G-quadruplex folds of the human telomere sequence alter the site reactivity and reaction pathway of guanine oxidation compared to duplex DNA.
ABSTRACT: Telomere shortening occurs during oxidative and inflammatory stress with guanine (G) as the major site of damage. In this work, a comprehensive profile of the sites of oxidation and structures of products observed from G-quadruplex and duplex structures of the human telomere sequence was studied in the G-quadruplex folds (hybrid (K(+)), basket (Na(+)), and propeller (K(+) + 50% CH3CN)) resulting from the sequence 5'-(TAGGGT)4T-3' and in an appropriate duplex containing one telomere repeat. Oxidations with four oxidant systems consisting of riboflavin photosensitization, carbonate radical generation, singlet oxygen, and the copper Fenton-like reaction were analyzed under conditions of low product conversion to determine relative reactivity. The one-electron oxidants damaged the 5'-G in G-quadruplexes leading to spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one (Z) as major products as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in low relative yields, while oxidation in the duplex context produced damage at the 5'- and middle-Gs of GGG sequences and resulted in Gh being the major product. Addition of the reductant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to the reaction did not alter the riboflavin-mediated damage sites but decreased Z by 2-fold and increased OG by 5-fold, while not altering the hydantoin ratio. However, NAC completely quenched the CO3(•-) reactions. Singlet oxygen oxidations of the G-quadruplex showed reactivity at all Gs on the exterior faces of G-quartets and furnished the product Sp, while no oxidation was observed in the duplex context under these conditions, and addition of NAC had no effect. Because a long telomere sequence would have higher-order structures of G-quadruplexes, studies were also conducted with 5'-(TAGGGT)8-T-3', and it provided oxidation profiles similar to those of the single G-quadruplex. Lastly, Cu(II)/H2O2-mediated oxidations were found to be indiscriminate in the damage patterns, and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih) was found to be a major duplex product, while nearly equal yields of 2Ih and Sp were observed in G-quadruplex contexts. These findings indicate that the nature of the secondary structure of folded DNA greatly alters both the reactivity of G toward oxidative stress as well as the product outcome and suggest that recognition of damage in telomeric sequences by repair enzymes may be profoundly different from that of B-form duplex DNA.
Project description:Inflammation and oxidative stress generate free radicals that oxidize guanine (G) in DNA to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), and this reaction is prominent in the G-rich telomere sequence. In telomeres, OG is not efficiently removed by repair pathways allowing its concentration to build, surprisingly without any immediate negative consequences to stability. Herein, OG was synthesized in five repeats of the human telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n, at the 5'-G of the 5'-most, middle, and 3'-most G tracks, representing hotspots for oxidation. These synthetic oligomers were folded in relevant amounts of K(+)/Na(+) to adopt hybrid G-quadruplex folds. The structural impact of OG was assayed by circular dichroism, thermal melting, (1)H NMR, and single-molecule profiling by the ?-hemolysin nanopore. On the basis of these results, OG was well accommodated in the five-repeat sequences by looping out the damaged G track to allow the other four tracks to adopt a hybrid G-quadruplex. These results run counter to previous studies with OG in four-repeat telomere sequences that found OG to be highly destabilizing and causing significant reorientation of the fold. When taking a wider view of the human telomere sequence and considering additional repeats, we found OG to cause minimal impact on the structure. The plasticity of this repeat sequence addresses how OG concentrations can increase in telomeres without immediate telomere instability or attrition.
Project description:The human telomere repeat sequence 5'-TTAGGG-3' is a hot spot for oxidation at guanine, yielding 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), a biomarker of oxidative stress. Telomere shortening resulting from oxidation will ultimately induce cellular senescence. In this study, ?-hemolysin (?-HL) nanopore technology was applied to detect and quantify OG in the human telomeric DNA sequence. This repeat sequence adopts a basket G-quadruplex in the NaCl electrolyte used for analysis that enters the ?-HL channel, slowly unfolds, and translocates. The basket fold containing OG disrupts the structure, leading to >10× increase in the unfolding kinetics without yielding a detectable current pattern. Therefore, detection of OG with ?-HL required labeling of OG with aminomethyl-[18-crown-6] using a mild oxidant. The labeled OG yielded a pulse-like signal in the current vs time trace when the DNA strand was electrophoretically passed through ?-HL in NaCl electrolyte. However, the rate of translocation was too slow using NaCl salts, leading us to further refine the method. A mixture of NH4Cl and LiCl electrolytes induced the propeller fold that unravels quickly outside the ?-HL channel. This electrolyte allowed observation of the labeled OG, while providing a faster recording of the currents. Lastly, OG distributions were probed with this method in a 120-mer stretch of the human telomere sequence exposed to the cellular oxidant (1)O2. Single-molecule profiles determined the OG distributions to be random in this context. Application of the method in nanomedicine can potentially address many questions surrounding oxidative stress and telomere attrition observed in various disease phenotypes including prostate cancer and diabetes.
