherence to guided iCBT appears to be adequate and could be equal to adherence to face-to-face CBT.
Project description:Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, 'gold standard' treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. The present pilot randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a novel, integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment approach for PTSD/SUD, entitled Treatment of Integrated Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use (TIPSS), as compared to standard cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for SUD. The TIPSS program integrates cognitive processing therapy with CBT for SUD for the treatment of co-occurring PTSD/SUD. Both treatment conditions are comprised of 12, 60-minute individual psychotherapy sessions, delivered twice-weekly over six weeks. Primary aims examine whether TIPSS, compared to standard CBT for SUD, reduces: (1) PTSD symptoms and (2) substance use outcomes (i.e., self-report, objective). Secondary aims examine whether (a) trauma- and substance cue reactivity and (b) distress tolerance (i.e., actual or perceived ability to withstand uncomfortable emotional or physical states) are significant mechanisms of change. The study was recently closed to new enrollment. Participants included adults with substance dependence and at least four symptoms of PTSD.
Project description:Workplace interventions represent important opportunities to increase awareness of and adherence to disease prevention and health promotion initiatives. However, research on workplace interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) has not been systematically evaluated. This systematic review summarizes existing studies evaluating workplace interventions for IPV. PubMed, PsycINFO, Business Source Complete, Web of Science, and Social Services Abstracts were systematically searched for English-language studies published before November 2017. Six studies evaluating five interventions were included. Only one study used a randomized design, and only two studies measured whether outcomes were sustained over time. None of the interventions addressed perpetrators of IPV. Interventions focused on recognizing signs of abuse, responding to victims, and providing referrals to community-based resources. Methodological rigor of included studies varied, but all reported at least one intervention-related benefit. Findings included improved awareness of IPV, increased provision of information to victims, and greater willingness to intervene if an employee may be experiencing IPV. Although sparse, available evidence suggests there are potential benefits of workplace interventions for IPV. It is important for future interventions to focus on primary and secondary prevention of IPV and address perpetration, and for investigators to use rigorous study designs and measure whether effects are sustained.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and child health outcomes, including poor mental health. Previous IPV research has largely focused on women's victimization experiences; however, evidence suggests young women may be more likely to engage in bilateral violence (report both victimization and perpetration) or perpetrate IPV (unilateral perpetration) during pregnancy than to report being victimized (unilateral victimization). This study examined prevalence of unilateral victimization, unilateral perpetration, and bilateral violence, and the association between these IPV profiles and mental health outcomes during pregnancy among young, low-income adolescents. METHODS:Survey data were collected from 930 adolescents (14-21?years; 95.4% Black and Latina) from fourteen Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City during second and third trimester of pregnancy. Multivariable regression models tested the association between IPV profiles and prenatal depression, anxiety, and distress, adjusting for known predictors of psychological morbidity. RESULTS:Thirty-eight percent of adolescents experienced IPV during their third trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 13% were solely victims, 35% were solely perpetrators, and 52% were engaged in bilateral violence. All women with violent IPV profiles had significantly higher odds of having depression and anxiety compared to individuals reporting no IPV. Adolescents experiencing bilateral violence had nearly 4-fold higher odds of depression (OR?=?3.52, 95% CI: 2.43, 5.09) and a nearly 5-fold increased likelihood of anxiety (OR?=?4.98, 95% CI: 3.29, 7.55). Unilateral victims and unilateral perpetrators were also at risk for adverse mental health outcomes, with risk of depression and anxiety two- to three-fold higher, compared to pregnant adolescents who report no IPV. Prenatal distress was higher among adolescents who experienced bilateral violence (OR?=?2.84, 95% CI: 1.94, 4.16) and those who were unilateral victims (OR?=?2.21, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.12). CONCLUSIONS:All violent IPV profiles were associated with adverse mental health outcomes among pregnant adolescents, with bilateral violence having the most detrimental associations. Comprehensive IPV screening for both victimization and perpetration experiences during pregnancy is warranted. Clinical and community prevention efforts should target pregnant adolescents and their partners to reduce their vulnerability to violence and its adverse consequences. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00628771 . Registered 29 February 2008.