The highly dynamic oligomeric structure of bradavidin II is unique among avidin proteins.
ABSTRACT: Bradavidin II is a biotin-binding protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that resembles chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin. A biophysical characterization was carried out using dynamic light scattering, native mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry combined with structural characterization using X-ray crystallography. These observations revealed that bradavidin II differs from canonical homotetrameric avidin protein family members in its quaternary structure. In contrast with the other avidins, bradavidin II appears to have a dynamic (transient) oligomeric state in solution. It is monomeric at low protein concentrations but forms higher oligomeric assemblies at higher concentrations. The crystal structure of bradavidin II revealed an important role for Phe42 in shielding the bound ligand from surrounding water molecules, thus functionally replacing the L7,8 loop essential for tight ligand binding in avidin and streptavidin. This bradavidin II characterization opens new avenues for oligomerization-independent biotin-binding protein development.
Project description:The avidin protein family members are well known for their high affinity towards D-biotin and high structural stability. These properties make avidins valuable tools for a wide range of biotechnology applications. We have identified a new member of the avidin family in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, hereafter called zebavidin. The protein is highly expressed in the gonads of both male and female zebrafish and in the gills of male fish, but our data suggest that zebavidin is not crucial for the developing embryo. Biophysical and structural characterisation of zebavidin revealed distinct properties not found in any previously characterised avidins. Gel filtration chromatography and native mass spectrometry suggest that the protein forms dimers in the absence of biotin at low ionic strength, but assembles into tetramers upon binding biotin. Ligand binding was analysed using radioactive and fluorescently labelled biotin and isothermal titration calorimetry. Moreover, the crystal structure of zebavidin in complex with biotin was solved at 2.4 Å resolution and unveiled unique ligand binding and subunit interface architectures; the atomic-level details support our physicochemical observations.
Project description:The extensive use of avidin and streptavidin in life sciences originates from the extraordinary tight biotin-binding affinity of these tetrameric proteins. Numerous studies have been performed to modify the biotin-binding affinity of (strept)avidin to improve the existing applications. Even so, (strept)avidin greatly favours its natural ligand, biotin. Here we engineered the biotin-binding pocket of avidin with a single point mutation S16C and thus introduced a chemically active thiol group, which could be covalently coupled with thiol-reactive molecules. This approach was applied to the previously reported bivalent dual chain avidin by modifying one binding site while preserving the other one intact. Maleimide was then coupled to the modified binding site resulting in a decrease in biotin affinity. Furthermore, we showed that this thiol could be covalently coupled to other maleimide derivatives, for instance fluorescent labels, allowing intratetrameric FRET. The bifunctional avidins described here provide improved and novel tools for applications such as the biofunctionalization of surfaces.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Avidins are proteins with extraordinarily high ligand-binding affinity, a property which is used in a wide array of life science applications. Even though useful for biotechnology and nanotechnology, the biological function of avidins is not fully understood. Here we structurally and functionally characterise a novel avidin named xenavidin, which is to our knowledge the first reported avidin from a frog. RESULTS: Xenavidin was identified from an EST sequence database for Xenopus tropicalis and produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. The recombinant xenavidin was found to be homotetrameric based on gel filtration analysis. Biacore sensor analysis, fluorescently labelled biotin and radioactive biotin were used to evaluate the biotin-binding properties of xenavidin - it binds biotin with high affinity though less tightly than do chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin. X-ray crystallography revealed structural conservation around the ligand-binding site, while some of the loop regions have a unique design. The location of structural water molecules at the entrance and/or within the ligand-binding site may have a role in determining the characteristic biotin-binding properties of xenavidin. CONCLUSION: The novel data reported here provide information about the biochemically and structurally important determinants of biotin binding. This information may facilitate the discovery of novel tools for biotechnology.