Project description:8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) is the most common base damage found in cells, where it resides in many structural contexts, including the nucleotide pool, single-stranded DNA at transcription forks and replication bubbles, and duplex DNA base-paired with either adenine (A) or cytosine (C). OG is prone to further oxidation to the highly mutagenic hydantoin products spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in a sharply pH-dependent fashion within nucleosides. In the present work, studies were conducted to determine how the structural context affects OG oxidation to the hydantoins. These studies revealed a trend in which the Sp yield was greatest in unencumbered contexts, such as nucleosides, while the Gh yield increased in oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) contexts or at reduced pH. Oxidation of oligomers containing hydrogen-bond modulators (2,6-diaminopurine, N(4)-ethylcytidine) or alteration of the reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and salt) identify base stacking, electrostatics, and base pairing as the drivers of the key intermediate 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (5-HO-OG) partitioning along the two hydantoin pathways, allowing us to propose a mechanism for the observed base-pairing effects. Moreover, these structural effects cause an increase in the effective pK(a) of 5-HO-OG, following an increasing trend from 5.7 in nucleosides to 7.7 in a duplex bearing an OG·C base pair, which supports the context-dependent product yields. The high yield of Gh in ODNs underscores the importance of further study on this lesion. The structural context of OG also determined its relative reactivity toward oxidation, for which the OG·A base pair is ~2.5-fold more reactive than an OG·C base pair, and with the weak one-electron oxidant ferricyanide, the OG nucleoside reactivity is >6000-fold greater than that of OG·C in a duplex, leading to the conclusion that OG in the nucleoside pool should act as a protective agent for OG in the genome.
Project description:The NEIL3 DNA repair gene is induced in cells or animal models experiencing oxidative or inflammatory stress along with oxidation of guanine (G) to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in the genome. We hypothesize that a G-rich promoter element that is a potential G-quadruplex-forming sequence (PQS) in NEIL3 is a site for introduction of OG with epigenetic-like potential for gene regulation. Activation occurs when OG is formed in the NEIL3 PQS located near the transcription start site. Oxidative stress either introduced by TNF? or synthetically incorporated into precise locations focuses the base excision repair process to read and catalyze removal of OG via OG-glycosylase I (OGG1), yielding an abasic site (AP). Thermodynamic studies showed that AP destabilizes the duplex, enabling a structural transition of the sequence to a G-quadruplex (G4) fold that positions the AP in a loop facilitated by the NEIL3 PQS having five G runs in which the four unmodified runs adopt a stable G4. This presents AP to apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) that poorly cleaves the AP backbone in this context according to in vitro studies, allowing the protein to function as a trans activator of transcription. The proposal is supported by chemical studies in cellulo and in vitro. Activation of NEIL3 expression via the proposed mechanism allows cells to respond to mutagenic DNA damage removed by NEIL3 associated with oxidative or inflammatory stress. Lastly, inspection of many mammalian genomes identified conservation of the NEIL3 PQS, suggesting this sequence was favorably selected to function as a redox switch with OG as the epigenetic-like regulatory modification.
Project description:The nucleobase guanine in DNA (dG) and RNA (rG) has the lowest standard reduction potential of the bases, rendering it a major site of oxidative damage in these polymers. Mapping the sites at which oxidation occurs in an oligomer via chemical reagents utilizes hot piperidine for cleaving oxidized DNA and aniline (pH 4.5) for cleaving oxidized RNA. In the present studies, a series of time-dependent cleavages of DNA and RNA strands containing various guanine lesions were examined to determine the strand scission rate constants. The guanine base lesions 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh), 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one (Z), and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih) were evaluated in piperidine-treated DNA and aniline-treated RNA. These data identified wide variability in the chemical lability of the lesions studied in both DNA and RNA. Further, the rate constants for cleaving lesions in RNA were generally found to be significantly smaller than for lesions in DNA. The OG nucleotides were poorly cleaved in DNA and RNA; Sp nucleotides were slowly cleaved in DNA and did not cleave significantly in RNA; Gh and Z nucleotides cleaved in both DNA and RNA at intermediate rates; and 2Ih oligonucleotides cleaved relatively quickly in both DNA and RNA. The data are compared and contrasted with respect to future experimental design.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important cellular-signaling agents for cellular survival. Herein, we demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidation of DNA to yield 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in gene promoters is a signaling agent for gene activation. Enhanced gene expression occurs when OG is formed in guanine-rich, potential G-quadruplex-forming sequences (PQS) in promoter-coding strands, initiating base excision repair (BER) by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), yielding an abasic site (AP). The AP enables melting of the duplex to unmask the PQS, adopting a G-quadruplex fold in which apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) binds, but inefficiently cleaves, the AP for activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or endonuclease III-like protein 1 (NTHL1) genes. These details were mapped via synthesis of OG and AP analogs at single-nucleotide precision within the promoter of a luciferase reporter system. The reporters were analyzed in human and mouse cells while selectively knocking out or down critical BER proteins to identify the impact on luciferase expression. Identification of the oxidatively modified DNA base OG to guide BER activity in a gene promoter and impact cellular phenotype ascribes an epigenetic role to OG.
