Genetic heterogeneity and consanguinity lead to a "double hit": homozygous mutations of MYO7A and PDE6B in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the most genetically heterogeneous disorder in humans, actually represents a group of pigmentary retinopathies characterized by night blindness followed by visual-field loss. RP can appear as either syndromic or nonsyndromic. One of the most common forms of syndromic RP is Usher syndrome, characterized by the combination of RP, hearing loss, and vestibular dysfunction. METHODS: The underlying cause of the appearance of syndromic and nonsyndromic RP in three siblings from a consanguineous Israeli Muslim Arab family was studied with whole-genome homozygosity mapping followed by whole exome sequencing. RESULTS: THE FAMILY WAS FOUND TO SEGREGATE NOVEL MUTATIONS OF TWO DIFFERENT GENES: myosin VIIA (MYO7A), which causes type 1 Usher syndrome, and phosphodiesterase 6B, cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific, rod, beta (PDE6B), which causes nonsyndromic RP. One affected child was homozygous for both mutations. Since the retinal phenotype seen in this patient results from overlapping pathologies, one might expect to find severe retinal degeneration. Indeed, he was diagnosed with RP based on an abnormal electroretinogram (ERG) at a young age (9 months). However, this early diagnosis may be biased, as two of his older siblings had already been diagnosed, leading to increased awareness. At the age of 32 months, he had relatively good vision with normal visual fields. Further testing of visual function and structure at different ages in the three siblings is needed to determine whether the two RP-causing genes mutated in this youngest sibling confer increased disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: This report further supports the genetic heterogeneity of RP, and demonstrates how consanguinity could increase intrafamilial clustering of multiple hereditary diseases. Moreover, this report provides a unique opportunity to study the clinical implications of the coexistence of pathogenic mutations in two RP-causative genes in a human patient.
Project description:Usher syndrome is an inherited and irreversible disease that manifests as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and bilateral neurosensory hearing loss. Mutations in Usherin 2A (USH2A) are not only a frequent cause of Usher syndrome, but also nonsyndromic RP. Although gene- and cell-based therapies are on the horizon for RP and Usher syndrome, studies characterizing natural disease are lacking. In this retrospective analysis, retinal function of USH2A patients was quantified with electroretinography. Both groups had markedly reduced rod and cone responses, but nonsyndromic USH2A patients had 30 Hz-flicker electroretinogram amplitudes that were significantly higher than syndromic patients, suggesting superior residual cone function. There was a tendency for Usher syndrome patients to have a higher distribution of severe mutations, and alleles in this group had a higher odds of containing nonsense or frame-shift mutations. These data suggest that the previously reported severe visual phenotype seen in syndromic USH2A patients could relate to a greater extent of cone dysfunction. Additionally, a genetic threshold may exist where mutation burden relates to visual phenotype and the presence of hearing deficits. The auditory phenotype and allelic hierarchy observed among patients should be considered in prospective studies of disease progression and during enrollment for future clinical trials.
Project description:The MYO7A gene encodes a protein belonging to the unconventional myosin super family. Mutations within MYO7A can lead to either non syndromic hearing loss or to the Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B). Here, we report the results of genetic analyses performed on Moroccan families with autosomal recessive non syndromic hearing loss that identified two families with compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations. Five mutations (c.6025delG, c.6229T>A, c.3500T>A, c.5617C>T and c.4487C>A) were identified in these families, the latter presenting two differently affected branches. Multiple bioinformatics programs and molecular modelling predicted the pathogenic effect of these mutations. In conclusion, the absence of vestibular and retinal symptom in the affected patients suggests that these families have the isolated non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB2 (nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss) presentation, instead of USH1B.
Project description:Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and variable vestibular areflexia. Usher syndrome type ID, one of seven Usher syndrome type I genetic localizations, have been mapped to a chromosomal interval that overlaps with a nonsyndromic-deafness localization, DFNB12. Mutations in CDH23, a gene that encodes a putative cell-adhesion protein with multiple cadherin-like domains, are responsible for both Usher syndrome and DFNB12 nonsyndromic deafness. Specific CDH23 mutational defects have been identified that differentiate these two phenotypes. Only missense mutations of CDH23 have been observed in families with nonsyndromic deafness, whereas nonsense, frameshift, splice-site, and missense mutations have been identified in families with Usher syndrome. In the present study, a panel of 69 probands with Usher syndrome and 38 probands with recessive nonsyndromic deafness were screened for the presence of mutations in the entire coding region of CDH23, by heteroduplex, single-strand conformation polymorphism, and direct sequence analyses. A total of 36 different CDH23 mutations were detected in 45 families; 33 of these mutations were novel, including 18 missense, 3 nonsense, 5 splicing defects, 5 microdeletions, and 2 insertions. A total of seven mutations were common to more than one family. Numerous exonic and intronic polymorphisms also were detected. Results of ophthalmologic examinations of the patients with nonsyndromic deafness have found asymptomatic RP-like manifestations, indicating that missense mutations may have a subtle effect in the retina. Furthermore, patients with mutations in CDH23 display a wide range of hearing loss and RP phenotypes, differing in severity, age at onset, type, and the presence or absence of vestibular areflexia.