Project description:Avidins are a family of proteins widely employed in biotechnology. We have previously shown that functional chimeric mutant proteins can be created from avidin and avidin-related protein 2 using a methodology combining random mutagenesis by recombination and selection by a tailored biopanning protocol (phage display). Here, we report the crystal structure of one of the previously selected and characterized chimeric avidin forms, A/A2-1. The structure was solved at 1.8 Å resolution and revealed that the protein fold was not affected by the shuffled sequences. The structure also supports the previously observed physicochemical properties of the mutant. Furthermore, we improved the selection and screening methodology to select for chimeric avidins with slower dissociation rate from biotin than were selected earlier. This resulted in the chimeric mutant A/A2-B, which showed increased thermal stability as compared to A/A2-1 and the parental proteins. The increased stability was especially evident at conditions of extreme pH as characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, amino acid sequence and structural comparison of the chimeric mutants and the parental proteins led to the rational design of A/A2-B I109K. This mutation further decreased the dissociation rate from biotin and yielded an increase in the thermal stability.
Project description:Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins used in a wide variety of applications in the life sciences due to their strong affinity for biotin. A new and promising use for them is in medical pretargeting cancer treatments. However, their pharmacokinetics and immunological properties are not always optimal, thereby limiting their use in these applications. To search for potentially beneficial new candidates, we screened egg white from four different poultry species for avidin. Avidin proteins, isolated from the duck, goose, ostrich and turkey, showed a similar tetrameric structure, similar glycosylation and stability against both temperature and proteolytic activity of proteinase K as chicken avidin. Biotin-binding properties of these avidins, measured using IAsys optical biosensor, were similar to those found in avidin from the chicken. Three of these novel avidins, however, showed different immunological cross-reactivities when compared with chicken avidin. The patient sera responses to duck, goose and ostrich avidins were also lower than those observed for chicken and turkey avidins. Our findings suggest that the use of these proteins offers advantages over chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin in pretargeting applications.
Project description:Rhizobium etli CFN42 is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris. The symbiotic plasmid p42d of R. etli comprises a gene encoding a putative (strept)avidin-like protein, named rhizavidin. The amino acid sequence identity of rhizavidin in relation to other known avidin-like proteins is 20-30%. The amino acid residues involved in the (strept)avidin-biotin interaction are well conserved in rhizavidin. The structural and functional properties of rhizavidin were carefully studied, and we found that rhizavidin shares characteristics with bradavidin, streptavidin and avidin. However, we found that it is the first naturally occurring dimeric protein in the avidin protein family, in contrast with tetrameric (strept)avidin and bradavidin. Moreover, it possesses a proline residue after a flexible loop (GGSG) in a position close to Trp-110 in avidin, which is an important biotin-binding residue. [3H]Biotin dissociation and ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) experiments showed dimeric rhizavidin to be a high-affinity biotin-binding protein. Its thermal stability was lower than that of avidin; although similar to streptavidin, it was insensitive to proteinase K. The immunological cross-reactivity of rhizavidin was tested with human serum samples obtained from cancer patients exposed to (strept)avidin. No significant cross-reactivity was observed. The biodistribution of the protein was studied by SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) imaging in rats. Similarly to avidin, rhizavidin was observed to accumulate rapidly, mainly in the liver. Evidently, rhizavidin could be used as a complement to (strept)avidin in (strept)avidin-biotin technology.
