ABSTRACT: Herein, we describe a new analytical platform utilizing advances in heterogeneous supported lipid bilayer (SLB) electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging. This platform allowed for the separation and visualization of both charged and neutral lipid membrane components without the need for extrinsic labels. A heterogeneous SLB was created using vesicles containing monosialoganglioside GM1, disialoganglioside GD1b, POPC, as well as the ortho and para isomers of Texas Red-DHPE. These components were then separated electrophoretically into five resolved bands. This represents the most complex separation by SLB electrophoresis performed to date. The SLB samples were flash frozen in liquid ethane and dried under vacuum before imaging with MALDI-MS. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to confirm the position of the Texas Red labeled lipids, which agreed well with the MALDI-MS imaging results. These results clearly demonstrate this platform's ability to isolate and identify nonlabeled membrane components within an SLB.
Project description:Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a versatile tool for visualizing molecular distributions in complex biological specimens, but locating microscopic chemical features of interest can be challenging in samples that lack a well-defined anatomy. To address this issue, we developed a correlated imaging approach that begins with performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI to obtain low-resolution molecular maps of a sample. The resulting maps are then used to direct subsequent microscopic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments to examine selected chemical regions of interest. By employing MALDI undersampling, the sample surface is left mostly unperturbed and available for the SIMS analysis, while also generating an ablation array that can be used for navigation in SIMS. We validated this MALDI-guided SIMS approach using cultured biofilms of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa; bioactive secondary metabolites, including rhamnolipids and quinolones, were detected and visualized on both macro- and microscopic size scales. MSI mass assignments were confirmed with in situ MALDI MS/MS and capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis of biofilm extracts. Two strains of P. aeruginosa were compared, wild type and a quorum sensing mutant, and differences in metabolite abundance and distribution were observed.
Project description:The study of exosomes has become increasingly popular due to their potentially important biological roles. Urine can be used as an effective source of exosomes for noninvasive investigations into the pathophysiological states of the urinary system, but first, detailed characterization of exosomal components in healthy individuals is essential. Here, we significantly extend the number of N-glycan compositions, including sulfated species, identified from urinary exosomes and determine the sialic acid linkages for many of those compositions. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify N-glycan and sulfated N-glycan compositions. Second, because the alteration of sialylation patterns has been previously implicated in various disease states, ion-exchange chromatography, microfluidic capillary electrophoresis (CE), and MALDI-MS were adopted to resolve positional isomers of sialic acids. Structures of the sialyl-linkage isomers were assigned indirectly through ?2-3 sialidase treatment and sialic acid linkage-specific alkylamidation (SALSA). In total, we have identified 219 N-glycan structures that include 175 compositions, 64 sialic acid linkage isomers, 26 structural isomers, and 27 sulfated glycans.
Project description:Herein, we report a pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometric imaging (PACE-MSI) platform for peptide analysis. This new platform has addressed the sample diffusion and peak splitting problems that appeared in our previous groove design, and it enables homogeneous deposition of the CE trace for high-throughput MALDI imaging. In the coupling of CE to MSI, individual peaks (m/z) can be visualized as discrete colored image regions and extracted from the MS imaging data, thus eliminating issues with peak overlapping and reducing reliance on an ultrahigh mass resolution mass spectrometer. Through a PACE separation, 46 tryptic peptides from bovine serum albumin and 150 putative neuropeptides from the pericardial organs of a model organism blue crab Callinectes sapidus were detected from the MALDI MS imaging traces, enabling a 4- to 6-fold increase of peptide coverage as compared with direct MALDI MS analysis. For the first time, quantitation with high accuracy was obtained using PACE-MSI for both digested tryptic peptides and endogenous neuropeptides from complex biological samples in combination with isotopic formaldehyde labeling. Although MSI is typically employed in tissue imaging, we show in this report that it offers a unique tool for quantitative analysis of complex trace-level analytes with CE separation. These results demonstrate a great potential of the PACE-MSI platform for enhanced quantitative proteomics and neuropeptidomics.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) has been employed as a detection method for both capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MALDI and liquid chromatography (LC)-MALDI analyses. Based on our previous studies, here we report a new interface to couple LC with MSI by employing an automated matrix sprayer. The LC trace is directly collected on a ground stainless steel MALDI plate and dried. The matrix is sprayed on the MALDI plate using a programmable matrix sprayer. With the highly uniform matrix layers produced from the sprayer, the MS image signal quality is significantly improved with enhanced signal-to-noise ratios for analyte peaks. With the programmable matrix application and imaging MS data acquisition, the new LC-MSI platform exhibits highly stable and reproducible performance. A total of 87 bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic peptides and 295 putative neuropeptides from blue crab pericardial organs have been observed with LC-MSI analysis, exhibiting better performance in terms of peptide coverage than regular LC-MALDI with discrete spot collection and our previously reported LC-MSI interface with the matrix being delivered by a capillary. In addition to relative quantitation with isotopic labeling as we have previously demonstrated, we performed the first absolute quantitation using the new LC-MSI platform and obtained accurate quantitation results for neuropeptides, indicating great potential for quantitative analysis of complex samples.