Project description:A high flux of reactive oxygen species during oxidative stress results in oxidative modification of cellular components including DNA. Oxidative DNA "damage" to the heterocyclic bases is considered deleterious because polymerases may incorrectly read the modifications causing mutations. A prominent member in this class is the oxidized guanine base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) that is moderately mutagenic effecting G?T transversion mutations. Recent reports have identified that formation of OG in G-rich regulatory elements in the promoters of the VEGF, TNF?, and SIRT1 genes can increase transcription via activation of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Work in our laboratory with the G-rich sequence in the promoter of VEGF concluded that BER drives a shift in structure to a G-quadruplex conformation leading to gene activation in mammalian cells. More specifically, removal of OG from the duplex context by 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) produces an abasic site (AP) that destabilizes the duplex, shifting the equilibrium toward the G-quadruplex fold because of preferential extrusion of the AP into a loop. The AP is bound but inefficiently cleaved by apurinic/apyrimidinic endoDNase I (APE1) that likely allows recruitment of activating transcription factors for gene induction. The ability of OG to induce transcription ascribes a regulatory or epigenetic-like role for this oxidatively modified base. We compare OG to the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) epigenetic pathway including its oxidized derivatives, some of which poise genes for transcription while also being substrates for BER. The mutagenic potential of OG to induce only ?one-third the number of mutations (G?T) compared to deamination of 5mC producing C?T mutations is described. These comparisons blur the line between friendly epigenetic base modifications and those that are foes, i.e. DNA "damage," causing genetic mutations.
Project description:One response to oxidation of guanine (G) to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in a gene promoter is regulation of mRNA expression suggesting an epigenetic-like role for OG. A proposed mechanism involves G oxidation within a potential G-quadruplex-forming sequence (PQS) in the promoter, enabling a structural shift from B-DNA to a G-quadruplex fold (G4). When OG was located in the coding vs template strand, base excision repair led to an on/off transcriptional switch. Herein, a G-rich, potential Z-DNA-forming sequence (PZS) comprised of a d(GC) n repeat was explored to determine whether oxidation in this motif was also a transcriptional switch. Bioinformatic analysis found 1650 PZSs of length >10 nts in the human genome that were overrepresented in promoters and 5'-UTRs. Studies in human cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid in which OG was synthesized in a PZS context in the promoter found that a coding strand OG increased expression and a template strand OG decreased expression. The initial base excision repair product of OG, an abasic site (AP), was also found to yield similar expression changes as OG. Biophysical studies on model Z-DNA strands found OG favored a shift in the equilibrium to Z-DNA from B-DNA, while an AP disrupted Z-DNA to favor a hairpin, placing AP in the loop where it is a poor substrate for the endonuclease APE1. Overall, the impact of OG and AP in a PZS on gene expression was similar to that in a PQS but reduced in magnitude.
Project description:Guanine (G) is a target for oxidation by reactive oxygen species in DNA, RNA, and the nucleotide pool. Damage to DNA yields products with alternative properties toward DNA processing enzymes compared to those of the parent nucleotide. A new lesion, 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih), bearing a stereocenter in the base was recently identified from the oxidation of G. DNA polymerase and base excision repair processing of this new lesion has now been evaluated. Single nucleotide insertion opposite (S)-2Ih and (R)-2Ih in the template strand catalyzed by the DNA polymerases Klenow fragment exo(-), DPO4, and Hemo KlenTaq demonstrates these lesions to cause point mutations. Specifically, they promote 3-fold more G·C ? C·G transversion mutations than G·C ? T·A, and (S)-2Ih was 2-fold more blocking for polymerase bypass than (R)-2Ih. Both diastereomer lesions were found to be substrates for the DNA glycosylases NEIL1 and Fpg, and poorly excised by endonuclease III (Nth). The activity was independent of the base pair partner. Thermal melting, CD spectroscopy, and density functional theory geometric optimization calculations were conducted to provide insight into these polymerase and DNA glycosylase studies. These results identify that formation of the 2Ih lesions in a cell would be mutagenic in the event that they were not properly repaired.
Project description:The unzipping kinetics for lesion-containing DNA duplexes was studied in an ?-hemolysin (?-HL) nanopore. The lesion of focus was the guanine two-electron oxidation product, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), and its further oxidation products, the hydantoins guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp). The voltage-driven unzipping of individual duplex DNA molecules with symmetrical overhangs was carried out by pulling one strand of the duplex through the ?-HL channel using an electrical field. Entry from the 3' or 5' end produced distinct current blockages, allowing directional effects on unzipping kinetics to be investigated. We find that the strand dissociation of complementary duplexes or duplexes containing the slightly destabilizing lesion OG follows a first-order kinetic model, while opening of duplexes that contain the highly destabilizing lesions Gh or Sp is described by two sequential first-order reactions, in which the intermediate state is proposed to correspond to the duplex unzipped to the lesion site within the channel. The rate constants for strand separation of the duplexes containing single lesions were obtained from kinetic model fits to histograms of unzipping duration. For all duplexes, the rate constants for strand separation displayed a significant dependence on the direction of entry into the nanopore. For duplexes containing Gh, truncated duplexes were used to assign the measured rate constants for the first and second unzipping steps of symmetrically designed duplexes.