Project description:We studied a consanguineous family (Family A) from the island of Newfoundland with an autosomal recessive form of prelingual, profound, nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. A genome-wide scan mapped the deafness trait to 10q21-22 (max LOD score of 4.0; D10S196) and fine mapping revealed a 16 Mb ancestral haplotype in deaf relatives. The PCDH15 gene was mapped within the critical region and was an interesting candidate because truncating mutations cause Usher syndrome type IF (USH1F) and two missense mutations have been previously associated with isolated deafness (DFNB23). Sequencing of the PCDH15 gene revealed 33 sequencing variants. Three of these variants were homozygous exclusively in deaf siblings but only one of them was not seen in ethnically matched controls. This novel c.1583 T>A transversion predicts an amino-acid substitution of a valine with an aspartic acid at codon 528 (V528D). Like the two DFNB23 mutations, the V528D mutation in Family A occurs in a highly conserved extracellular cadherin (EC) domain of PCDH15 and is predicted to be more deleterious than the previously identified DFNB23 missense mutations (R134G and G262D). Physical assessment, vestibular and visual function testing in deaf adults ruled out syndromic deafness because of Usher syndrome. This study validates the DFNB23 designation and supports the hypothesis that missense mutations in conserved motifs of PCDH15 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss. This emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in USH1F is similar to that in several other USH1 genes and cautions against a prognosis of a dual sensory loss in deaf children found to be homozygous for hypomorphic mutations at the USH1F locus.
Project description:USH2A mutations have been implicated in the disease etiology of several inherited diseases, including Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2), nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and nonsyndromic deafness. The complex genetic and phenotypic spectrums relevant to USH2A defects make it difficult to manage patients with such mutations. In the present study, we aim to determine the genetic etiology and to characterize the correlated clinical phenotypes for three Chinese pedigrees with nonsyndromic RP, one with RP sine pigmento (RPSP), and one with USH2. Family histories and clinical details for all included patients were reviewed. Ophthalmic examinations included best corrected visual acuities, visual field measurements, funduscopy, and electroretinography. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied using two sequence capture arrays to reveal the disease causative mutations for each family. Genotype-phenotype correlations were also annotated. Seven USH2A mutations, including four missense substitutions (p.P2762A, p.G3320C, p.R3719H, and p.G4763R), two splice site variants (c.8223+1G>A and c.8559-2T>C), and a nonsense mutation (p.Y3745*), were identified as disease causative in the five investigated families, of which three reported to have consanguineous marriage. Among all seven mutations, six were novel, and one was recurrent. Two homozygous missense mutations (p.P2762A and p.G3320C) were found in one individual family suggesting a potential double hit effect. Significant phenotypic divergences were revealed among the five families. Three families of the five families were affected with early, moderated, or late onset RP, one with RPSP, and the other one with USH2. Our study expands the genotypic and phenotypic variability relevant to USH2A mutations, which would help with a clear insight into the complex genetic and phenotypic spectrums relevant to USH2A defects, and is complementary for a better management of patients with such mutations. We have also demonstrated that a targeted NGS approach is a valuable tool for the genetic diagnosis of USH2 and RP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Combined retinal degeneration and sensorineural hearing impairment is mostly due to autosomal recessive Usher syndrome (USH1: congenital deafness, early retinitis pigmentosa (RP); USH2: progressive hearing impairment, RP). METHODS:Sanger sequencing and NGS of 112 genes (Usher syndrome, nonsyndromic deafness, overlapping conditions), MLPA, and array-CGH were conducted in 138 patients clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome. RESULTS:A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 97% of both USH1 and USH2 patients, with biallelic mutations in 97% (USH1) and 90% (USH2), respectively. Quantitative readout reliably detected CNVs (confirmed by MLPA or array-CGH), qualifying targeted NGS as one tool for detecting point mutations and CNVs. CNVs accounted for 10% of identified USH2A alleles, often in trans to seemingly monoallelic point mutations. We demonstrate PTC124-induced read-through of the common p.Trp3955* nonsense mutation (13% of detected USH2A alleles), a potential therapy target. Usher gene mutations were found in most patients with atypical Usher syndrome, but the diagnosis was adjusted in case of double homozygosity for mutations in OTOA and NR2E3, genes implicated in isolated deafness and RP. Two patients with additional enamel dysplasia had biallelic PEX26 mutations, for the first time linking this gene to Heimler syndrome. CONCLUSION:Targeted NGS not restricted to Usher genes proved beneficial in uncovering conditions mimicking Usher syndrome.