Project description:The tight interaction between the vitamin biotin and the protein avidin is so strong (Ka approximately 10(15) M-1) that conditions which are usually sufficient for protein denaturation fail to dissociate the avidin-biotin complex. In order to form a reversible interaction between the two biomolecules, we have modified the binding-site tyrosine by nitration, thus reducing the pKa of the phenol group which forms a crucial hydrogen bond with the ureido group of biotin. At relatively low pH values (4-5), the resultant modified forms of avidin bind biotin with a very high association constant ( > 10(9) M-1). The modified avidins are thus capable of supporting stable, long-term binding of biotin or biotinylated macro-molecules. The latter molecules can be detached by increasing the pH of the medium or by introduction of excess levels of biotin at neutral pH. These findings demonstrate the importance of a single hydrogen bond for strong biotin binding. The new derivatives of avidin should be useful for applications whereby a reversible interaction between the four biotin-binding sites and biotin is desired, thus increasing the versatility of the avidin-biotin system for biotechnological application.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Engineered proteins, with non-immunoglobulin scaffolds, have become an important alternative to antibodies in many biotechnical and therapeutic applications. When compared to antibodies, tailored proteins may provide advantageous properties such as a smaller size or a more stable structure. RESULTS: Avidin is a widely used protein in biomedicine and biotechnology. To tailor the binding properties of avidin, we have designed a sequence-randomized avidin library with mutagenesis focused at the loop area of the binding site. Selection from the generated library led to the isolation of a steroid-binding avidin mutant (sbAvd-1) showing micromolar affinity towards testosterone (Kd ~ 9 ?M). Furthermore, a gene library based on the sbAvd-1 gene was created by randomizing the loop area between ?-strands 3 and 4. Phage display selection from this library led to the isolation of a steroid-binding protein with significantly decreased biotin binding affinity compared to sbAvd-1. Importantly, differential scanning calorimetry and analytical gel-filtration revealed that the high stability and the tetrameric structure were preserved in these engineered avidins. CONCLUSIONS: The high stability and structural properties of avidin make it an attractive molecule for the engineering of novel receptors. This methodology may allow the use of avidin as a universal scaffold in the development of novel receptors for small molecules.
Project description:Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins familiar from their use in various (strept)avidin-biotin technological applications. Avidin binds the vitamin biotin with the highest affinity known for non-covalent interactions found in nature. The gene encoding avidin (AVD) has homologues in chicken, named avidin-related genes (AVRs). In the present study we used the AVR genes to produce recombinant AVR proteins (AVRs 1, 2, 3, 4/5, 6 and 7) in insect cell cultures and characterized their biotin-binding affinity and biochemical properties. Amino acid sequence analysis and molecular modelling were also used to predict and explain the properties of the AVRs. We found that the AVR proteins are very similar to avidin, both structurally and functionally. Despite the numerous amino acid substitutions in the subunit interface regions, the AVRs form extremely stable tetramers similar to those of avidin. Differences were found in some physico-chemical properties of the AVRs as compared with avidin, including lowered pI, increased glycosylation and, most notably, reversible biotin binding for two AVRs (AVR1 and AVR2). Molecular modelling showed how the replacement Lys(111)-->isoleucine in AVR2 alters the shape of the biotin-binding pocket and thus results in reversible binding. Both modelling and biochemical analyses showed that disulphide bonds can form and link monomers in AVR4/5, a property not found in avidin. These, together with the other properties of the AVRs described in the present paper, may offer advantages over avidin and streptavidin, making the AVRs applicable for improved avidin-biotin technological applications.
Project description:The involvement of tyrosine in the biotin-binding sites of the egg-white glycoprotein avidin and the bacterial protein streptavidin was examined by using the tyrosine-specific reagent p-nitrobenzenesulphonyl fluoride (Nbs-F). Modification of an average of about 0.5 mol of tyrosine residue/mol of avidin subunit caused the complete loss of biotin binding. This indicates that the single tyrosine residue (Tyr-33) in the avidin subunit is directly involved in the biotin-binding site and that its modification by Nbs also abolishes the binding properties of a neighbouring subunit. This suggests that the tyrosine residues of the egg-white protein may also contribute to the stabilization of the native protein structure. In streptavidin, however, the modification of an average of 3 mol of tyrosine residue/mol of subunit was required to inactivate completely the biotin-binding activity of the protein, but only 1 mol (average) of tyrosine residue/mol of subunit was protected in the presence of biotin. The difference between the h.p.l.c. elution profiles of the enzymic digests of Nbs-modified streptavidin and the Nbs-modified streptavidin-biotin complex revealed two additional fractions in the unprotected protein that contain Nbs-modified tyrosine residues. These residues, Tyr-43 (major fraction) and Tyr-54 (minor fraction), appear to contribute to the biotin-binding site in streptavidin.