Project description:The rapid and cost-efficient determination of carbapenem resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to detect porins in the current study. A loss of the components of porin alone such as OmpK35/OmpK36 or together with the production of carbapenemases will augment the carbapenem resistance. Ten strains of Escherichia coli and eight strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were conducted for both sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis was then performed to verify the correspondence of proteins between SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. The results indicated that the mass spectrum of ca. 35,000, 37,000, and 38,000-m/z peaks of E. coli ATCC 25922 corresponded to OmpA, OmpC, and OmpF with molecular weight of approximately ca. 38, 40, and 41 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. The band of OmpC and OmpF porins were unable to be distinguished by SDS-PAGE, whereas it was easy to be differentiated by MALDI-TOF MS. As for K. pneumoniae isolates, the mass spectrum of ca. 36,000 and 38,600-m/z peaks was observed corresponding to OmpA and OmpK36 with molecular weight of approximately ca. 40 and 42 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. Porin OmpK35 was not observed in the current SDS-PAGE, while a 37,000-m/z peak was found in K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and carbapenem-susceptible strains by MALDI-TOF MS which was presumed to be the characteristic peak of the OmpK35 porin. Compared with SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS is able to rapidly identify the porin-deficient strains within half an hour with better sensitivity, less cost, and is easier to operate and has less interference.
Project description:In this work, the utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis of peptides based on a simple and robust off-line interface has been investigated. The interface involves sliding the CE capillary distal end within a machined groove on a MALDI sample plate, which is precoated with a thin layer of matrix for continuous sample deposition. MALDI-MSI by time of flight (TOF)/TOF along the CE track enables high-resolution and high-sensitivity detection of peptides, allowing the reconstruction of a CE electropherogram while providing accurate mass measurements and structural identification of molecules. Neuropeptide standards and their H/D isotopic formaldehyde-labeled derivatives were analyzed using this new platform. Normalized intensity ratios of individual ions extracted from the CE trace were compared to MALDI-MS direct analysis and the theoretical ratios. The CE-MALDI-MSI results show potential for sensitive and quantitative analysis of peptide mixtures spanning a wide dynamic range.
Project description:The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry with an upstream analytical separations (such as liquid chromatography and electrophoresis) has opened up new opportunities for the automated investigation of complex protein and peptide mixtures. The ability to efficiently analyze complex proteomic mixtures in this manner is primarily determined by the ability to preserve spatial discrimination of sample components as they leave the separation column. Current interfacing methods are problematic in this respect since minimum fraction volumes are limited to several microliters. Herein we show for the first time an LC-MALDI interface based on the formation, processing and destruction of a segmented flow. The interface consists of a droplet-generator to fractionate LC effluent into nL-volume droplets and a deposition probe that transfers the sample (and MALDI matrix) onto a conventional MALDI-MS target. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated through the analysis of Trypsin digests of both BSA and Cytochrome C, with a 50% enhancement in analytical performance when compared to conventional interface technology.
Project description:Neuronal membrane phospholipids are highly affected by oxidative stress caused by ischemic injury. Thus, it is necessary to identify key lipid components that show changes during ischemia to develop an effective approach to prevent brain damage from ischemic injury. The recent development of MALDI imaging MS (MALDI IMS) makes it possible to identify phospholipids that change between damaged and normal regions directly from tissues. In this study, we conducted IMS on rat brains damaged by ischemic injury and detected various phospholipids that showed unique distributions between normal and damaged areas of the brain. Among them, we confirmed changes in phospholipids such as lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin by MALDI IMS followed by MS/MS analysis. These lipids were present in high concentrations in the brain and are important for maintenance of cellular structure as well as production of second messengers for cellular signal transduction. Our results emphasize the identification of phospholipid markers for ischemic injury and successfully identified several distinctly located phospholipids in ischemic brain tissue.
Project description:Here we provide data from three proteomics techniques; two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by identification of selected spots using PSD MALDI-TOF MS/MS, one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of gel slices (GeLC) and dimethyl isotopic labelling of tryptic peptides followed by Orbitrap MS/MS (DML), to quantify the changes in the repertoire of bovine milk proteins that occurs after drying off. We analysed skim milk and whey sampled at day 0 and either day 3 or day 8 after drying off. These analyses identified 45 spots by MALDI-TOF, 51 proteins by GeLC and 161 proteins by DML, for which the detailed data work-up is presented as three Excel files. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication "Changes in the repertoire of bovine milk proteins during mammary involution" (Boggs et al., 2015) . Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers ProteomeXchange: PXD003110 and ProteomeXchange: PXD003011.