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:USH2A encodes for usherin, a basement membrane protein in the inner ear and retina. USH2A can cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with or without hearing loss. The aim of this study was to detect USH2A mutations in a Chinese cohort of 75 small RP families and 10 Usher syndrome families. METHODS:We performed a direct Sanger sequencing analysis of the USH2A gene to identify mutations for this cohort. RESULTS:We identified a total of eight mutations in four of the 75 small RP families (5.3%) and two mutations in one of the 10 Usher families (10%); all families were detected to have compound heterozygous mutations. In families with nonsyndromic RP, we identified the compound heterozygous mutations p.Pro4818Leuand p.Leu2395Hisfs*19 in family No. 19114, p.Arg4493His and p.His1677Glnfs*15 in family No.19162, c.8559-2A?>?G and p.Arg1549* in family No.19123 and p.Ser5060Pro and p.Arg34Leufs*41 in family No.19178. We also identified the heterozygous mutations p.Arg3719His and p.Cys934Trp in family No.19124, which was the Usher syndrome family. These mutations were predicted to be harmful by SIFT, PROVEAN, Mutation Taster or PolyPhen-2. CONCLUSIONS:Our results revealed six novel mutations in the USH2A gene in a Chinese population, which is beneficial for the clinical use of genetic testing of USH2A in patients with autosomal-recessive or sporadic RP and Usher syndrome.
Project description:Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, age-dependent retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. The most severe form is Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for USH1 and account for 29-55% of USH1 cases. Here, we characterized a Chinese family (no. 7162) with USH1. Combining the targeted capture of 131 known deafness genes, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified two deleterious compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO7A gene: a reported missense mutation c.73G>A (p.G25R) and a novel nonsense mutation c.462C>A (p.C154X). The two compound variants are absent in 219 ethnicity-matched controls, co-segregates with the USH clinical phenotypes, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and age-dependent penetrance of progressive RP, in family 7162. Therefore, we concluded that the USH1 in this family was caused by compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A.
Project description:Usher syndrome is the most common cause of deafness associated with visual loss of a genetic origin. The purpose of this paper is to report very severe phenotypic features of type 1B Usher syndrome in a Saudi family affected by positive homozygous splice site mutation in MYO7A gene.Affected siblings went through detailed history. Complete ophthalmic examination was done. Imaging with colour fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (AF), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans was performed. Full field electroretinogram (ffERG) was recorded. Molecular genetic testing was done using next-generation sequencing.Visual acuity was more reduced (range 20/300-20/40) in older siblings (age>30 years), than in younger (age <30 years) siblings (range 20/70-20/25). OCT scans showed macular atrophy in all but one case that has cystoid macular edema (CME). AF demonstrated atrophy outside a small foveal area showing high signal. FfERG was flat in all cases. The homozygous splice site mutation c.470+1G>A in intron 5 of the MYO7A gene was detected in all affected siblings.This mutation manifested with advanced retinal degeneration at a young age. This may have implications regarding future gene therapy in Usher syndrome cases with this genotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to identify the gene variants and molecular etiologies in 76 unrelated Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS:In total, 76 families with syndromic or nonsyndromic RP, diagnosed on the basis of clinical manifestations, were recruited for this study. Genomic DNA samples from probands were analyzed by targeted panels or whole exome sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis, Sanger sequencing, and available family member segregation were used to validate sequencing data and confirm the identities of disease-causing genes. RESULTS:The participants enrolled in the study included 62 families that exhibited nonsyndromic RP, 13 that exhibited Usher syndrome, and one that exhibited Bardet-Biedl syndrome. We found that 43 families (56.6%) had disease-causing variants in 15 genes, including RHO, PRPF31, USH2A, CLRN1, BBS2, CYP4V2, EYS, RPE65, CNGA1, CNGB1, PDE6B, MERTK, RP1, RP2, and RPGR; moreover, 12 families (15.8%) had only one heterozygous variant in seven autosomal recessive RP genes, including USH2A, EYS, CLRN1, CERKL, RP1, CRB1, and SLC7A14. We did not detect any variants in the remaining 21 families (27.6%). We also identified 67 potential pathogenic gene variants, of which 24 were novel. CONCLUSION:The gene variants identified in this study expand the variant frequency and spectrum of RP genes; moreover, the identification of these variants supplies foundational clues for future RP diagnosis and therapy.